(ethyl alcohol or alcohol, absolute alcohol, alcohol_ absolutus), chemical, C2H5OH, colorless, burning taste, characteristic odor, flammable liquid boiling at 78.13 ° С, freezing at -130 ° С, ud. weight: 0.794.
Alcohol dissolves resins and essential oils; with acids gives esters. Contained in all alcoholic beverages and causes their intoxicating effect. It acts on the body in an exciting way, slowing the metabolism.
Alcohol can be prepared synthetically. In large sizes, it is obtained from starchy and sugary substances from the action of yeast on sugar with alcoholic fermentation. Has a very diverse application in technology (as lighting material, in perfumery, dyeing, lacquer, etc.), chemistry and pharmacy.
Alcohol has long been a stumbling block for all of humanity. People argue about its usefulness or harm tirelessly. With the usefulness of alcoholic drinks there are many misconceptions and even myths. How much they correspond to reality?
You can quickly get warm with alcohol.
Alcoholic beverages are often called hot drinks. Why? People are sure that alcohol has a warming effect. And for a frozen person, a sip of something strong is the best medicine. Such a statement contains only a small part of the truth. The fact is that when cooling, about 50 grams of vodka or cognac helps. They dilate blood vessels and normalize the blood supply to internal organs. Subsequent doses of alcohol increase blood flow in the skin. She blushes, there is a pleasant feeling of warmth. But it is very deceptive – in fact in this case the heat transfer increases, and the body starts to cool even more. And the person retains a subjective feeling of complete well-being. So the warming effect of alcoholic beverages is very exaggerated.
Alcohol increases appetite.
Alcohol really stimulates the appetite. But the appearance of an easy feeling of hunger provokes only strong drinks, and even only a small number of them. It’s about 20-25 grams of vodka. It acts on the saturation center and activates it. The whole process takes 15-20 minutes, not less. Therefore, drinking “for appetite” right before meals is fundamentally wrong. After a few seconds, hunger does not appear: it takes a longer time. In addition, alcohol before meals is also not the way out of their situation. Alcohol will aggressively behave towards the mucosa of the hungry stomach. He will suffer from hydrochloric acid, the production of which will also increase. As a result, the development of gastritis is possible. Is not it too high a price to eat with an appetite?
Alcohol relieves stress.
Often tired people try to cheer themselves up with alcohol. But in most cases this is done incorrectly. After all, you need to drink very little – 20-30 ml of vodka or cognac or 40 ml of wine or martini. Such small doses relieve internal tension and help to relax. That, in general, corresponds to the concept “to remove stress.” Unfortunately, more often for this purpose much more weighty volumes of alcohol are used. And here the scenario can develop in two ways. The first is aggravated fatigue, mood is reduced, there is a peculiar depression, which only strengthens the feeling of internal fatigue. The second is alcoholic euphoria, which also inevitably ends with depression. In either case, there is no need to talk about relieving stress. So if you really get rid of this misfortune with the help of alcohol, then it should be done wisely.
Alcohol is a cure for the common cold.
Many are treated for colds with vodka – with apples, honey, or anything else. It is believed that such a drug and temperature reduces, and the runny nose stops, and the pain in the throat reduces. No one knows where this legend comes from. However, many for some reason are sure that this is an ancient Russian recipe and that all our ancestors were treated in this way.It is possible that the Rusichi fought the cold with the help of vodka. Another important thing is that modern medicine does not recognize such a method. First, the immunity of “fire water” in no way improves. Secondly, alcohol is far from having the best effect on the sore throat. It starts to hurt after “treatment” even more. So believe in the healing power of vodka is not necessary. But a small amount of warmed red wine can be drunk. It, at least, has the ability to stimulate the body’s immune system.
Vodka treats stomach diseases.
The belief in the people that vodka can be used to treat stomach diseases (usually recommended 50 grams before meals) is not only erroneous, but also dangerous. In the first weeks, small doses of vodka do have some analgesic effect, since alcohol acts directly on the nerve endings, which are very many in the mucous membrane of the stomach. But the whole trouble is that every day to maintain an analgesic effect, all large doses are needed. But this is not the worst thing. Since alcohol causes a sharp rush of blood to the digestive organs, its use in diseases of the stomach can lead to severe complications – gastric bleeding, exacerbation of cholecystitis.
Quality alcohol does not cause harm.
Any alcohol has a toxic effect on the body. This is due to the fact that one of the decay products of ethyl alcohol is acetic aldehyde. It is he who creates various atrocities in the body. But poor quality alcohol affects the body even worse. After all, cheap hot drinks do not undergo proper purification, they contain fusel oils, which greatly increase the toxic effect of alcohol. The same can be said about home-made beverages. And it seems that water was well used, and ecologically clean fruits or berries, but still the drink turns out to be much more harmful than a similar one purchased. And all because at home alcohol is very difficult to clean. Of course, preference should be given to famous and expensive brands, but do not think that they will not affect your health.
Any amount of alcohol is dangerous.
Adherents of a healthy lifestyle call for a complete abandonment of alcohol use. However, scientists around the world have long concluded about the benefits, for example, of red wine – it contains components that have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In moderate quantities, wine and beer, on the contrary, are beneficial to the body. According to doctors, do not exclude alcohol from the diet – you do not have to abuse it.
Alcohol increases efficiency.
Many people are convinced that it is easier to work under the influence of alcohol than usual. This is not about the average and especially not about the serious degree of intoxication, when all reactions and feelings become dull. This refers to the mild degree at which mental processes become activated. But this feeling is absolutely subjective, and it was recently proved by Australian scientists. With the help of experiments they came to interesting conclusions. It turns out that in slightly intoxicated people the speed of thought and motor reactions can really increase. But these reactions are often erroneous. In addition, even small doses of alcohol cause a decrease in concentration and deterioration in the quality of conclusions. Thus, to work “under a degree” is more expensive. Maybe, the work will be done faster, but there will always be various kinds of mistakes. Alcohol lowers blood pressure.
Many hypertensive people think that you can lower the pressure with alcohol. He, they say, dilates the blood vessels … In this statement there is a share of truth – small doses of alcoholic drinks really weaken the tone of the vascular wall. But along with this they increase the heart rate. And the arterial pressure directly depends on the volume of blood “pushed” into the bloodstream. The higher the volume, the higher the pressure.Therefore, alcohol can in no case be considered a cure for hypertension. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that many alcoholic beverages contain biologically active substances. These compounds themselves can have an effect on blood pressure, and in most cases, unfavorable.
Alcohol is not caloric.
Many women count all the calories eaten. And the calories are not taken into account. Meanwhile, alcohol has a very high energy value, and the stronger the drink, the more this value. The highest in vodka. The latter has no nutritional properties, calories are added only due to alcohol. That’s why it’s very difficult to get rid of them. A little bit different with wine. The energy value of this drink is partly due to carbohydrates, which are easily broken down and easily burned. Therefore, the wine is not so destructive to the appearance. And yet any alcohol is very caloric. This rule does not know exceptions, so before you drink, you need to think not only about your health, but also about the figure.
Whiskey is a more dangerous drink than vodka.
This is not true. All strong spirits, in which 40 or more (vodka, cognac, whiskey) equally contribute to stomach cancer. But it would be wrong to call them carcinogens (carcinogens are contained in tobacco smoke, in foods that are improperly stored, with inefficient nutrition in the stomach, carcinogens are formed). Their “villainous role” is different. They contribute to the permeability of carcinogenic substances to cells: under the influence of alcohol, the “membrane of the cells of the gastric mucosa” breaks, which protects them from external influences. The cell is opened for exposure to harmful factors, those carcinogens that are already the immediate cause of cancer.
Beer is not alcohol.
Now many people think that if beer is a low-alcohol beverage, then it does not do any harm to the health. This is a catastrophic delusion. There really is not a lot of alcohol in the beer. But this does not mean that this drink is harmless. He, too, is alcoholic, and therefore, is addictive. No wonder recently, more and more often doctors speak about the so-called beer alcoholism. In addition, the intoxicating drink is very bad for the liver and heart. These organs undergo degeneration and begin to function poorly. Considering all this, in any case it is impossible to treat beer as a lemonade. Do not absorb it daily liters. Such thoughtlessness will very quickly affect your health.
Do you drink vodka with soda?
Many, in order not to get drunk, often dilute and drink strong drinks with carbonated water, various tonics. However, this only speeds up intoxication and leads to a heavy hangover. So if you really wash down vodka, then only non-carbonated mineral water.
We should not drink, but have a snack.
Most of us are sure that strong drinks should definitely be snacked. And to wash down them in no event it is impossible. But this statement is not entirely correct. Here you need to specify which snacks are meant – hot or cold. The latter weakly neutralize alcohol, it is quickly absorbed into the blood. The same thing happens when a person drinks alcohol. So in this sense, juices, compotes, fruit drinks can be put on one level with fruits and vegetable salads. The situation is quite different with hot and greasy dishes, for example soups or stews. Those suppress the absorption of ethanol, reduce the intensity of intoxication and are therefore considered to be the best snacks. With them, not a single “zapivka.”