Troy and the Trojan War



Troy

(tour Truva), the second name is Ilion, an ancient city in the northwest of Asia Minor, off the coast of the Aegean Sea. It was known due to ancient Greek epics, it was discovered in 1870. During the excavation of G. Shlimanom hill Gissarlyk. The city gained special popularity, thanks to the myths about the Trojan War and the events described in Homer’s poem “Iliad”, according to which the 10-year war of the coalition of Achaean kings led by Agamemnon – king Mycenae against Troy ended in the fall of the fortress city. The people who inhabited Troy, in ancient Greek sources, are called terekrami.

Troy and the Trojan War


Troy is a mythical city.

For centuries, the reality of Troy’s existence was being questioned – it existed as a city of legend. But there were always people who were looking for real history in the events of the Iliad. However, serious attempts to find the ancient city were made only in the XIX century. In 1870, Henry Schliemann, during excavations of the mountain village of Gissrlik on the Turkish coast, came across the ruins of an ancient city. Having continued digging to a depth of 15 meters, he unearthed treasures that belonged to an ancient and highly developed civilization. This was the ruins of the famous Homeric Troy. It is worth noting that Schliemann unearthed the city, which was built earlier (1000 years before the Trojan War), further studies showed that he simply went through Troy through, as it was erected on the ruins of the ancient city found by him.

Troy and Atlantis are one and the same.

In 1992, Eberhard Zangger suggested that Troy and Atlantis are one and the same city. He built a theory on the similarity of descriptions of cities in ancient legends. However, this assumption was not widespread and scientifically based. This hypothesis was not widely supported.

The Trojan War broke out over a woman.

According to the Greek legend, the Trojan War broke out due to the fact that one of the 50 sons of King Priam – Paris, kidnapped the beautiful Helen – the wife of the Spartan king Menelaus. The Greeks sent troops just to take Elena. However, according to some historians, this is most likely just the peak of the conflict, that is, the last drop that gave the premise for the war. Before that, presumably, there were a lot of trade wars between the Greeks and the Trojans, who controlled the trade on the entire coast in the area of ​​the Dardanelles Strait.

Troy lasted 10 years thanks to help from outside.

According to available sources, the army of Agamemnon camped in front of the city on the beach, without besieging the fortress from all sides. This was used by the king of Troy Priam, who established close ties with Caria, Lydia and other regions of Asia Minor, who during the war helped him. As a result, the war was very protracted.

Troy and the Trojan War

The Trojan horse actually existed.

This is one of the few episodes of the war, which never found its archaeological and historical confirmation. Moreover, there is not a word in the Iliad about the horse, but Homer describes it in detail in his Odyssey. And all the events related to the Trojan horse and their details were described by the Roman poet Virgil in the “Aeneid”, 1st c. BC, ie. almost 1200 years later. Some historians suggest that the Trojan horse was understood as any weapon, for example, a battering ram. Others argue that this is how Homer called the Greek ships of the sea. It is possible that the horse was not at all, and Homer used it in his poem as a symbol of the death of gullible Trojans.

The Trojan horse entered the city thanks to the clever trick of the Greeks.

According to legend, the Greeks spread the rumor that there is a prophecy that if a wooden horse stands in the walls of Troy, he can forever protect the city from Greek raids. Most residents of the city were inclined to the fact that the horse must be entered into the city. However, there were also opponents. Priest Laocoon proposed to burn the horse or throw it off the cliff. He even threw a spear into the horse, and everyone heard that the horse inside was empty.Soon a Greek named Sinon was captured, who told Priam that the Greeks built a horse in honor of the goddess Athena, in order to atone for years of bloodshed. This was followed by tragic events: during the sacrifice of the god of the sea to Poseidon, two huge snakes emerged from the water, which strangled the priest and his sons. Seeing this as an omen from above, the Trojans decided to drive the horse into the city. He was so huge that he did not get through the gate and had to dismantle part of the wall.

The Trojan horse caused the fall of Troy.

According to legend, the night after the horse got into the city, Sinon released from his womb hiding inside the soldiers who quickly killed the guard and flung open the city gates. Having fallen asleep after the violent festivities, the city did not even have a strong resistance. Several Trojan warriors, led by Aeneas, tried to save the palace and the tsar. According to ancient Greek myths, the palace fell due to the giant Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, who smashed the front door with his ax and killed the king of Priam.

Heinrich Schliemann, who found Troy and saved a huge fortune for his life, was born into a poor family.

He was born in 1822 in the family of a rural pastor. His homeland is a small German village near the Polish border. Mother died when he was 9 years old. Father was a harsh, unpredictable and self-centered person, very fond of women (for which he lost his job). At age 14, Henry was separated from his first love – the girl Mine. When Henry was 25 years old and he was already becoming a famous businessman, he finally asked for Minna’s hand from her father in a letter. The answer was that Minna married a farmer. This message finally broke his heart. The passion for Ancient Greece appeared in the boy’s soul thanks to the father, who read the Iliad to the children in the evenings, and afterwards presented to his son a book on world history with illustrations. In 1840, after a long and exhausting work in a grocery store almost cost him his life, Henry sits on a ship going to Venezuela. On December 12, 1841, the ship got into a storm and Schliemann was thrown into the icy sea, from the death of which he saved a keg, for which he held until he was rescued. During his life he learned 17 languages ​​and made a large fortune. However, the peak of his career was the excavation of the great Troy.

Excavations of Troy Henry Schliemann took because of the disorder in his personal life.

This is not excluded. In 1852, Henry Schliemann, who had many affairs in St. Petersburg, married Catherine Lyzhina. This marriage lasted 17 years and was completely empty for him. Being a passionate man by nature, he married a sensible woman who was cold to him. As a result, he was almost on the verge of insanity. An unhappy couple had three children, but Schliemann did not bring happiness. From despair, he knocked together another state, selling indigo paint. In addition, he worked hard on the Greek language. There was an inexorable craving for travel. In 1668, he decided to go to Ithaca and organize his first expedition. Then he went to the side of Constantinople, to the places where Troy was located along the Iliad and began excavations on the Gissarlyk hill. This was his first step on the road to the great Troy.

Ornaments of Helen of Trojan Schliemann tried on his second wife.

His old friend introduced him to Henry’s second wife, it was the 17-year-old Greek Sophia Engastromenos. According to some sources, when in 1873 Schliemann found the famous treasures of Troy (10,000 gold objects), he carried them upstairs with the help of his second wife, who was immensely loved. Among them were two luxurious diadems. Putting one of them on Sophia’s head, Henry said: “The jewel worn by Elena Troyan is now decorating my wife.” In one of the photos, it is really depicted in the magnificent ornaments of antiquity.

The Trojan treasures were lost.

There is some truth in this. The Schliemans transferred 12,000 items to the Berlin Museum. During the Second World War, this priceless treasure was moved to a bunker from which it disappeared in 1945.Part of the treasury unexpectedly appeared in 1993 in Moscow. There is still no answer to the question: “Was it really the gold of Troy?”.

Troy and the Trojan War

During the excavations on Gissarlik, several layers-cities of different times were discovered.

Archiologists have identified 9 layers, which refer to different years. They are called Troy. From Troy I there are only two towers. Troy II explored Schliemann, regarding it as the true Troy of King Priam. Troy VI was the highest point of the city’s development, its inhabitants traded advantageously with the Greeks, but this city, it seems, was badly destroyed by the earthquake. Modern scientists believe that the found Troy VII is the true city of Homer’s Iliad. According to historians, the city fell in 1184 BC, being burnt by the Greeks. Troy VIII was restored by the Greek colonists, they also set up the temple of Athena. Troy IX belongs already to the Roman Empire. It should be noted that excavations have shown that the Homeric descriptions describe the city very accurately.



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