Aeronautics (aeronautics, aeronautics) is one of the aviation sports that involves the use of balloons – lighter-than-air vehicles during competitions. The ball is made of silk or a strong synthetic fabric (for example, nylon or lavsan) covered with a special composition that does not allow air to be filled with a substance (gas or heated air) whose density is less than the density of the environment. To the ball is attached a basket (gondola), woven from reeds and vines, and equipped with a block of burners.
There are many legends about flights on balloons, one of them – about the flight of the boy Antarqui from Peru, refers to the 200-400’s. According to the ancient Russian chronicles, military aircraft (balloons made of paper) used Prince Oleg at the siege of Constantinople in 906, but there is no information about how effective such a weapon was. The first successful test of the balloon, created by the priest Bartolomeo Lorenzo de Gustamo (Portugal) is dated August 8, 1709. But the inventors of the balloon are the brothers Montgolfier, who successfully held a demonstration of the balloon they created in 1783.
The first aeronaut competitions took place in April 1899, and on October 1, 1906, balloon pilots fought for the Gordon Bennett Cup for the first time.
возника As the emergence of new types of balloons, there were corresponding competitions. In February 1973, the first World Championship on thermal balloons was held, in September 1976 – the first World Championship for gas balloons, in August 1988 – the first world championship for thermal airships. The first World Air Games took place in September 1997.
The representatives of the fair sex were interested in aeronautics on a par with men. But only in June 2010, Lithuania hosted the first official European aeronautics championship on thermal balloons among women. Competitions of this kind will be conducted by the International Aviation Federation (FAI) every 2 years. The first women’s world championship is scheduled for 2013.
The first air travelers were animals.
During the official demonstration of the ball, designed by Etienne and Joseph Montgolfier, which took place in Versailles on September 19, 1783, the animals really set off on a flight: a sheep, a rooster and a duck. However, 4 days before, the physicist Pilatre de Rosier was on the same ball during test flights. And according to the Russian annals, the first aeronaut was Kryakutnoy’s podiatchik from Nerekhta, who flew on November 17, 1731 (for which he was excommunicated and expelled from the city).
Upgraded hot air balloons due to the fact that sports and entertainment balloon rides have gained increasing popularity.
No, improvements to this aircraft began for another reason – in 1962, the US Air Force sought to ensure the safety of pilots who crashed over the sea or the ocean. It was suggested to design an “inflatable parachute” that could hold a person in the air for some time – this invention could facilitate the work of the rescue team and would secure the pilot himself. However, the use of the created design on supersonic aircraft was impossible. But the athletes took advantage of an updated hot air balloon equipped with propane tanks, with pleasure.
Women’s teams appeared in aeronautics only in the 21st century.
Absolutely mistaken opinion. The world’s first women’s team of two people (Miss Labrosse and Miss Henry) flew over Paris (France) on November 10, 1784, and in September of this year in Lyon alone, Ms. Tibelle flown in the air. In Russia, the first woman aeronaut, Mrs. Ilyinskaya, made a flight on August 31, 1828. The balloon designed by her rose to a height of 620 meters.
In sports aeronautics, competitions are held in which pilots of balloons must perform tasks of various kinds.
Sports aeronautics develops in two directions. The first really provides for the fulfillment of certain tasks (to fly a distance for the minimum amount of time, to ascend to the maximum possible height, to pass over a certain purpose (to confirm which the aeronauts drop a marker on the ground with a sack attached to it filled with sand), etc. .) or tricks (for example, transplanting from one balloon to another, occurring during the flight), or participating in competitions remotely resembling different games. The second direction of sports aeronautics is the creation of balloons of unusual shape (in the form of vegetables, fruits, animals, household items, etc.). There is a prize for the smallest and largest, most unusual and ugliest ball.
There are many terms for the name of balloons.
Yes, it is. The first balloon (thermal) was called a hot air balloon – in honor of the inventors of this design of the Montgolfier brothers. At the same time there were sharers – flying machines (gas), created by the Frenchman Jacques Charles. Combined structures, invented by Jean Francois Pilatre de Rosier, were called roziers. There was also the term “balloon”, used to call any type of balloon. In 1784, Pierre Blanchard equipped the balloon with an air screw – controlled structures of this kind were given the name of airships (from the French dirigeable – controlled). In 1900, airships of rigid construction were called zeppelins – in honor of Count F. Tsepellin. Nowadays, another type of balloons has appeared, which are used for flights in the stratosphere and are called stratospheric balloons.
Modern baskets for balloons are made of synthetic materials.
This is not quite true. As in the old days, and nowadays the willow vine serves as the material for the gondola. Baskets of plastic, fiberglass and aluminum have not yet gained much popularity.
In order to fill the balloon with hot air, it will take quite some time.
No, in good weather, thanks to the well-coordinated efforts of the team (minimum of 3 people), the ball can be prepared for take-off for 15-20 minutes. Approximately the same amount of time it takes to fold the ball after the flight.
A person afraid of heights can not fly in a balloon.
Wrong opinion. Firstly, this design moves so slowly that the movement of passengers is almost not felt. Secondly, it is the balloon – the only one of the aircraft – that can fly at very low altitude, with the possibility of “hovering” in any place that the pilot likes, for example, over the surface of the lake.
Hot air balloon flights can be arranged at any time of the day.
Yes, it is, provided that the wind speed at the surface of the earth does not exceed 7 m / s and the weather is athermal (ie, there are no strong ascending air currents generated by the sun’s heating of the earth’s surface). However, the most suitable time for flying is morning and evening, because after the sunrise and before sunset the wind usually subsides.
Gas and heat spheres differ only in form.
No, the differences between these constructions are somewhat deeper. The balloon filled with gas is hermetically sealed, and the thermal balloon filled with heated air is a dome with an opening. Some balls are a combination of the two mentioned constructions.
A balloon can lift 2-3 people into the air.
It depends on the type of balloon in question. Sport models are usually designed for one person, balls used for entertainment or for advertising purposes can lift more than 10 passengers into the air.
Heat balls are inflated with heated air, hydrogen is used to fill the gas.
This is not quite true.Not only warm air, but also a mixture of propane and butane are used to fill the heat balls, and helium is increasingly used to raise gas balls. The fact that hydrogen is easily ignited, and connecting with air forms an explosive mixture, because even a small damage to the shell of the ball can conceal a danger to the life and health of aeronauts. Helium is not flammable, and its lifting power is not much lower than that of hydrogen, because it is a full and safe substitute for hydrogen (except – stratospheric balloons, which should rise to a height of more than 1000 m – they are filled with hydrogen only).
In order to keep a thermal balloon in the air, the pilot periodically turns on the burner.
Yes, it is. But there are exceptions to this rule. For example, solar thermal balloons due to structural features (the shell material allows for a long time to keep the temperature difference between the air inside the shell and the environment at 30 degrees, and the shell itself is 3 times more than in ordinary balloons) is used to raise the heat of the sun, therefore the use of the burner is not required.
Balloons are used to study the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere.
Yes, moreover – constructions of this kind are used to study the composition of the atmosphere of the planets of the solar system. For example, one of the tasks of the Soviet interplanetary automatic stations “Vega 1” and “Vega 2” was the delivery to Venus of balloons equipped with special equipment, which, moving in the atmosphere of the planet, analyzed it and transmitted data to the Earth.
The hotter air in a hot air balloon, the higher it takes off.
Yes, but it should be noted that if the temperature is too high (over 100 ° C), the nylon shell of the ball will melt, which can lead to an accident.
Steve Fossen flew around the globe first.
This is not true. For the first time the round-the-world flight (though with three landings) was made in 1929 on the airship “Graf Zeppelin”, built in Germany. For 21 days the aircraft overcame a distance of 35 thousand km at a speed of about 177 km / h. Later, repeated attempts were made to make a non-stop flight around the Earth. In January 1981 (on the balloon “Jules Verne” Max Lerou Andersen and Don Ida overcame a distance of 4,302 km), 1993 (a completely unsuccessful attempt – the balloon “Virgin-Earthwinds” never got into the air) and in 1997 (Steve Fossett forced was to interrupt the flight because of problems with the crossing of Libyan airspace). Finally, on March 20, 1999, Englishman Brian Jones and Swiss Bertrand Picard made the first round-the-world trip on the balloon “Breitling Orbiter 3”, for 19 days 21 hours and 55 minutes overcoming the distance of 40,814 km. Steve Fossett made a non-stop flight a little later – on July 3, 2002 he flew 34,242 km on the balloon “Bud Light Spirit of Freedom”, spending 13 days 8 hours 33 minutes.