Man’s exploration of the cosmos began some 60 years ago, when the first satellites were launched and the first cosmonaut appeared. Today, the study of the universe is done with the help of powerful telescopes, the immediate study of the nearest objects is limited to neighboring planets. Even the Moon is a great mystery to mankind, an object of study of scientists. What can we say about more large-scale cosmic phenomena. Let’s talk about the ten most unusual of them.
The phenomenon of eating your own kind is inherent, it turns out, not only to living beings, but also to cosmic objects. The galaxies are no exception. So, the neighbor of our Milky Way, Andromeda, now absorbs smaller neighbors. Yes, and inside the “predator” is more than a dozen already eaten neighbors. The Milky Way itself now interacts with the Dwarf spheroidal galaxy in Sagittarius. According to the calculations of astronomers, the satellite, which is now at a distance of 19 kpc from our center, will be absorbed and destroyed in a billion years. By the way, this form of interaction is not unique, often galaxies just collide. After analyzing more than 20 thousand galaxies, scientists came to the conclusion that they all ever met with others.
These objects are some kind of bright beacons that shine to us from the very edges of the Universe and testify to the times of the origin of the entire cosmos, turbulent and chaotic. The energy emitted by quasars is hundreds of times greater than the energy of hundreds of galaxies. Scientists hypothesize that these objects are giant black holes in the centers of galaxies far from us. Initially, in the 60s quasars were called objects with strong radio emission, but extremely small angular dimensions. However, later it turned out that only 10% of those who are considered to be quasars were consistent with this definition. The rest of the strong radio waves did not radiate at all. Today it is considered to be quasar objects that have variable radiation. What are the quasars – one of the greatest secrets of the cosmos. One of the theories says that this is a nascent galaxy in which there is a huge black hole that absorbs the surrounding matter.
Experts failed to fix this substance, as well as generally see it. It is assumed only that there are some huge clusters of dark matter in the universe. For the analysis of it there are not enough possibilities of modern astronomical technical means. There are several hypotheses of what these formations can consist of – from light neutrinos to black invisible holes. In the opinion of the same part of the scientists, no dark matter exists at all, in time a person can better understand all aspects of gravity, then an explanation will come to these anomalies. Another name for these objects is a hidden mass or a dark matter. There are two problems that caused the theory of the existence of unknown matter – the discrepancy between the observed mass of objects (galaxies and clusters) and the gravitational effects from them, as well as the contradiction of the cosmological parameters of the average density of space.
This term refers to distortions of the space-time continuum. This phenomenon was predicted even by Einstein in his general theory of relativity, also by other theories of gravitation. Gravitational waves move at the speed of light, and it is extremely difficult to catch them. We can see only those that are formed as a result of global cosmic changes like the merging of black holes. This is possible only with the use of huge specialized gravitational-wave and laser-interferometric observatories, such as LISA and LIGO. The gravitational wave is radiated by any moving accelerated matter, so that the amplitude of the wave is significant, a large mass of the radiator is needed. But this means that another object acts on it then.It turns out that gravitational waves are radiated by a pair of objects. For example, one of the most powerful sources of waves is the colliding galaxies.
The vacuum energy.
Scientists have found out that in the cosmic vacuum is not so empty as it is commonly believed. And quantum physics directly states that the space between the stars is filled with virtual subatomic particles, which are constantly destroyed and re-formed. They fill the whole space with energy of anti-gravity order, forcing the space and its objects to move. Where and why – another big mystery. Nobel laureate R. Feynman believes that the vacuum has such a tremendous energy potential that in a vacuum, the volume in a light bulb contains so much energy that it is enough to boil all the world’s oceans. However, until now, mankind considers it the only possible to receive energy from matter, ignoring the vacuum. Micro black holes.
Some scientists have questioned the whole theory of the Big Bang, according to their assumptions, our entire universe is filled with microscopic black holes, each of which does not exceed the dimensions of the atom. This theory of physics Hawking arose in 1971. However, the babies behave differently than their older sisters. Such black holes have some obscure connections to the fifth dimension, affecting in a mysterious way space-time. Studies of this phenomenon are supposed to be carried out later with the help of the Large Hadron Collider. So far, even to test their existence experimentally will be extremely difficult, and there is no question of investigating properties, these objects exist in complex formulas and the heads of scientists.
The so-called neutral elementary particles, which practically do not have their own specific gravity. However, their neutrality helps, for example, to overcome a thick layer of lead, since these particles interact weakly with matter. They pierce everything around, even our food and ourselves. Without visible consequences for people, 10 ^ 14 neutrinos, released by the sun, pass through the body every second. Such particles are born in ordinary stars, inside which there is a kind of thermonuclear furnace, and with explosions of dying stars. You can see neutrinos by using neutrino detectors located in the thickness of ice or on the bottom of the sea. The existence of this particle was discovered by theoretical physicists, in the beginning, even the law of conservation of energy itself was disputed, until in 1930 Pauli suggested that the missing energy belongs to a new particle, which in 1933 received its present name.
It turns out that the planets do not necessarily exist near our star. Such objects are called exoplanets. It is interesting that until the early 90s, humanity generally believed that the planets outside our Sun can not exist. By 2010, there are already more than 452 exoplanets in 385 planetary systems. The sizes of objects range from gas giants that are comparable in size to stars, to small rocky objects that rotate around small red dwarfs. The search for a planet similar to the Earth has not yet been crowned with success. It is expected that the commissioning of new means for exploring outer space will increase the person’s chances of finding brothers by reason. The existing methods of observation are just aimed at the discovery of massive planets, like Jupiter. The first planet, more or less similar to the Earth, was discovered only in 2004 in the system of the altar star. The complete revolution around the star it does for 9.55 days, and its mass is 14 times greater than the mass of our planet. The closest to us in terms of characteristics is the Glise 581s open in 2007 with a mass of 5 terrestrial. It is believed that the temperature there is in the range of 0 – 40 degrees, theoretically there may be water reserves, which implies life. The year there lasts only 19 days, and the luminary, much colder than the Sun, looks 20 times more in the sky.The discovery of exoplanets allowed astronomers to draw an unambiguous conclusion that the presence of planetary systems in space is a fairly common phenomenon. While most of the detected systems are different from solar systems, this is due to the selectivity of detection methods. Microwave background of space.
This phenomenon, called the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background), was discovered in the 60s of the last century, it turned out that weak radiation was radiating from everywhere in interstellar space. It was also called the relic radiation. It is believed that this may be a residual phenomenon after the Big Bang, which laid the foundation for everything around. It is the CMB that is one of the strongest arguments in favor of this theory. Precise instruments could even measure the temperature of the CMB, it’s cosmic -270 degrees. For an accurate measurement of the radiation temperature, Americans Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize in their time.
In nature, much is built on the opposition, as good opposes evil, and antimatter particles are in opposition to the ordinary world. The negative electron, known to all, has its negative twin brother in antimatter-a positively charged positron. When two antipodes collide, they annihilate and emit pure energy, which is equal to their total mass and is described by the well-known Einstein formula E = mc ^ 2. Futurists, science fiction writers and just dreamers suggest that in the distant future spacecraft will be powered by engines that will use the energy of collision of antiparticles with conventional ones. It is estimated that with the annihilation of 1 kg of antimatter with 1 kg of normal, the amount of energy will be released only by 25% less than in the explosion of the largest atomic bomb on the planet today. Today it is believed that the forces that determine the structure of both matter and antimatter are the same. Accordingly, the structure of antimatter should be the same as that of ordinary matter. One of the biggest riddles of the Universe is the question – why is the observed part of it consists almost of substance, perhaps there are places that completely consist of the opposite matter? It is believed that such a significant asymmetry arose in the first seconds after the Big Bang. In 1965, an anti-deuteron was synthesized, and later an atom of antihydrogen, consisting of a positron and an antiproton, was obtained. Today, such a substance has been obtained enough to study its properties. This substance, by the way, is the most expensive on earth, 1 gram of anti-hydrogen costs 62.5 trillion dollars.