Alexander V. Kolchak

Alexander Kolchak

was born on November 4, 1874, was killed on February 7, 1920. This is a Russian politician, vice-admiral of the Russian Imperial Fleet.

Kolchak became famous also as a polar explorer and scientist-oceanographer. He headed the White movement in the East of Russia, was proclaimed the Supreme Ruler of Russia in 1918, the actual leader of the Whole White Movement.

Kolchak’s personality is very interesting and ambiguous, and the movie “Admiral”, released on the screens, gave birth to an unprecedented interest in Kolchak, giving him tragic features.

Films inclined to exaggerate, we will try with the help of historical facts to debunk some myths about Admiral Kolchak. Some of them spawned cinematography, and some – a communist look at the events of the early 20th century.

Kolchak actually had a “blown” fame of a naval commander and a polar explorer.

By the time of its appearance, this myth is one of the most recent, it really hurts someone to smear the figure of the admiral. Allegedly Kolchak betrayed Baron Toll, and all his discoveries appropriated. However, Tolle himself spoke of Kolchak as “the best officer of the expedition, lovingly devoted to his hydrology.” The name of the future naval commander was even named one of the islands near Taimyr, to which the Russian government’s decision in 2005 returned the name of Kolchak. The replacement of the passive Admiral Eberhard Kolchak during the First World War as commander of the Black Sea Fleet markedly activated the actions of sailors. Kolchak carried out Bosphorus mines, which led to the destruction of the German battleship Geben and six enemy submarines. Contemporaries believe that without a revolution, the Russian flag would soon be flying over the Bosporus. An aviation detachment began to form in the fleet, and troops were preparing for Turkey. A high appraisal of Kolchak’s activity as one of the initiators of fleet modernization after the Russo-Japanese War was given in his memoirs by Admiral Tsyvinsky, State Duma Deputy Savich. Even the Germans noted that with the advent of Kolchak, the activities of their fleet on the Black Sea were practically frozen. Positive trends were broken by the revolution and the departure of the commander.

Kolchak was an Entente agent and, in fact, a puppet in their hands.

This was trumpeted by the Bolsheviks during the Civil War. Today, the efforts of the “prospectors” reveal evidence of the recruitment of an admiral before the Revolution by British intelligence. Only here no documents on this occasion could not be seen. Initially, the governments of England and France decided that it was their representative, Gen. Jeanin, who should be the commander-in-chief of the forces, both Russians and allies. However, Kolchak outraged such an approach, he refused to recognize him, threatening to renounce foreign aid. Negotiations led to the fact that Kolchak remained Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Russian troops, while Zhanen was appointed commander-in-chief of the Allied forces. These units, being small and weak, were mainly in the rear. The Japanese and the Americans in the Far East were independent of Zhanen, also not participating in the war. Yes, intervention was not a decisive factor in the Civil War. This was proved by Soviet historians in the 1930s, whose works were for a long time hidden from the public. The Siberian newspapers of that time were perplexed about the inaction of the Allies. A striking example of Kolchak’s independence is the fact that he refused to transfer gold reserves to the allies, declaring that he preferred to give it to the Bolsheviks rather than to let him go abroad. In the fall of 1919, additional White troops were introduced to Vladivostok to avoid an uprising. This aroused the discontent of the Allies. Kolchak immediately demanded that the commander of the Amur Military District leave the troops and inform the Allied Command that Vladivostok is a Russian fortress and the troops there are repaired to him. The Admiral’s firm position brought the result, the incident was hushed up.

Kolchak’s revolution was generally organized by the British.

This myth seems to complement the previous one, being generated by Soviet propaganda. However, there are no supporting documents about this. The role of the British was deliberately increased by General Janin, thereby trying to shift responsibility for the failure of the campaign to them. It is known for certain that the officers of the British mission knew about the upcoming coup, guaranteeing their own non-interference. Everything else is conjecture. Kolchak really had an undisguised mutual sympathy with the British. But even the British cooperated more closely with the admiral and helped him. But this was after the coup. The phrase of General Knox is often exploited: “There is no doubt that he is the best Russian for the realization of our goals in the Far East.” But this is a clear simplification of reality. The British closely studied the situation in the country, trying to figure out how to fight Bolshevism, Kolchak also studied what kind of help can be obtained from England. London itself news of the coup was taken by surprise, causing panic. In response to rumors about the participation of one of the officers in it, an official investigation was carried out, which cleared the Englishman of suspicion.

Kolchak was a cocaine. This myth was liked by the Communists.

Only here are no facts, except for the blatant slander of Genan. Given the “warm” attitude of the Frenchman to the general and the desire to justify himself for his betrayal, should he believe and comment on groundless rumors?

Kolchak did not follow monarchical views, but was rather “Februaryist”.

In Soviet propaganda, the leaders of the White movement appeared to be monarchists until almost the end of the 80’s, recently they were accused of organizing the February Revolution and the subsequent collapse of the state. Consequently, it is the Bolsheviks who should be considered the real saviors of the country. If we accept that during the abdication of Nicholas some influence on him had the generals Alekseev, Ruzsky, Brusilov and others, who in particular sent telegrams, then Kolchak was the only one from the high command who did not send any telegrams. Evaluating the activities of Kerensky, Kolchak harshly called it “insignificant buffoonery,” and the dispersal of the Constituent Assembly, Kolchak even gave credit to the Bolsheviks. Moreover, Kolchak even canceled the celebration of the February Revolution, rallies, demonstrations in this honor, because they believed that it was early to sum up the revolution, which turned into a Bolshevik coup. Kolchak reasonably believed that society is not ready for the rampage of democracy, which was offered by numerous parties. The electoral activity was low, while the deputies were engaged in politicization, not in solving problems.

Kolchak was untenable, as a politician and ruler, relying on dreams.

First of all, it should be noted that Kolchak’s main goal was the complete destruction of the Bolsheviks in Russia, while democracy itself was alien to the admiral. This was due to the events of 1917, when the deplorable activities of the interim government led to subsequent events. Economic activity of Kolchak was quite sensible. So, in December 1918, it was canceled state regulation of prices for basic products. After that, they went up, but there was a deficit. To coordinate the government on the issues of supply and finance, a special Economic meeting was created, chaired by Kolchak himself. Representatives of industry, trade and banks were invited to this institution. The meeting had the right to report on the situation directly to Kolchak, bypassing the chairman of the government. In Siberia, a course was conducted that encouraged entrepreneurship and the banking system, and even established the Commercial and Industrial Bank of Siberia. Those enterprises that were nationalized by the Bolsheviks returned to their former owners. Strategic enterprises could be redeemed by the state. Initiatives of small business were encouraged, including in the peasant environment.The population bought bonds, lending began to work again. Developed and ways of communication, but not only railways. Thus, the Northern Sea Route was developed. Kolchak’s plans included exploratory expeditions and the construction of a port at the mouth of the Yenisei. Rye of the railway transport by the spring of 1919 was established, theft and abuse were lost, the trains began to arrive on schedule. The stencil, according to which Kolchak defended the landowners and capitalists, was erroneous, the admiral repeatedly wrote that the land question is extremely complex, in such conditions it is necessary to protect the actually passing of the land into the hands of the peasants. To the allied governments Kolchak wrote: “Only then will Russia be blossoming and strong, when our multimillion peasantry will be fully provided with land.” With the admiral in the United States, agricultural machinery was ordered to mechanize backward agriculture.

Kolchak contemptuously treated the workers, exploiting them intensely.

On the contrary, given their interests in the government, a place was given to the Menshevik Shumilovsky, who was well aware of this environment and its problems. The sickness funds, labor exchanges were restored, and benefits were improved. At the same time, the government also had to overcome the resistance of entrepreneurs who did not want to tolerate indulgences toward workers. Preserved and the trade unions. The consequence of this attitude was that the workers of the Izhevsk and Votkinsk factories formed the core of two divisions, fighting against the Reds with particular fury. The bulk of the Ural workers treated the Bolsheviks negatively, as evidenced by the numerous greetings of the workers of Kolchak, the desire to help him.

Kolchak in every possible way introduced new traditions.

About continuity of traditions Kolchak speaks that fact, that some symbols of Russia nevertheless have been kept, Bolsheviks, for example, created a new state, completely and essentially having refused all old. The well-known patriotic song “Kol Slaven” became a hymn, the double-headed eagle remained the emblem, but the monarchical signs (scepter and crown) were removed. The sword took the place of the scepter. The tricolor white-blue-red flag was also unanimously adopted. The old order system remained, preserving its dignity. But new awards were also approved – “For the Liberation of Siberia” and “For the Great Siberian Expedition”. In general, the old hierarchy of officials has not changed.

Kolchak was an untenable land military administrator.

The thesis about the admiral’s dialectology in matters of the land army is difficult to challenge, nevertheless, positive aspects should be noted in the army organization itself. Thus, the admiral banned political activity in the army, undermining the foundations of the state and disintegrating the troops. With the goal of moral education of soldiers and the rise of patriotism, garrisons established departments for the education and training of soldiers. The families of volunteers, as well as widows and orphans, received benefits. Given the changed psychology of the people after the revolution, the troops suppressed cases of hazing and arbitrariness that were in the tsarist army. In general, the army paid special attention, nevertheless Kolchak was a military: “Now we are rebuilding Russia.” Without the army, the state can not exist, but in the renewed Russia the army must also be built on new foundations. “

Kolchak planted” white terror. ”

This myth was dispelled by Lenin: “It’s pretty unwise to blame Kolchak for violating the workers … This is a vulgar defense of democracy, this is Kolchak’s stupid accusation.” Kolchak acts in the ways he finds. ” In general, the Civil War itself was provoked precisely by the Bolsheviks. The regime of Kolchak was a classical military dictatorship. In the hands of the admiral was all the military and civil power. White terror manifested itself in spontaneous outrage on the ground, terror was selective, while the Reds were killed by whole social groups (scoffing), tens of thousands. Terror became part of the Bolshevik administration system.Lenin and Dzerzhinsky personally gave orders for the taking of innocent hostages and their executions. But Kolchak and Denikin did not have such orders. Even the Bolsheviks themselves called Kolchak for his gentleness “margarine dictator.” White was also not encouraged by the anonymous denunciations so widespread under the Soviet regime. Of course, in the atmosphere of war it was impossible to do without harsh measures – Kolchak’s order is known in which persons who voluntarily served on the side of the Reds should be shot, and not taken prisoner. Realizing that counterintelligence can not solve the whole range of tasks, Kolchak was the first of the White Guards to begin reviving the political police. One of the tasks of which was to prevent abuses.

For the mass shootings and executions of Kolchak have not been rehabilitated already in our years.

The question of the legal rehabilitation of the admiral arose in the mid-1990s. On January 26, 1999, the Military Court of the Trans-Baikal District recognized Kolchak as not subject to rehabilitation. Lawyers considered that the admiral could stop the counter-espionage terror against civilians. In September 2001, the Supreme Court decided not to challenge this decision, but the Constitutional Court ruled that there were violations committed in the case, in 2004 the decision to close the rehabilitation case was canceled. Today, disputes are being held over whether the past should be stirred up, and whether Kolchak is worthy of rehabilitation. The issue is not completely closed.

Under Kolchak, the rear was completely disintegrated.

Under Kolchak in the rear, order was put in order. So, the persons who rented a house, paid the tax, the cabs were fined if they took more than the due dachshund. E was allowed to use official vehicles for personal purposes. For fraud and theft, high-ranking officials, including policemen, were arrested. For large smuggling and theft, there were also executions. The chief of the military communications, General Kasatkin, was convicted of covering corruption, and sentenced to half a year’s imprisonment in the fortress. As we see much of what Kolchak began to realize only then, we would like to see it today.

Kolchak’s regime was anti-national.

And the power supposedly held exclusively with the help of the interventionists. The east of the country generally had a great social support, there were more prosperous peasants who did not threaten the return of the landlords. The industry was undeveloped, and the Bolsheviks traditionally had weak positions there. The peasant uprisings captured the rear of Kolchak already during his retreat, this was caused by the weariness of the war. But after the Bolsheviks came to power, it turned out that the new government was much worse. What caused the mass uprisings of 1920-1920, which were much stronger and more desperate. Special attention was paid to the admiral of the Cossacks, who was a reliable social support. Cossacks were guaranteed the inviolability of life and way of life. Kolchak understood the need to establish contacts with the broad masses. The Admiral often went to meetings with workers and peasants, personally walked around the shop and got acquainted with the production. The trouble with the ruler was that he nevertheless focused on military affairs, and social events, like political ones, did not touch upon the root issues, since they were postponed until the end of the war. The personality of the leader, although attractive, but, nevertheless, uneven and impulsive.

It is not known where Kolchak is buried.

According to the official version, Kolchak was shot, and his body was dropped into an ice hole. However, more recently in the Irkutsk region, while working on the play “Star Admiral”, secret documents were discovered before. According to them in the spring of 1920 near the station Innokentevskaya, which is less than 20 km on Irkutsk on the bank of the Angara, the locals discovered a corpse in an admiral form that was carried ashore. Arriving investigators conducted an inquiry and identified the body of Kolchak. After that, the admiral was buried according to Christian traditions.Today, investigators compiled a map, where the place was marked the place of the alleged burial. Now the documents are on examination.

Roman Kolchak with Timirev.

Thanks to the film “Admiral” many learned about the romantic and beautiful love of Kolchak and Anna Timireva. In life everything was certainly a little different. First of all, it is worth saying that Anna had a son from her husband. Vladimir was brought up by his grandfather during the turbulent events of the Civil War. In 1938, he was arrested on charges of espionage and shot. The logic of the scriptwriters is clear – a woman who throws her husband for the sake of her lover can cause understanding, but if she still leaves her son, immersed in love adventures, then not all will understand it. The recognition of Timireva in love did not actually take place in Helsinki, but in Tallinn. And Anna never was a nurse. In the life of his mistress, Kolchak was distinguished by a lively temper, wit and charm, as well as interest in politics. Compare with the screen image. Anna herself, by the way, spent 37 years in exile and prison, paying in kind for her feelings. However, she lived a long time, dying in 1975, but until the last days of devoting Kolchak poems. In general, this story is multifaceted, it is worth reading more about it.

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