For most modern residents, the tram is some kind of guest from the past. However, for our countries this view is still relatively true, but in Europe and America the tram got a second life. And this despite the fact that this type of urban transport is one of the oldest. Just think, the oldest of the existing tram lines appeared in 1881 in Berlin.
After the Second World War, this transport fell into crisis. The fact is that everywhere began to use cars. So they gradually began to remove tram lines in many cities. However, at the end of the 20th century, mankind was preoccupied with ecology, and the eternal traffic jams were already boring. People again remembered about trams, literally resurrecting this transport.
As a result, today this city means of transportation in just a year in some cities carries hundreds of millions of people. There are cities where there have never been trams before, but at the beginning of the 21st century they appeared here. A classic example is Dublin, where the first such line appeared only in 2004. But in the world there are some rather unusual tram routes with its unique history and dizzying events around them. Let’s talk about them in more detail.
The steepest tram line (Austria).
This route is in Pöstlingbergbahn. The city has been a popular tourist destination for more than a century. It is located on a hill with the same name, which offers an amazing view of the surrounding area. Eventually, Pöstlingbergbahn became the Linz district, but when a tram line was opened in 1898, it was an independent settlement. Thus the route was long-distance. The length of the line is 4.1 kilometers. This is clearly not the longest route, but it is considered one of the coolest. It is also worth mentioning that it is also very popular in Austria, since the windows offer a picturesque view. It is not surprising that already in the first years of its operation the line paid off completely. World wars could not prevent the growth of the number of passengers. Today, the tramline of Pöstlingbergbahn for a year carries about half a million people. The old tramway park was recently renovated, nevertheless modern wagons were retro styled. Now they look quite like their ancient brethren, perfectly fitting into the picturesque Austrian view. A one way trip for an adult costs 3.4 euros, and for a child it’s twice cheaper.
Cable Tram San Francisco (USA).
Ride on such an unusual tram costs 6 dollars for an adult and 3 dollars for benefits. You can buy for $ 14 and travel for the whole day. The cable car in San Francisco has a long and dramatic history. His work began in 1873. Thanks to cable traction, the tram learned to overcome the steep slopes and technologies that the city is so famous for. But economic and natural disasters hurt him quite a lot. After the earthquake in 1906, this transport was decided to be liquidated altogether, followed by the “tram genocide” of the 1920s and 1930s, when buses all over the United States became fashionable. In 1947, the mayor of San Francisco again raised the issue of closing the tram. However, as a result, the initiative of the official did not like the citizens. At a special referendum, people spoke in favor of maintaining the cable car system. In the early 50’s the roads were globally reconstructed. Since then no one tried to close the cable car. As a result, it has already become a business card of the city and one of its sights. The network consists of three lines, and the rolling stock is authentic. As a result, trailers look exactly the same today as they did a century ago. Today, the cable car of San Francisco is included in the National Register of Historic Monuments. For this they know him not only in the US, but throughout the world.
Tokyo tram line of Toden Arakawa (Japan).
Adult travel costs $ 2, and for children, $ 1.There was a time when the capital of Japan was permeated with tram lines, like cobwebs. At the beginning of the last century it was impossible to imagine Tokyo without trams. But by the present days in the city there are all two lines – Toden Arakawa and Taiko Sataga. In this case, the latter is only nominally considered a tramcar. In a super-modern city, metro, buses and taxis are much more popular. But somehow Toden Arakawa found a place in the boiling metropolis. The first sections of this route were built as far back as 1913, at the beginning of the Taisho period. Until 1974, the tram was owned by The Oji Electric Tram, but then it was bought by the Tokyo Transportation Bureau. That deal actually saved this urban transport from destruction. Today the length of the line is 12.2 kilometers, and it passes from the north to the east of the capital. On the route 30 stations, some of which after the recent reconstruction still retained their retrostyle. This reminds us of those irretrievably gone times, when the main transport of Tokyo was a tram.
Volgograd Metrotram (Russia).
The trip here will cost 10 rubles. If you ask anyone what is so common between Volgograd, Vienna, The Hague, Antwerp and Krivoy Rog, then the answer is unlikely to be found. Meanwhile, they are connected by an underground tram. Its route partially passes over the surface of the earth, and partially – under it. Such a unique system is nowhere else in our country. Metrotram in the city has its official name – Volgograd high-speed tram. And it was opened in 1984. The last section of the route was opened quite recently, combining stations “Pionerskaya” and “Elshanka”. Today the length of all roads is 17.3 kilometers. Metrotram consists of 22 stations for 22 lines. But they are all on the same side. It turned out that it is not so easy to find trams that have a double-sided arrangement of doors. Virtually all cars are equipped with outputs only on one side, right. But this is rather inconvenient, since on the sections of the route that lie under the ground, the movement is left-sided. The exit was found simply – the tunnels were interchanged without direct intersection at the beginning of the underground sections. This cunning system was able to compensate for the fact that there are no wagons on the left side.
Hong Kong tram-dublebaker (China).
Travel in this transport will cost about 30 cents for an adult, and for a child is twice cheaper. But the tour on an old tram will cost 100-200 dollars. This transport has firmly entered the life of Hong Kong back in 1904. Did not prevent its existence and the Japanese occupation during the Second World War. Today on the streets of the former English colony you can find only two-story wagons. This makes the island-city tram system quite unusual. Dabledekery can not be considered a fast type of public transport, but still they have a place in the furious rhythm of the life of the Asian metropolis. For a day trams carry about a quarter of a million people, while the total length of all lines is 30 kilometers. Unusual cars are popular not only among locals, but also among tourists. It is no coincidence that specifically for the guests of Hong Kong, the transport operator created special sightseeing tours on the old trams. Especially spectacular is the journey after sunset, because the streets of the metropolis start to glow with a lot of bright lights. Alexandria tram (Egypt).
The uniqueness of this tram is that there are wagons exclusively for women. The travel costs 4 to 16 cents. The Alexandria Tram is the oldest in Africa and one of the oldest in general in the world. The first city route opened in the early 1860s, and the first electric cars appeared on the streets in 1902. Today, the city laid two lines, which are located 38 stations. The total length of all paths is 38 kilometers. The Alexandrian system is one of three in the world, where two-story trams, dubdekers are used.These trailers are painted in blue, they on the city streets peacefully side by side with their one-story yellow brethren. It is on the tram that it is convenient, cheap and safe to get acquainted with the sights of Alexandria. After all, the traffic here is very hectic. Choosing the same place is more comfortable in the tram, you can not forget the features of Egypt. Here the first car is only for women. If the cars are three, then for men the trip will be banned on average.
Tram “Santa Teresa” on the aqueduct (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).
Now this line is being reconstructed, so the fare is unknown. A little more than a hundred years ago, Santa Teresa was a rather prestigious suburb of Rio. Since 1896 from here to the city center carnivals began to walk electric tram. For more than a century of its existence the route has become famous not only in Brazil, but also in the rest of Latin America. The real pearl of the tramway is the famous aqueduct of Carioca. It was built in the XVIII century. Through it lay tram tracks, which only increased the interest of tourists to it. Only here the accident that occurred here in August 2011 has significantly damaged the reputation of the tramway. Then one of the trams off the rails and rolled over. As a result of that disaster, 6 people were killed, and another 50 were injured. The investigation dragged on for a month, but it revealed serious systemic shortcomings. To eliminate them, a global reconstruction of the entire line was launched, which should end by the end of 2012. An example for her will be the trams of Lisbon. It is planned that each new tram on the line “Santa Teresa” will have to receive an electronic ticketing system. This will avoid crushing in the cars. A satellite tracking module will also be installed in each convoy, which will reduce the risk of accidents.
Odessa tram – the hero of anecdotes (Ukraine).
It would seem, what is surprising in the Odessa tram? It opened in 1910 and is not the oldest. The trams themselves do not have special beauties or technological solutions. Outwardly, this transport is not much different from what runs on rails in many other cities of the former USSR. Uniqueness lies in the very word “Odessa tram”. One can say with certainty that jokes, jokes and jokes are written about him, more than any other transport. It is no accident that Odessa is considered the world capital of humor. How could the townspeople ignore such a remarkable phenomenon as a tram? He eventually can be found in the books of Ilf and Petrov, Babel and Zhvanetsky. The trip in Odessa by tram turns into an immersion in the legend and in that unique city atmosphere. Odessa is famous for it. Traveling by tram at the same time will allow you to get acquainted with the city’s sights. But you have to follow this with every word, otherwise you can turn into a participant in a new anecdote. A trip on the tram costs 1.5 hryvnia, which is about 20 cents. Melbourne tramway (Australia).
This tram network is by far the largest in the world. Within one zone, you can travel 2 hours for 4.3 dollars, and a discount ticket costs 2.8 dollars. The daily subscription for one zone costs 8.2 dollars, and the preferential one – 4.3 dollars. The tram in Melbourne captured the championship only recently, before that the leader was St. Petersburg. In the Australian city, the total length of all paths is 250 kilometers. There are 28 routes with 1,773 stops. In total, 487 trams leave the route, which annually carry 180 million people. In the capital of the state of Victoria for the first time this transport appeared in 1885, while from 1906 there were already electric compounds. Today Melbourne can not be imagined without trams. This is the main city public transport, and the main tourist attraction.Interestingly, on the routes along with the newest trailers leave and old samples, made 60 or more years ago. To further attract tourists, the ring route number 35, going around the business center, was made generally free of charge. There is also a unique tram in Melbourne, which is a restaurant on wheels. In it anyone can eat during his trip, admiring the city landscapes.
Tram for narrow steep streets (Lisbon, Portugal).
One way ticket costs 2.85 euros, and you can buy it inside the tram. The appearance of the city just screams that here the tram network is not the place. After all, Lisbon is famous for its winding streets and extremely steep slopes and descents. Nevertheless, the city has proved the opposite for more than a century. Since 1873, Konka began to walk along its streets, and in 1901 an electric tram appeared here. The specifics of the capital of Portugal were studied by engineers. Especially for Lisbon, special carriages were developed. They are still in the ranks. The cars themselves are four-wheeled. Special counterweights are installed in the rear and front parts. They help to “smooth” the steep terrain. As a result, the tram is moving rather slowly, but it is also safe. And why hurry? After all, this rhythm is quite consistent with the city itself. Today there are 5 tram routes in Lisbon. The most famous of them is No. 28, which connects the districts of Estrel and Alfam with each other. The trip by this route best allows you to plunge headlong into the world of nowhere in a hurry Lisbon.
Jerusalem high-speed bullet-proof tramway (Israel).
Travel by tram Jerusalem will cost 1.8 for ordinary passengers and twice cheaper for preferential categories. This line is one of the youngest in the world. Officially, it was opened only on August 19, 2011, connecting Mount Herzl and Neve Yaakov district. The length of the route is 13.8 kilometers, but it is planned to increase it to 24 kilometers. The line passes practically through the whole city, crossing even the disputed territories. Especially for this city tram in Jerusalem, a suspended bridge was harp David. Santiago Calatrava was able to create a true masterpiece of modern architecture and engineering. Wagons and locomotives were purchased in France. As a result, the city tram is not much different from what you can see in Europe. But the interior decoration is quite different, taking into account the local specifics. Thus, the doors of wagons are made bullet-proof, and the engines are located inside a special casing. He protects the heart of the tram from explosive devices. The stops on Route 23, each of them is announced with local specificity immediately in three languages - Hebrew, Arabic and English. Calcutta tram (India).
The tram in Calcutta is one of the symbols of the English stay and dominion here. The journey costs 0.6-0.1 dollars and depends on the class of the car and on the distance. Those wishing to ride on these monuments of English might need to remember that the cars are different, differing not only in the class, but also in the number of passengers. Once upon a time, trams traveled through the streets of New Delhi, Mumbai, Patna and other cities. But for today only in Calcutta this type of transport has been preserved. At the same time it is rather developed – there are 29 lines in the city. The first trams appeared here in 1880. They went either on steam traction, or were ordinary horses. In 1902, the first electric tram appeared in Calcutta, which became the first such kind in general in all of Asia. The rolling stock, which is still used by the Calcutta tram company, was purchased in the UK even before India gained independence. The wagons are completely authentic, which caused their heavy wear and tear. As a result, from the mid-1990s on many routes buses appeared instead of trams. Some lines were either closed altogether or were reconstructed.Although the tram in Calcutta has a lot of problems, it will hardly disappear from the city in the near future.