– a large monumental front building, distinguished by its architecture, was originally the residence of the reigning eminent persons, the highest nobility and since the 13th century some of the building of public authorities were also named. The word palace comes from the “prince’s court,” the dwelling of the prince. From the 19-20 centuries, the palaces began to be called the most important public buildings (the Palace of Culture, the Palace of Sports, the Palace of Youth, the Palace of Justice, etc.).
The Potala Palace.
This structure is the largest, tallest and most monumental structure in Tibet. The palace is built on the hillside of Marpo Ri and rises above the valley of Lhasa at an altitude of 130 meters. The palace arose in 637, when the Tibetan emperor Songtsen Gampo decided to move the capital to Lhasa, having erected a suitable structure in this place. When the Chinese princess Wen Cheng became the wife of the emperor, 999 rooms became in the palace, a bypass channel was dug around the building, walls and towers were erected. The modern appearance of the Potala Palace began to acquire in 1645, at the initiative of the fifth Dalai Lama. Three years it took to build a part of the building called the “White Palace”, after which Potala became a winter residence for the Dalai Lamas. In the period 1690-1694 another part was erected – the Red Palace. As a result, Potala, thanks to 7,000 workers and 1500 artists, has become an even more grandiose structure. 1959 led to a small destruction of the complex due to clashes with the Chinese army. But in the 60s of the 20th century the red hungweipings did not touch the palace, unlike many other values of Tibet, today the interior of Potala practically does not differ from its original appearance. Now the palace serves as a museum, tourists often visit here, the place is the object of Buddhist pilgrimage. Potala holds Buddhist rituals. The cultural value of the palace is so great that it was listed in 1994 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The palace stretched out on a mountain ridge, its towers, temples, stairs and walls – a unique artistic solution, tourists. The beauty of the complex attracts not only tourists and Buddhists, but also artists and architects.
Castle on the island of Mont-Saint-Michel.
This medieval structure is located on an artificial island near the Norman coast. With the mainland, the castle is connected with a dam, which can only be used at low tide. The tide makes the island an isolated and isolated fortress, naturally protected by wet sand and water. The fortress is located on a rock with a height of 78 meters, so that you can reach it during tides only by boat. French castles of that time usually played the role of defensive or entertaining institutions. Unlike them, Mont-Saint-Michel was a monastery from the very beginning. The island became a refuge of Benedictine monks since 966. Then the first abbey appeared. The monastery was erected with financial assistance from the Duke of Normandy. The year 1017 was the beginning of the construction of the central part of the monastery under the leadership of the abbot Gilderbert II, and the construction was completed only by 1520. Already in the 12th century the abbey became very popular among pilgrims of Western Europe, the power, prestige and influence of Mont Saint-Michel grew. There were even copies of the abbey, for example, Mount St. Michael in Cornwall. By the way, in Mont-Saint-Michel, there are still about fifty Benedictine monks who serve God here. The unique castle is the most famous and popular tourist attraction in Normandy. On the island there are up to 4 million people annually. It is believed that the popularity of Mont-Saint-Michel in the country is second only to Versailles and the Eiffel Tower. The castle entered the culture of France – it is found in many local films, cartoons and even in video games.
Predjamsky rock castle.
Of course, each castle is unique in its own way, however this Slovenian structure “outstripped” many.The thing is that this castle is carved in the cave complex, the second largest in the country. This integration into a rock with a height of 123 meters explains the relatively small size of the building. The very name, Predjamski Castle is exactly translated literally as “Castle in a rock”. Construction here arose long ago, the first mention dates back to the 13th century, the left wing is still ancient, its construction is believed to have occurred in the early 12th century. The middle of the castle was erected in the Renaissance, and the right wing appeared by 1570. Gradually, the castle was supplemented with details, and something was lost. Its complete restoration was made in 1990, as a result of which the castle acquired the appearance that it possessed in the 16th century. The building often changed the hosts, but the most famous of them was Erasmus, who in the 15th century hid here from persecution for murder. However, in the cold castle, the nobleman was bored, and besides, he also traded in the plunder of the surroundings. The siege of the castle lasted a whole year, during which the defenders did not suffer at all from the lack of supplies. As it turned out, there was a secret passage from the castle to the outside, fixed only in the 17th century. To take the fortress was possible only through treason, the knight-robber was killed in a medieval toilet.
Translated from the German name of this castle translates as “New Swan Stone”. It is located near the town of Fussen, in Germany. The construction was initiated by King Ludwig the Mad, more famous historians like Ludwig II of Bavaria. Construction began on September 5, 1869, he began to move from the very beginning as quickly as the monarch would have liked. The fact is that the placement of such a rather complex architectural structure in the mountains was rather difficult. As a result, many master, architects and artists worked on the embodiment of Ludwig’s ideas. The workers, driven by the king, labored literally day and night. Construction ended in 1891. When the castle was built, the most advanced technologies of that time were used, and a detailed design of the structure was even drawn up. All the floors were supplied with water, the toilet had a sink, and the rooms and halls were heated with warm air. The king could call the servants with an electric bell, there were also telephones on the third and fourth floors. The beautiful castle of Neuschwanstein is recommended to visit every tourist visiting these lands, because this building is difficult to name even a castle. This – the palace of the dream of the King-creator, embodied exactly in the form, as he wanted, but did not have time to see.
This is one of the most beautiful Japanese castles, the locals call it “Karasu-jo” or “The Crow’s Castle”. Its peculiarity is the fact that it is built on water, I call this style of Japan “Hirajiro”. Both towers of the castle were built between 1592 and 1614, they are well protected, which was necessary in an era and a place of constant confrontation. In 1635, the military threat was no longer the castle, then the third tower was also erected, which was intended to monitor the movement of the Moon. The castle is located on the territory of 39 hectares. In addition to a powerful citadel, there are three moats. Food and ammunition were stored on the first three floors of the main tower, and the garrison was also located here. The fourth floor is furnished with luxury – here the prince himself lived with his family. The fifth floor served for the headquarters of military commanders, and the highest, sixth, at an altitude of 22 meters was an observation platform. A small Shinto chapel was located under the roof itself. Today, the castle is a real national treasure of Japan.
Castle of Huniad.
It is located in the Romanian town of Hunedoara. Once the castle was part of the Transylvanian principality, it was here that according to the legend, since Vladivost III Wallachian, more than 7 years old, was known as Count Dracula. The castle was built in the beginning of the 14th century by King Carol Robert de Anjou.Once upon a time there was an ancient Roman structure on this hill above the river. The castle is built in the Gothic style, there are elements of the Renaissance and Baroque. The monumental structure was left behind by the Hungarian dynasty Hunyadi. The castle has many towers, a high bright roof, many balconies and windows, stone finishes. Numerous owners of the castle altered it in their own way, but the main value of the castle – the honor hall “Do not be afraid” still remained unchanged. In the courtyard of the castle there is a well 30 meters deep, according to legend, it was digging three captive Turk, who were promised freedom after finishing work. As a result, the owners of the castle did not keep their promises, they say that the prisoners left an inscription on the bottom “You have a well and no hearts.” In 1854, a large fire severely damaged the castle, the restoration work lasted almost 100 years.
Castle of Marienburg.
This structure is the work of the hands of the Teutonic knights, who once lived in Prussia. The purpose of the castle was to stay there the residence of the masters of the Teutonic Order. There was even a town with the same name. Construction began in 1274, and in 1309 the Grand Master of the Order moved from Venice here. The castle grew, soon the territory inside the walls covered more than 200 thousand square meters, and the population was 3 thousand people. After the defeat at Grünwalde, the castle was in the hands of mercenaries, then as part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At Napoleon there were barracks and an arsenal. Over time, the medieval appearance of the building was lost, but the reconstruction by gothic lovers in the 19th century restored the castle to its historical appearance. The Second World War seriously touched the castle – it was almost completely destroyed, but actually built anew. In the ruins there was only a cathedral. Today Marienburg is a major tourist center in Poland. This classical medieval fortress was in 1887, even included in the list of world attractions. After all, the castle is completely made up of bricks, there is simply nothing like it on Earth.
Palacio de Pena.
It is the oldest palace built in the style of European Romanticism. There is a building on top of a hill not far from the Portuguese city of Sintra. In clear weather, the palace of Pena can be seen even from Lisbon. Originally built in the 15th century, the castle was to become a palace, but later it was given to a cathedral and a monastery. For a long time there lived no more than eighteen monks. The earthquake in 1755 completely destroyed the beautiful castle, but in 1838, by the order of Prince Fernando, the palace was restored in its original form. After the works the palace changed the owners several times, until in 1910 the state bought it, turning it into a museum. Specialists consider the uniqueness of the castle to be a Bavarian and Mauritanian style added to the romantic style. The mixture of styles gave the structure bright unforgettable colors. The castle today is not only a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but one of the seven wonders of Portugal.
Castle of Leuvenburg.
It is located in the Wilhelmshöhe Hill Park, on the outskirts of the German town of Kassel. The structure is so mature in the medieval style that here, it would seem, could be located Disneyland of that time. Löwenburg is translated as “Lion Castle”, it was built between 1793 and 1801 by the local Landgrave Wilhelm IX, although the castle on this site existed since the 13th century, but was long destroyed. The style of the structure is very interesting – romantic ruins. The developer of the royal castle was the architect Heinrich Christoph Giussof, who for a long time traveled to England, watching the local romantic sights. This is the first castle built in the Neo-Gothic style in Germany, experts consider it very remarkable in its kind. Many medieval features are embodied here – a drawbridge, a moat. Even furniture and interior items inside the medieval. From the side of Levenburg looks like a real medieval fortress, although it is not.
This castle is one of the largest in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is a fortress of the city of Prague, an entire administrative urban area. Today, here is the residence of the President of the Czech Republic, and previously inhabited by Czech kings, some of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and the presidents of Czechoslovakia. The Prague Castle reached its peak in the 14th century, when Charles IV ruled. It was he who made this place the residence of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles intended to eventually make Prague a major European capital, which is why the castle was a large-scale construction work. Here are collected many historical, artistic and architectural masterpieces. The center of the architectural complex is the Cathedral of St. Vitus – the main cathedral of Prague. In the castle there are ancient palaces, several gardens, there are also houses. The decoration of the place is the ancient Golden Street, the feature of which are the dwarf two-story houses, which are built into the arches of the old fortress wall. According to tradition, alchemists lived in them.