Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is a famous scientist, one of the founders of modern theoretical physics. In 1922, he even won a Nobel Prize for his work. Born in Germany, the second part of his life he lived in America. Einstein developed several important physical theories, the most famous of them is Theory of Relativity. The scientist turned out to be a prominent public figure, he spoke out against wars, the use of nuclear weapons, and respect for human rights.
Today we are still trying to take advantage of his theoretical discoveries, to confirm the guesswork. It is difficult to overestimate Einstein’s contribution to the development of mankind. He received lifetime recognition by becoming a doctor of science at many universities. In honor of Einstein, a chemical element, a lunar crater, an observatory, an institute was called. He became the hero of numerous novels, films, pop culture. The legendary personality is surrounded by numerous myths, which we will try to debunk.
Einstein was born into a religious Jewish family.
Although Albert’s parents were Jewish, they were not religious, just like the rest of the neighborhood. Father called the Jewish rituals ancient superstitions. Not feeding a special love for Judaism, the parents sent their son to a Catholic school. There, Albert encountered manifestations of anti-Semitism.
Einstein had problems with development in his childhood.
It is known that Albert did not speak until seven years. Modern psychology treats this as a serious mental disorder. However, the biographers of the scientist believe that he had Asperger syndrome. This is an autistic disorder. Because of it children do not work well speech centers and there is a failure in behavioral development.
Einstein was a bad student at school.
In fact, the future genius studied at the secondary school. He was not interested in sports and foreign languages, discipline was very lame. Einstein did not like the way teachers deal with students, about which he openly and stated. The militarized form of teaching seemed alien to him. Einstein saw in the teachers of junior classes sergeant-major, and in the teachers of the senior – lieutenants. But in Albert’s certificate there was only one triple – in French, with a six-point scale. In physics and mathematics, the grades were excellent. Yes, and in French in 1923, the scientist already freely delivered a lecture in Jerusalem. But English was given to him badly. According to him, in 1896 Einstein was never certified. Myth was formed because in Germany the rating system was the opposite of the Swiss one.
Einstein failed the final exams, having passed them the second time.
At Albert Luitpold’s Gymnasium in Munich, Albert was uncomfortable because of the harsh order. Yes, and his father recommended his son to receive a sensible profession of an engineer, since he fell in love with physics and mathematics. It was decided to send Albert to a technical college, but not to German. In Germany, at the age of 17, young people were drafted into the army. Thus, Einstein, who was not fully educated, was sent to the Zurich Polytech. But the young man did not prepare for admission to the chosen specialty – he did not like zoology, botany, languages. And he did not have a certificate of a gymnasium. Then the director of the institute, seeing the mathematical talent of the entrant, advised him to finish the local secondary school and after that to act. Albert graduated from the cantonal school in Arau and in September 1896 entered the Polytechnic in general without examinations.
Einstein was a typical self-contained scientist.
Immersed in science, a person who has lost touch with the real world, is presented in a white robe and with shaggy hair, like Einstein’s. The image is supplemented by a constant murmur of incomprehensible words. But Einstein himself had little to do with this, he was lively, friendly and sociable. He was not a snob, he was charming and had a lively sense of humor. He adored scholarly music, singling out Bach, Mozart, Brahms. He played the violin, read a lot of fiction. With the classic type of “mad professor” it does not combine.
Einstein was a bad mathematician.
This myth is often repeated by students, resting on the fact that higher mathematics was not given even to Einstein himself. The myth of his dislike for this science arose even during the life of a scientist. But then it only made him laugh. He never rejected mathematics, having mastered integrals and differentials even before 15 years. From early childhood, the genius was carried away by the solution of complex problems, which the family doctor noticed and wrote down in his diary. Albert and geometry Albert studied independently. The boy forgot about games, about friends, immersed in books. And although he did not become a mathematical genius, he was always good in it. Simply Einstein did not consider mathematics vital for himself. But later he realized that for a deep understanding of the basic principles of physics he needed the help of more experienced mathematicians.
Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his theory of relativity.
Nobel Prize was awarded to Einstein only in 1922. Although from 1910 to 1922 he was nominated for it more than 60 times! Exceptions were only 1911 and 1915 years. The scientific world wanted to note the theory of relativity of Einstein. But the prize was awarded for absolutely another, for the theory of the photoelectric effect. To members of the committee, it seemed a more impressive contribution to science. The prize of 1921 was postponed and handed at the same time as the 1922 award to Niels Bohr.
Einstein was a Soviet spy. In addition to science, the scientist was actively engaged in public activities, wrote about politics and the equality of people. It even attracted the attention of the FBI. As a result, the famous director of this Bureau, Edgar Hoover, installed a shadow for the scientist. The authorities suspected Einstein of having links with the Communists. In addition, he met with Margarita Konenkova, considered a Soviet spy. But the facts of the scientist’s work on the USSR and the transfer of valuable information on the same Manhattan project was not revealed.
Einstein was offered the post of the President of Israel.
This story looks more like a bike. It is not clear even who put forward such a proposal – whether Chaim Weizmann, or Ben Gurion. The latter even seemed to be frightened that a scientist might agree. In any case, Einstein did not accept this proposal. Science was more important to him, besides, he believed in the friendship of the Jews with the Arabs. The scientist understood that the position was representative, and his age would not allow him to actively engage in politics. But Einstein bequeathed to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem all his manuscripts and records.
Einstein joked about Marilyn Monroe.
There is a funny semi-anecdotal story. At one reception, Einstein was next to the movie star. She noticed that they could have ideal children. They would take beauty from mother and mind from father. The scientist wittily remarked that there is a possibility that everything will be the opposite – the appearance from the father and the mind from the mother. The history of this is fabricated, and Bernard Shaw is also credited with sharpness. Interestingly, Marilyn Monroe was not at all a beautiful pacifier, according to some sources her IQ was even higher than that of Einstein.
Einstein was such a slob that he did not even wear socks.
It is believed that the scientist did not fundamentally use socks because of the frequent appearance of holes on them. But this is difficult to verify. On most photos, the scientist is shot close-up. But the fact that he was careless about clothes. There was even an anecdote in which Einstein refused to ask his wife to dress properly for a trip to the university. The scientist explained this by the fact that everyone already knows him. And for the campaign at the press conference, the reason for not dressing up was that this time none of the journalists really Einstein knows.
Scientists have found an explanation of the genius of Einstein in his brain.
A few hours after the death of a genius, his brain was recovered by a pathologist. The researchers tried to find in this body the explanation of an outstanding mind. It turned out that Einstein’s brain weighed less than usual in men of the same age. At the same time, the organ was 15% wider than usual with a high density of neurons. True, many consider the results of speculation.There are no two identical brains by definition. Einstein himself explained the genius of man not by his anatomical structure, but by dimensionless curiosity.
The main scientific work for Einstein was made by his wife, Mileva Marich.
Few people know that the first wife of the scientist, Mileva Marich, was herself a strong physicist and mathematician. There is an opinion that it was she who helped Einstein in the development of the theory of relativity, being in fact its author. However, documentary evidence of this myth is not found. Graduation exams at the Polytechnic Institute, she did not pass, although the intermediate tests showed high marks. She never published a single work under her own name, neither during her life together with Einstein, nor after her divorce. The same after parting with his wife continued to work fruitfully. None of the colleagues of the scientist and friends of the family ever claimed that Marich had somehow participated in the work of her husband. In her published correspondence with him it is clear that Milev did not mention the theory of relativity, whereas Einstein himself pondered a lot on this topic. And the first son of the couple, Hans Albert, said that after the marriage his mother abandoned her scientific ambitions.
The real author of the theory of relativity is Poincaré.
Periodically, Einstein is accused that in his first article on this topic he did not refer to the work of his predecessors, Lorenz and Poincaré. However, the first to the end of his life and did not take the theory of relativity, refusing to be considered its forerunner. Lorenz himself wrote in his letters to Einstein that it was he who developed the theory, to a greater extent than Poincaré. Inattention to the work of Poincaré was present, but so did all physicists of the early twentieth century. In his articles there was no systematic, he understood relativism otherwise. The predecessors of Einstein considered the question from the standpoint of electrodynamics, he also managed to look more broadly, more revolutionary. And Poincaré himself never challenged Einstein’s priority, writing him a friendly description. Lorentz generally recommended giving the scientist a Nobel Prize. It is not necessary to talk about plagiarism.
The formula E = mc² was discovered before Einstein.
Historians of science discovered similar formulas in earlier works of Umov, Thomson, Poincaré and Gazenorl. But their studies were related to particular cases – to the properties of the ether or charged bodies. But it was Einstein who first introduced the formula as a universal law of dynamics, working for all kinds of matter and not limited by electromagnetism. The precursors linked the relationship to the existence of a special electromagnetic mass, which depends on the energy.
The equations of the gravitational field were derived by Hilbert.
The final computations of Hilbert and Einstein were withdrawn almost simultaneously, using different methods. Until recently, it was believed that Gilbert received the result earlier, but just published the calculations later than the competitor. But already in our time, Gilbert’s calculations were analyzed. It turned out that the correct field equations were derived by him 4 months after Einstein, the original version was significantly different from the final printed one. The Hilbert variant was raw, it was developed after the publication of Einstein’s work. And Gilbert himself never claimed a priority in any part of the general theory of relativity. He himself readily admitted at the lectures that the idea belongs to Einstein.
Einstein claimed that the ether exists.
In his work of 1905 “To the electrodynamics of moving bodies,” the scientist considered it unnecessary to introduce the concept of a luminiferous ether. But in 1920, the work “Ether and theory of relativity” appeared, which created this myth. But the confusion lies in terms. The light-bearing ether of Lorentz-Poincaré Einstein really never recognized. And in his article, the scientist simply called for the return of the term to its original meaning, laid down even in the days of antiquity: the material filler of emptiness. In his understanding, ether is a physical space for the general theory of relativity.Einstein said that to deny ether – to assert that empty space can not have any physical properties. For the general theory of relativity, ether is the basis for the propagation of light, the scale of the universe and time. But Einstein believed that it was impossible to consider the ether as a weighty matter, to apply the concept of motion to it. As a result, the new meaning of the old term in the scientific world of support was not found.
Einstein in 1915 was engaged in the design of a military aircraft.
This fact about the scientist unexpectedly appeared in one of his last biographies. But it is unlikely that Einstein, with his pacifism, would be engaged in the creation of weapons. Studies have shown that the scientist simply discussed with his own small air company his ideas in the field of aerodynamics. The thought of creating a wing like a cat’s back was unsuccessful.
Einstein was a vegetarian.
Fans of this lifestyle often rank Einstein as their followers. He really maintained the rejection of meat for a long time, but he began to follow the diet only in 1954, a year before his death.
Before his death, the scientist burned the last works containing an opening that could destroy a person.
This beautiful legend, which is associated with the mysterious “Philadelphia experiment.” On the basis of myth, even the film “The Last Equation” was made. However, this story is not confirmed.
Einstein was an atheist.
Einstein’s views on religion are the subject of bitter disputes. Some call the scientist an atheist, while others call the believer in God. In an interview with The New York Times in 1930, the scientist spoke quite frankly and sharply on this topic. He said that he does not believe in the rewarding and punishing God, in that which is molded from man. Einstein did not believe in the immortality of the soul. His views he described in the article “Science and Religion” in 1940. The scientist claims that the pursuit of scientific truth results from religion. But he does not believe in a personified God. The doctrine itself can not be refuted, for it can always go into those areas that a person has not yet learned. Religious in itself, Einstein saw the admiration for the structure of the universe. The friend of the scientist, Max Jemmer, called such views a cosmic religion, and his very deeply religious. Simply Einstein saw God in the form of that unpersonalized spirit embodied in the laws of the universe.
Einstein said that we use only 10% of the capabilities of our brain.
The scientist himself never spoke about the degree of human use of our brain. And science later proved that this body is used by man in its entirety.