New technologies are increasingly used in the world today. The man finally realized that there is no need to rely on one God. Technologies come to our homes, making their stay and stay there as comfortable as possible. Modern buildings are much safer, more economical and smarter than their predecessors. Let’s talk about the most technologically advanced buildings currently on the planet.
Moving Towers Al-Bahar (Abu Dhabi, 2012).
Recently, there has been a trend towards building high-rise buildings in Asia. In Europe and the US, they are no longer chasing the floors and meters, the main focus is on the manufacturability of their decisions. Against this background, two towers of Al-Bahar, in Abu Dhabi, look amazing. Twenty-nine-story twins have facades that look quite traditional, but they disprove the very concept of real estate. The fact is that these buildings can move facades. This decision was not accidental – so the engineers decided to protect the premises inside buildings from the heat standing outside. As a result, on top of the facade was placed something like a golden veil of honeycombs, which, depending on the lighting, open and close. The degree of disclosure of these cells is determined by the computer. In the morning they are completely open, and at noon they close. It should be noted that this is not the only case when behind modern Arab architecture modern effective technologies are hiding. For example, the famous French architect Jean Nouvel in the design of the Agbar office complex in Barcelona in 2004 and the tower in Doha in 2012 used similar solutions. The facades of its buildings seem to be wrapped in a veiled veil. Traditional windows are either not at all visible, or they are chaotically scattered. Thanks to solar sensors it is possible to control the transparency of the cover, which helps to economize the offices more economically.
HSBC Bank (Norman Foster, Hong Kong, 1986).
This skyscraper has an unusual appearance, it resembles a hanger. The project arose in 1986, Norman Foster, with the slogan “building is technology,” came up with a strange publication. Although the usual skyscrapers and was a majestic view, still could not do without several problems. In such buildings it was inconvenient to move, they also lacked fresh air, and even about modernization and speech could not be. Foster took up the solution of actual problems. Skyscraper in Hong Kong in height of 47 floors was designed for about five years, but the construction took only two years. This speed is explained by the advance construction of the building elements in the factories of the USA, Japan and England. On the construction site, the blocks were simply assembled. Practically it turned out that all the rooms, which were made of lightweight structures, hung on the frame, as if on a hanger. But such a project made internal changes and modernization is much easier. And inside the building Foster created several tall atriums in 10 floors. This allowed to improve the internal circulation of air masses, which led to savings on ventilation systems. And the main vehicle was not elevators, which there are still in the number of 28 pieces, but a whole system of 62 escalators that connect the levels in the building. Similar problems were solved in London by the author of the Pompidou Center in Paris, Richard Rogers. He built a 14-story Lloyd building. As in Paris, the interior area is used here to the maximum. The building was literally turned inside out. Pipes, stairs and elevators are located outside the facade. The inner atrium is illuminated in a natural way, which saves energy on electricity. For 25 years now, both of these buildings are a classic high-tech, indicating to architects the direction for further development.
Olympic Water Center (Zaha Hadid, London, 2011).
If the previous model was created taking into account the future internal re-planning, the London Olympic Water Center is made taking into account the opposite tasks. This building is designed so that it can be quickly dismantled and rebuilt.Zaha Hadid, one of the main creative architects of our time, was responsible for the design. The project in her head appeared back in 2004, according to him was supposed to appear a water stadium for 2500 seats with three swimming pools. Externally, the modern building should look like some kind of fantastic iron. However, the Olympics in London made a change in these plans. At the water stadium, they also installed demountable stands, similar to wings. Thanks to them, the pool has an additional 15,000 spectators. Here, the newest television system that broadcast the competitions was located. Although the center looks futuristic, its basic details have been met even beforehand at the plant of reinforced concrete products. As a result, the water center was assembled quickly, as a designer, in just one year. Thanks to such a construction, the building is now being rebuilt without problems. The central part and the stands will be removed, while the deleted items can be reused. A new swimming pool will open in 2014.
ZCB Mansion (Ronald Lu, Hong Kong, 2012).
“Smart” houses and “green” buildings appear like mushrooms after a rain. The name of this mansion of the work of Ronald Lu is literally interpreted as “a building with zero emission of carbon dioxide.” This is a kind of manifesto in the protection of nature, which maximizes the use of green technologies. Even electricity is generated from waste. The frame of the building is made of recycled materials. He has small facades from the west and east. A symmetrical roof is covered with solar panels, which not only protects the building, but also helps it to self-overshadow. The northern facade is almost constantly blown by the wind, which allows you to use natural ventilation. Thanks to the intelligent orientation of the house and the intelligent climate control system, it is possible to save up to 45% of energy. If there is not enough solar energy, then you can use biodiesel. Ideally, the house should consume less energy per year than it produces. The surplus will go to the general urban energy system, gradually compensating for the carbon dioxide that was generated during the construction of the building.
30 St Mary Ax (Norman Foster, London, 2004).
In creating this “London cucumber” Norman Foster tried to make it as effective as possible. So the tower was born, which is under the protection of air. Consumption of the same energy in it is half that of similar structures. The building is made in the form of a grid of triangles. This design makes the 41-story skyscraper both elegant and stable. It also saves the interior space. It is organized in such a way as to make the building energy efficient. Each floor of a skyscraper is similar to a six-leafed sheepskin. Used by Foster in Hong Kong atriums are taken out to the facade and represent heat pipes. On them the air moves freely between the floors. This allowed the original solution of the issue of ventilation in the building. Air also serves as a layer that does not allow the skyscraper to heat up in the summer and protects it in the winter, without interfering with the same natural light. A similar idea was applied by Foster in a couple of years in the Hirst tower, which is in New York. This skyscraper is also created in the form of a mesh construction. This form allows you to save up to 20% of steel during construction, not to mention the wider use of natural light. The thermoregulator here is the most banal rainwater going through the heat pipes. Created by such principles, the tower proved to be more effective than analogs by at least 25%.
Mediatheque (Toyo Ito, Sendai, 2001).
For Japan, there are both skyscrapers and earthquakes. That is why a glass house appeared, which is not afraid of such natural disasters. The Japanese come to the conclusion that paper books have already become obsolete, while the modern library is transformed from a data warehouse into a kind of its distributor. The architects have been trying to solve this problem since the beginning of the century, but it turned out best for the Japanese Toyo Ito.The architect designed the building in Sendai, which not only develops the idea of a modern information source, but itself is woven from various modern technical solutions. From the side, the library appears as a seven-story glass cube. Some facades are transparent and let in daylight, while others are covered with aluminum leaves, which reflect excess heat. Each floor has its own, special layout, which is different from the others. The chaotic system of pipes passing through the floors is to blame for this. On the other hand, they are so intertwining the building that they take on its weight, helping to survive in the event of earthquakes. Also in the pipes are collected all the main communications, including elevators and stairs. In addition to all this, the pipes also perform the functions of controlling the microclimate. Thanks to them, air and water flow through the building. Office Sony City Osaki (Nikken Sekkei, Tokyo, 2012).
What kind of office without air conditioning? And what kind of conditioner without electricity? The Japanese have proved that this is possible. The new office of one of the numerous divisions of Sony outwardly does not stand out from among the same thousands of high-rise buildings. But this is a rather interesting and unusual ecological project. On the south side of the building there are solar panels, the roof serves as a collector of rainwater, the internal layout is specially made so that employees suffer as little as possible from the sun’s rays. The most important thing is that the eastern facade of the building is a huge vaporizer. This Japanese office breaks all stereotypes about this type of building and its device. Here, the usual elements are used in a new way. Around the eastern facade, there are porous tubes made of clay, accumulated rainwater runs through them. Its evaporation and leads to the effect of conditioning. If you want to suspend the system, the blinds simply overlap the tubes. A distinctive feature of other microclimatic systems is that there are no excess heat outside. The system of pipes does not require electricity at all, cooling not only the office complex itself, but also the neighboring territory. The Sony office acts as a kind of pond in the center of the megapolis, which completely softens the heat on the square in a few blocks. House Memu Meadows (Kengo Kuma, Memu, 2012).
Modern “green” architecture provides for two competing approaches. One tries to create smart houses in which the most advanced technical solutions would be realized. The embodiment of this is the ZCB from Ronald Lu. The second is trying to use modern technical solutions and technologies in the construction of conventional buildings. One of the fans of this decision is the Japanese Kengo Kuma. In 2002, not far from Beijing, he built a whole house of bamboo, however, concrete was poured into the stems of the plant. And the last project of the architect was an experimental transparent house, which appeared on the island of Hokkaido. The architect created the building of the tise, traditional in these parts. The frame of the house was made of larch, and the walls were born from layers of Teflon, fiberglass and insulation. The latter is a product of processing plastic bottles. As a result, the walls of this unusual house not only have excellent sound and heat insulation, but also pass the daylight. The architect tries to prove the right to the life of his experiment. If successful, the building will clone. After all, the house of Memu Meadows can become a cheap, simple and eco-friendly housing.
International Trade Center (Atkins, Manama, 2008).
Technological houses provide for maximum energy savings. The shopping center in Bahrain was the first large building on which wind turbines were located. When in 2008 two 50-story skyscrapers were commissioned, three turbines were installed between them, making the structure a real power plant. The whole complex is located on the beach. There the wind constantly blows, and between tall buildings it is even stronger.Thanks to this, the thirty-centimeter turbines generate a gigawatt-hour per year. This allows satisfying 10% of all the energy needs of a high-rise building. This idea – to put turbines on residential houses, like other architects. A couple of years later, a residential house Strata SE1 appeared in London, and an office skyscraper Pearl River was in Gongzhou. Both there and there, wind turbines have become part of an overall strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This is a very valuable strategy, like recycling garbage, secondary water use and energy saving technologies. However, this approach is not popular with everyone. So, near the Strata SE1 building, the shape of the roof resembles a razor, as a result, it even got the title of one of the most ugly buildings in the country.
The Shard (London, Renzo Piano, 2012).
The second author of the Pompidou Center in Paris was Renzo Piano. Like his colleague, Norman Foster, he is interested in technology projects. Not so long ago in London was opened the main city skyscraper The Shard, which resembles the shape of other projects Piano – the New York Tower Bank of America and the New York Times. At the same time, not only the form – the glass rock – coincides, but also the functional. It is believed that a modern skyscraper should be a city in the middle of the city. It should be a self-sufficient stable complex, the most economical and efficient. That is why the London building has a maximum of technical solutions, except, perhaps, solar panels and wind generators. Thanks to a double facade with an air cushion, the building received thermal insulation. With the help of sensors, external illumination is monitored and the penetration into the light automatically changes. Rain water goes to control the microclimate and other household needs. The skyscraper himself recycles his waste, providing himself with electricity in many ways. And at the foot of the building there is a large traffic junction. Thanks to the asymmetric shape and the strengthened inner core, the “Shard” is particularly stable. He will be able to withstand the collision with the plane and almost any natural disaster. After the events of September 11, such properties of the skyscraper are especially relevant. It is worth waiting, what will the new World Trade Center answer in New York. Pavilion “Garage” in Gorky Park (Shigeru Ban, Moscow, 2012).
We have already seen the house waste, but what about the paper? The Japanese Shigeru Ban is the same age as Kengo Kuma. This architect made himself a name in the construction of houses made of paper. Naturally, it is impregnated with a special solution, thanks to which it does not tear, does not burn and does not get wet. This decision the Japanese has been using for more than 15 years. I must say that it appeared not only because of the unrestrained fantasy of the master. For example, in 1995, after the earthquake in Kobe, the people who lost their homes needed to settle in at least some dwellings. So the draft of a collapsible paper house was created. The low price of paper and ease in production have the construction of good temporary buildings from it. And after they play their part, you can just start at home for recycling. Such qualities are very much in demand in places of elimination of consequences of natural disasters, and also for creation of temporary structures. One of the last buildings of the famous Japanese is in Moscow. Here, in the Gorky Park, in the autumn of 2012, the “Garage” pavilion was opened. It houses the center of contemporary art, one of the samples of which can be considered the building itself.