The most unusual programming languages



In the school and university, most of us are faced with such well-known programming languages ​​as BASIC, PASCAL, C. Nevertheless, there are some very unusual computer languages. Naturally, for a wide range of applications they are not intended, being designed for hackers and enthusiastic enthusiasts. Often these exotic languages ​​are generally invented for entertainment, they either parody their real fellowmen or in general are an absurd approach to some serious programming dogmas.

The most unusual programming languages

But any such language has a nice feature – the text of the program on it is understandable only to the initiate, or it is not clear at all if in order to compose the program, you must first create it in the usual language. If the developers of conventional languages ​​try to make the syntax of their children as understandable as possible, and programming as comfortable, then the creators of unusual languages ​​are guided by exactly the opposite tools to achieve their uniqueness.

INTERCAL.

This language is one of the oldest in computer programming. The creators themselves say that the name means literally “A programming language with an unpronounceable abbreviation.” The creators of INTERCALL in 1972 were students Don Woods and James Lyon. Young people wanted to create a parody of existing programming languages, having trained their own brain. As a result of their brainchild, INTERCALL has fundamental differences from other languages. Habitual in other places, standard operations work here in an unusual way. The authors have made paradoxical constructions in their language, such as “COME FROM”, “FORGET” and even “PLEASE ABSTAIN FROM CALCULATING” (“go away,” “forget” and “please refrain from calculations”). Special names were data and symbols. So, the quotes are called rabbit ears, and the equal sign “=” is a half-lattice, since the lattice itself looks like “#”. Nevertheless, despite the unusual nature of such a language, it allows you to do the same calculations as any other normal programming tool.

Whitespace.

The name of this language literally means “space”. This tool has a significant difference – for its control structures only unprintable characters are used, including a space, a tab and a line feed character. The consequence of this was the fact that the text of the program in this exotic language can be hidden inside the source code of another program. “Whitespace” was born on April 1, 2003, the authors were Edwin Brady and Chris Morris. Date of birth of the language was the reason that he was initially perceived as a joke.

Chef.

The authors of this language in 2002 were David Morgan-Maron. Interestingly, the Chef programs are similar to cooking recipes. All variables are named after the main food products. Stacks, where the values ​​of variables fall, are called “mizing bowls” (mixer bowl), and the operations for working with them are “mix”, “stir” (stir) and so on. The language “Chef” is based on the following principles:
– the programming recipes should not only give the desired result, but also be easy to prepare and unusually tasty;
– recipes should be available to any “cook”, regardless of his budget;
– Traditional recipes are allowed in recipes, such as table spoons and cups.
To understand the uniqueness of this language, it is necessary to give only a list of ingredients used for the preparation – p (potatoes, potatoes), d (dijon mustard, mustard), l (lard, lard), r (red salmon, red salmon), o (oil , oil), w (water, water), z (zucchinis, zucchini).

Velato.

In this language, the basis for the source code is the MIDI sound file. Programs are determined by the order of the notes and their height, which gives flexibility in writing the code. The creators say that they are striving for harmony inherent in music, in particular, jazz.All messages in the language begin with the main and common for all notes, and from it musical intervals are already set, which act as teams. In order for the rhythm in the messages to be more musical, the main note can be replaced.

Shakespeare.

This exotic language was created by John Aslaud and Karl Hasselstrom. The purpose of Shakespeare was to disguise the original text of the programs, giving them the play of a great playwright by analogy with the language of Chef. At the beginning of the program a list of characters is announced. Thus, the authors declare the number of stacks. As a result, they get names like Romeo or Juliet. Heroes communicate with each other, ask each other questions, in fact, perform I / O operations and use conditional operators. Although the program model is similar to assembler, in fact it is much more verbose. From the beginning of the document to the first blank line there is an epigraph. This compiler perceives this first paragraph as a comment. Parts of the code of the program in the language “Shakespeare” are called “Acts”, which are divided into scenes. Each “Scene”, like every “Act” is numbered with Roman numerals, serving as labels for the “GOTO” operator. In order for the characters to take part in the action, they need to go on stage first. To put them there, the “Enter” command serves. True, if there is more than one character on the scene, it becomes incomprehensible with whom exactly the communication is being conducted. Therefore, an extra character is deleted using the command “Exit”. At the end of the act or, if necessary, clean up the scene from several characters at once, you need to use the command “Exeunt”.

Omgrofl.

This software was created in 2006 by engineer Juraj Borza. The keywords of the language are very similar to the widespread slang on the Internet. The name “Omgrofl” is completely the result of combining the words “omg” and “rolf”. The latter is actually one of the commands of this language. It is curious that the variables in it should be a form of the slang language lol. So here you can see lool, loool, looool and so on.

Piet.

This exotic language was invented by the already mentioned David Morgan-Marom. In this case, the programs are colored pictures, and the code is presented in the form of abstract drawings. As a result, the program in this language to an inexperienced look will remind the abstraction of the postmodernist. His name was given to the language by the Dutch artist Pete Mondrian. For programming, 20 different color shades are used. At the same time, 18 of them are connected with each other by means of cycles of hues and brightness. Only white and black colors are not included in these cycles.

Befunge.

The very first version of this language was born in 1993, and the author was Chris Pessi. As he claimed, his goal was to create a language as complex as possible for compilation. For this purpose, the “p” and “g” commands were introduced into the language, which modified the text of the program. Virtually all one-dimensional programming languages ​​require some syntactic differences between the source code and the comments themselves. But in the language of Befunge does not provide any syntax for comment. In order to insert explanations in the code, the programmer simply “traverses” the control around this area. The task of the compiler is to detect such unmarked comments.

Malbolge.

This unusual software tool was invented in 1998 by Ben Olmsted. He decided to create a language that would be as complex as possible to create programs on it. Yes, and the name was chosen suitable, because Malebolge – the eighth circle of hell Dante. To create the first program in this language took a long two years.

Brainfuck.

This language is one of the most famous among all the unusual means of this kind. The author of it was in 1993, the German Urban Muller, who created his offspring for fun. In the language of only eight commands, each one of them requires only one symbol.The original text of the program on Brainfuck looks like a sequence of these symbols without any additional syntax. Urban Muller recalls that he sought to create a language with the minimum possible compiler. Part of it was inspired by this work language FALSE, whose compiler was only 1024 bytes. And for the language Brainfuck in nature there are compilers less than 200 bytes! It’s so hard to write on it that programmers joke that this is the language for real masochists. It is no accident that the literal translation of Brainfuck means “intercourse with the brain”. Nevertheless, it should be noted that Brainfuck is not only a simple language, but also natural, complete and can be used to define the notion of computability.



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