Venezuela



Venezuela

(Republic of Venezuela) is located in the northern part of the South American continent. This state is part of the countries of Latin America. In Spanish, the word “Venezuela” means “little Venice”.

The Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea are washed by Venezuela on the north side. The state borders on Brazil, Guyana and Colombia.


The capital of the Republic of Venezuela is the city of Caracas. The area of ​​the country is nine hundred and twelve thousand square kilometers.

Venezuela is a republic. In terms of administrative division, the country is a federation. It consists of federal holdings, the federal district, one federal territory and twenty states. The Supreme Tribunal of Justice is the supreme body of the judiciary.

Parliament appoints its masters, whose term of office is twelve years. Masters can not be re-elected for a new term.

Spanish is recognized as the state language. Catholicism is the main religion. Sixty-seven percent of the population are mestizos, twenty-one percent are Europeans, ten percent are Negroes and two percent are Indians.

The basis of the Venezuelan economy was oil production. Oil dominates in the country’s exports.

Venezuela

In form of government, Venezuela is a republic.

The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote for a term of six years. The same person can be re-elected an unlimited number of times for the presidency of Venezuela. The president simultaneously heads the Parliament of the country, with the consent of which appoints members of the government, decides on its composition and structure. Although the head of state is given the right, the president’s proposals can be rejected by a simple majority vote of the Parliament. The Parliament of the Republic of Venezuela is unicameral. This is the National Assembly. The Parliament includes one hundred sixty-five deputies, of which sixty-five are elected by party lists, and ninety-seven are personally elected. Thus, one hundred and sixty-two deputies are elected according to the proportional-list system. As for three more places, they belong to the representatives of the indigenous peoples of the country. Deputies are elected for five years, and can be re-elected up to three times.

Venezuela has a tropical climate.

The tropical and subequatorial climate prevails in the Republic. The rainy season begins in May and lasts until December. Dry weather is prevailing for the period from January to May, when the anticyclones dominate the country’s territory. The amount of precipitation can vary from 280 mm to 3000 mm per year. Average monthly temperatures range from plus twenty to plus twenty nine degrees Celsius plus – during the year the average monthly temperatures vary slightly. As for the latter, the temperature change, as a rule, mainly depends on the height of the terrain. Thus, the alternating dry trade-wind winds in winter and the moist equatorial air masses in the summer period have a decisive influence on the climate of the country. For human life, climatic conditions on the hills are more comfortable, thanks to this, all the major cities of the Republic of Venezuela are at an altitude of six hundred to one thousand eight hundred and fifty meters above sea level (above this level, the climate resembles the climate of temperate latitudes, here it is much cooler). Agriculture is practically not possible at an altitude exceeding three thousand meters above sea level. Residents of settlements located at such an altitude are engaged in sheep breeding. For coastal areas are characterized by high humidity and high heat.

Venezuela is proud of the diversity of flora and the rich fauna of its territory.

A variety of environmental conditions are the cause. The main floristic areas include the following. First, the Caribbean region on the north coast.Here grow species Ziziphus, Jacquinia, Capparia, numerous cacti, trees from the family of legumes. Secondly, it is the territory of the Venezuelan Andes, which is characterized by the vegetation of temperate forests of Colombia and high-mountain meadows (paramo). The Orinoco basin has a rich vegetation cover, there are often plantations of exotic species. Among the latter are, for example, plantations of coffee trees and sugar cane. The Orinoco catchment basin belongs to approximately four parts of the country’s five territories. The area of ​​the most interesting floristic province, embracing the peaks of the sandstone mountains of Serra Pakaraima, is quite small. This zone is a relic. The reason for this is its antiquity. As for the animal world, the territory of the Republic is inhabited by bakers, tapir, tailless porcupine, nutria, mumps, monkeys, otters, tayra, shrubby, ocelot, puma, jaguar and other animals; in addition, sometimes there are opossums and deer. Turtles, alligators and crocodiles are typical inhabitants of Venezuelan rivers. Lizards, snakes (for example, boas) in large numbers are found in the jungle. Ducks, storks, herons, cranes – are found in lowland areas, and predatory birds prefer life in the mountains.

Oil production is the basis of the Venezuelan economy.

It is oil that dominates exports, it gives about eighty percent of export earnings. Moreover, oil gives about thirty percent of the gross domestic product and more than fifty percent of the revenues of the budget of the Republic of Venezuela. The basis of the Venezuelan industry is oil production, as well as textile, food industry, construction materials production, steel and aluminum smelting, iron ore mining, car assembly.

Venezuela is not a rich country.

In 2009, the country’s gross domestic product amounted to three hundred and forty-nine billion dollars. In this indicator, the Republic of Venezuela took the 32nd place in the world. Gross domestic product per capita for the same year amounted to thirteen thousand dollars. But on this indicator, Venezuela has already taken eighty-seventh place in the world. Unemployment turned out to be about eight percent, and the proportion of the population living below the poverty line was close to thirty-eight percent by the end of 2005. In 2009, consumer prices rose by about twenty-seven percent.

Agriculture is a significant share of the gross domestic product of the Republic of Venezuela.

This is not true. This figure is only four percent. In agriculture, take thirteen percent of the country’s workforce. Venezuela cultivated corn, bananas, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, coffee, vegetables. Produced milk, pork, beef, eggs, developed and fishing. However, agriculture satisfies only a third of Venezuela’s needs in its products. For example, in 2005, the United States of America supplied agricultural products to the country amounting to three hundred and forty-seven million dollars. Moreover, Venezuela for the USA on the South American continent in the sphere of agriculture became the second most important market.

Venezuela

Caracas is the capital of the Republic of Venezuela.

The date of foundation of Caracas is 1567. Its founder was Diego de Losada. Caracas is located near the coast in a mountain valley. It is located at an altitude of eight hundred and thirty-five meters above sea level.

Caracas is a colorful city.

This is especially true of its architecture. It combines both buildings of the colonial period, as well as modern high-rise buildings. Among the most important historical sights of the Venezuelan capital are the following: the cathedral of the seventeenth century in Bolivar Square, the chapel of Saint Rose, the National Pantheon, the building of the National Congress built in 1873. In addition, a variety of museums are of interest.This, for example, the Museum of Bolivar, the Museum of Colonial Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, the Transport Museum, the Gallery of National Art. As for the Gallery, it gives an opportunity to see four hundred works of famous authors of the Spanish period. It also represents pre-colonial items belonging to the Indian peoples.

Merida is a student city.

About forty thousand students study at its universities. The people of Merida are very polite people. The city is also famous for its parks. According to their number, Merida leads the rest of the Venezuelan cities. There are twenty-eight city parks on the territory of Mérida. Among the main attractions of Mérida are the popular Black Lagoon, the Mukubahi Lagoon, the old district of La Parokkia, the Miranda viaduct, the Albarregas park, the Jardim Acquario Park, the Flower Clock, the Plaza de Toros, the Plaza de Los Geronas , a monument to Juan Rodriguez Suarez, the Museum of Science and Technology, the largest university in the Republic of Venezuela, the market of Mercado-Murache, the Mercado-Artesanal-Manuel-Rojas-Guillen market and the Mercada-Principe de Merida street market. Another, undoubtedly very popular attraction, the country is the cable car, built in 1958. It’s called Teleferico de Mérida. This road is the highest mountain road on Earth – it stretches from the center of Mérida to the peak of Espejo. The central part of the city is at an altitude of one thousand six hundred and thirty-nine meters above sea level. Peak Espejo – the second highest in the country – has a height of four thousand seven hundred and sixty-five meters above sea level. The total length of the cable car is about twelve and a half kilometers. No less interesting for tourists are the town of La Mesa de Los Indios, the “garden city” of Bocono, the waterfalls of Correra de Las González, the amazing town of Hajo (located thirty-eight kilometers from Merida, a small historical town of Trujillo, a large the number of mountain lakes and the theme parks of Venezuela de Antieu and Los Aleros

Бо The Bolivar Peak is the main attraction of the city of Mérida

This city is located on a mountain plateau at an altitude of one thousand six hundred and forty meters, its foundation date being 9 October 1558 at the very the peak of the peak of Bolivar is the monument to Simon Bolivar.In addition, excursions to the village of Los Nevada are organized from the city.This village is unique in that it is a unique village inhabited at a similar altitude.

Kumana is one of the oldest Venezuela’s towns

Moreover, Kumana heads this list, and there is a city on the north-eastern coast of the country.Kumana stretched along the sea for thirty kilometers. Slender rows of palm trees and endless beaches with white sand make this city charming. The city was founded in 1521 and became the first in the list of cities that appeared on the territory of the South American continent thanks to Europeans. True, since 1515 in the territory of the Kumana lived Franciscan monks. In the past, a huge number of forts were built in the city. They were called to defend Kumanu city from pirate attacks and raids of invaders. Some of the forts have survived to this day. Now in Kuman is the largest port of the Republic of Venezuela. Modern tourists enjoy the popularity of the fortresses of Santa Maria de la Cabeza and San Antonio. As already mentioned above, almost the main attraction of Kumana is the stunning beaches. Even in the sixteenth century the glory of their pearly sand spread across Europe. Lovers of snorkelling and diving are attracted by the Mochima Marine Park. It consists of numerous small islets, located between Puerto de la Cruz and Kamana. Those who want to swim in the waters of the national park are awaited not only by amazing coral reefs, but also by the remains of ships, which in the old days were wrecked. And Kuman’s glory is to be the birthplace of Indian beliefs and pearl lovers.


The Guiana Plateau occupies almost the second part of the territory of the Republic of Venezuela.

The Guiana Plateau is rich in river valleys and numerous gorges, dismembering huge areas of the table mountains (“tepui”). This plateau captures the territory of the states of Delta-Amakuro, Bolivar and Amazonas. The total population of these states is about one and a half million people, although it is not evenly distributed – most of the population lives in two cities: Ciudad Bolivar and Ciudad Guayana. As for the highlands themselves, only the Indian tribes live here. These are the tribes of “Piaroa”, “Warao”, “Pemon”, “Yanomama”, etc., a significant part of them have a rather limited connection with modern civilization. In view of this fact, these tribes still live according to ancient traditions and customs. At the same time, modern life also involved some of the tribal groups living on the Guiana Plateau. The plateau is of great economic importance, and this is despite the conspicuous lack of population. The fact is that in the bowels of the Guiana Highlands, a large number of such natural resources have been explored, such as diamonds and gold, alumina and iron ore. In addition, in the Guiana Plateau region, up to seventy-six percent of the country’s electricity is produced. This fact makes it possible not only to cover its own electricity needs, but also to export it. However, the main “resource” of this part of the Republic of Venezuela is undoubtedly the unique nature. It combines the amazing vegetation and animal world, mighty rivers and waterfalls, breathtaking mountains, and of course, the Amazonian rainforest.

In Venezuela is the highest waterfall on Earth.

This is Angel Falls. It is located in the central part of the Canaima National Park, on one of the branches of the Carrao River. Eight hundred and seven meters is the largest free fall of water. It is worth noting the fact that the waterfall of Eichel is fifteen times higher than Iguazu and twenty times higher than Niagara. According to official data, the waterfall Angel was discovered in 1935. His discoverer was James Angel, an American pilot who at that time was exploring the surroundings from the air. Until this moment, the waterfall was known only to the indigenous Indians. They called it the Kerepupkai-Meru. In translation this name means the following: “falls into the deepest place”. The Indians never once told the Europeans about the waterfall known to them, and, moreover, never rose to the top of the mountain. Local residents simply believed that on the mountain there lived the souls stealing human souls in the guise of a “mavari” person. At present, in order to look at the highest waterfall of the planet, a huge number of tourists are heading to this region, hundreds of excursions are organized annually. Air tours are especially popular, because on the ground places are very difficult to access. Small planes fly directly over unique woodlands, over canyons “simas”, over precipices and rocks. On the ground to a unique waterfall can be reached only after a large preliminary journey: from Canaima, you need to make a path of seventy kilometers by boat, and then two or three kilometers to make your way through the jungle. In relation to the latter, it should be noted that this kind of transition is analogous to the transition of ten to fifteen kilometers along the Central Russian forests. Thus, to see the miracle of the planet is quite difficult. And sometimes it’s very difficult. In the rainy season, which is accompanied by a fog and a powerful cloud cover, the waterfall Angel is the most beautiful and full-bodied. Due to weather conditions, air tours are difficult. Go to the waterfall through the jungle in rainy weather is also not easy. Only three kilometers from Angel the largest mountain of the region rises. This is Mount Auyantepuy. Its height is two thousand nine hundred and fifty meters.

The small town of Canaima is the gate of Angel.

The waterfall is fifty kilometers from the city.In addition, it is the heart of the National Park. The population of Canaima is small – about one thousand two hundred people live here. Local residents and tourists are served by a very small airport. The town is surrounded by 4 beautiful waterfalls. These are the waterfalls of Salto Guadima, Salto-Galondrina, Salto-Uchayma and Salto-Acha. In addition, nearby is the most picturesque Laguna de Canaima. Nearby there are 2 more waterfalls. It is about the waterfall of Salto el Sapo, which is breaking from a height of twenty meters, and the very low waterfall of Salto al-Sapito. An unusual path leads to the first waterfall. Thomas Bernal – Peruvian hermit – cut it directly into the rock. The hard-to-reach waterfall of Salto-Aponguão is another attraction in the environs of Canaima. Its height is one hundred and five meters. The starting point of the excursion to this waterfall is the small Indian village of Iboribi, located forty kilometers from Canaima. To get to the Salto-Apoguão waterfall is possible only by canoeing.

Rio Orinoco is one of the longest rivers of the South American continent.

The length of this continent, Rio Orinoco ranks third. Its length is two thousand one hundred and fifty kilometers. The river originates in the south of Venezuela – near the border with Brazil. As for the Rio Orinoco delta, it is located in the north-eastern part of the country – on the coast. The delta of this river is so wide that it is recognized as one of the largest on the Earth. And this is not surprising, because its area is about twenty-five thousand square kilometers. The delta is made up of many islands, overgrown with forest. The latter are the place where the tribes of “Warao” live. The name of the tribe translates as “canoe people”. Local residents of these places earn their living by hunting, fishing and woodcarving, and they build houses on piles on the banks of the river. It is worth noting the fact that tourists are just starting to explore this area, the main attractions of which are currently the amazing delta of the river, the stunning city of Ciudad Bolivar, interesting in historical terms, as well as original Indian tribes. The cities of Puerto Ordaz and San Felix are located somewhat lower down the river. The first city is the commercial and industrial center of the region, and the second has earned a reputation due to the preserved colonial architecture.

Orinoco is in many ways a unique river.

It can be called even a separate attraction. Its composition of water, its ecosystem, its own color has each channel of the Orinoco River. Huge population of birds (more than three hundred and fifty species) are found here, more than one thousand three hundred species of plants grow, more than one hundred and twenty species of mammals live. However, the ichthyofauna is of the greatest interest. In the waters of the Orinoco, there are up to four hundred and twenty species of fish and about seventy species of reptiles. About forty species of fish are endemic. Here is the biggest snake in the world – the anaconda.

The Caribbean coast is the pride of Venezuela.

This country has about three thousand kilometers of coastline, as well as about a hundred islands. And this circumstance builds the Republic of Venezuela in the rank of the regions having the greatest prospect for sea recreation. The first resorts were built by the Spaniards on the northern coast of the country. The twentieth century gave a powerful impetus to the development of these resorts. The climate on the north coast, as well as in the Caribbean islands, in comparison with the rest of Venezuela, is much drier and hotter. Floods and landslides in 1999 had a very adverse impact on the coastal area of ​​El Litoral, which is north of the Venezuelan capital. However, the element almost did not affect the coastal areas to the west and east of the heart of El Litoral. Now there are quite a lot of relatively wild beaches here. The town of Kuman is located four hundred and two kilometers from Caracas, in the eastern part of the coast of El Litoral.One of the best coasts of Venezuela is guarded by the Mochima National Park, which is located somewhat to the east of this picturesque town.

Margarita Island is an island discovered by Christopher Columbus.

August 15, 1498, his ships approached the shore of the island, on this day the Europeans first saw this island. The island of Margarita is located forty kilometers from the northern coast of the Republic of Venezuela. The island is part of a very small archipelago, in addition to the island of Margarita, there are two more islands: Kubagua and Koche. The cause of the rapid colonization process of Margarita was pearls. Pedro Alonso Niño became the first representative of the Old World, who set foot on the land of the island. This man traded thirty-eight kilograms of pearls for the indigenous population of Margarita. The island has won fame as the “Pearl of Venezuela”. However, over time pearl banks ceased to play a leading role. On the first place on incomes there was a tourist direction. Approximately three hundred and fifteen kilometers of the beach and more than a hundred excellent hotels attract tourists from all over the world, especially since the beaches have the reputation of the best in the Republic of Venezuela. Attractiveness of the island adds some serenity and tranquility of his life, this place does not concern any political conflicts.

The capital of Margarita is the city of Porlamar.

It is also a popular duty-free zone. This city is one of a large number of island cities in the Caribbean. The area of ​​Santiago Marino is a conglomeration of duty-free shops. In the Parliament itself there is hardly much that would attract the attention of tourists, including high-class hotels. However, its vicinity is the opposite of that. The tourist will be interested to visit the valley of Santa Espirito, in the wonderful town of Juan Griego, in the fortress of La Galera and Espana, in the pottery village of El Cerdado, in the picturesque town of Santa Ana, at the walls of the fort of La Quaranta and in the epicenter of nightlife Margarita – a suburb of the Parliament of Costa Azul. No less interesting is the visit to Pampatar, founded in 1530, La Restinga National Park, Santa Fe beach town, etc. The greatest pride of these places is the countless number of excellent beaches. The most popular beaches are Playas de Uva, Playas Colorado, a three-kilometer beach of Playas el Agua. For surfers, the Playas-Medina coast is ideal.

The archipelago of Los Roques is in the past a favorite place of pirates.

The archipelago includes three hundred forty-two small islands and four relatively large ones. Los Roques is located one hundred and sixty-eight kilometers to the north of El Litoral. 1529 is the year of the first mention of the existence of this archipelago. For a long period, only pirates (yes birds) live on the islands of Los Roques. They built their bases on their territory. Somewhat later Dutch fishermen began to move to the archipelago. In 1972, the National Park was established on the territory of the archipelago. At the same time, the twenty-four kilometer system of coral reefs surrounding the central lagoon of Los Roques falls under the protection of Venezuela. A large number of islands of Los Roques to visit are closed. The recreational area, which is provided to tourists, includes the islands of Cayo Pirata Francisco, Madridi, Gran Roque, Nordiski Paint, as well as a huge number of small islets. Coral reefs surround all the islands, nature here has remained untouched by man. Islands of the archipelago Los Roques are rightfully among the first places in the Republic of Venezuela, ideal for snorkeling and diving. Moreover, near the shore of Nordiski, after going on an underwater trip, you can see several sunken ships. Famous Caribbean lobsters find refuge in them.

The city of Coro is one of the old Spanish cities in South America.

For the supremacy in this respect, the city of Koro competes only with the city of Kumano.Coro was founded by the Spaniard Juan de Ampies in 1527, he is in the northwestern part of Venezuela. It was from Corot that the first land expeditions were sent to find the legendary Eldorado. Corsairs were not alone subjected to the Coro crushing, but the advantageous geographical position and smuggling of goods every time became the reason that Koro was recovering. In 1950, Corot was listed as a UNESCO, due to the fact that it retained many features of the colonial period. Moreover, no other Venezuelan settlements except Coro are included in UNESCO’s list. Among the main attractions of the Coro are the following: the Casas Gurmesido Torres mansions (built in 1875) and the Casa del Sol (built in the seventeenth century, which makes it one of the oldest colonial buildings in the city), the picturesque Plasa-Manaure Square, the chapel of El Carrizal, the church of San Francisco (originally built in 1620, rebuilt at the end of the twentieth century) and San Clemente (erected in 1538), the Cathedral of Corot and the Church of Iglesia-San Gabriel. Attentions of the tourist are also worthy of a considerable number of Koro museums. This is the Coro Art Gallery, the Museo de la Traditions-Familiare, the Lucas-Guillermo-Castillo Museum, the De Boraho Art Museum, the UNEFM Art Museum, the Virtual Art Museum, the Museum of Ceramics and Natural History and others. In the immediate vicinity of the city stretches a series of dunes. Their presence is quite an interesting phenomenon, because it is not typical for this region of the Earth. Fifteen kilometers from Corot, you can see the statue of the Holy Virgin of Guadalupe.

The Republic of Venezuela is a Catholic country.

Adherence to Christian norms of behavior justifies a considerable number of local traditions and customs. The church in Venezuela is the center of not only spiritual life, but also cultural and political life. The priest, as a rule, has an indisputable authority. In the interior regions of the Republic, which are still in relative isolation, ancient tribal beliefs are often preserved. The system of values ​​of such peoples differs significantly from the European one. Despite this, the locals have a tolerance for racial and cultural differences. The formation of an original multicultural nation was greatly influenced by the possibility of mixed marriages.

English is spoken on the territory of the Republic of Venezuela.

This is not true. Explain in English is possible only on some islands of the Caribbean Sea, and, of course, in the business districts of the largest Venezuelan cities. Venezuela has officially adopted the Spanish language.

Venezuela

Family for a Venezuelan means very much.

Venezuelans spend a considerable part of their time at home, this applies to both women and men. As for the latter, they often prefer to spend time at home with children, than to spend it on any kind of traditional hobbies. The family is a source of pride for every Venezuelan. Much importance is attached to family “outlets”. It can be a Sunday Mass, and a local carnival. As a rule, three generations of people live under one roof. The elderly people have a higher status, they often care for the children, because the parents work. Grandmother and grandfather organize family rest, they have duties and in the kitchen. In professional terms, there is no discrimination in Venezuela between the female and male parts of the population. Many women have found themselves in education, medicine, jurisprudence, even in politics. And of course, besides working on the shoulders of women, the main concern is for the house, the elderly and children.

In Venezuelan streets, there are many large veins of houses.

This, indeed, is not uncommon. The market for the construction of affordable housing for a long period of time was sponsored by the government.Despite this, at present a considerable number of local residents are not able to buy themselves a good home. Certain impact on this circumstance was undoubtedly due to recent economic difficulties. Around the major cities of Venezuela there are real slums, because of the poor build houses that are significantly different from the houses richer part of the population. Such areas were called “ranches”, often there is no sewage, no water, no electricity. Some Indian peoples inhabiting Venezuela build and live in traditional houses. These houses are called “Yanomi”, and one such house can accommodate up to one hundred families. Each family in the “Yanom” has its place. For coastal areas of the country is characterized by the construction of residential houses on stilts, in such buildings is dry.

Politeness is a distinctive feature of Venezuelan character.

There is no lack of familiarity here. Venezuelans are polite to each other and are correct in their behavior. In order to simplify communication, Venezuelans often assign a nickname to their interlocutors. For example, to his friend Venezuelan may apply something like this: “my joy”, and another to apply and clearer “saffron”, “fat man”, etc. In the language of the Venezuelans there are a lot of nuances, thanks to which even an offensive language can receive even offensive words.

There is such a thing as “Venezuelan time”.

Local residents claim that they live in it. Indeed, their attitude to the time is rather peculiar. The feeling of haste among Venezuelans is extremely rare. They talk quietly, their speech is long and lengthy. Slow service is typical for restaurants. In Venezuela, such a character trait as punctuality is very much appreciated. As for business issues, they are finding their solution quickly.

Venezuelans lead an active lifestyle.

As a form of recreation in the Republic of Venezuela is very popular basketball and football. In particular, this applies to the Prianand districts. One of the national sports is equestrian competitions. Indeed, among the best in the world include Venezuelan racehorses. Freshwater lakes of Venezuela and the sea shore attract locals for their holidays. They like to spend time doing fishing, snorkeling, snorkeling, surfing. Bullfights, cockfights are also very popular in Venezuela.



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