The American “American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers” has attempted to rank the ten most significant scientific discoveries of mankind. The Institute is engaged in the study of materials, so it is not surprising that much attention is paid to the technologies of their production.
The most important scientific invention was unanimously recognized
periodic table of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
, created in 1869. It is noted that without it further research in the field of chemistry, as well as nuclear physics would be difficult. Tradition says that the idea of the table came to the scientist in a dream. Mendeleev was generally a master of all trades, it was he who determined the ideal degree for Russian vodka. Dmitry Ivanovich was fond of making suitcases and was an active participant in the movement “Black Hundred”.
The second place was taken by
technology of iron smelting
, which came to us from Egypt. Scientists believe that the discovery, which largely determined the development of civilization, occurred in 1550 BC. However, historians notice that the Hittites learned the first to melt iron more 300 years before, in Asia Minor.
In 1948, Americans Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain invented the
. This discovery gave scientists a Nobel Prize, and modern civilization – miniaturization of electronics and its penetration into all spheres of life. Do not forget about the radio tubes, which actually started the electronics.
The fourth place is occupied by
, which first appeared in 2200 BC. The homeland of glass is considered the Mediterranean. If for scientists this material is for laboratory glassware, then for the majority it is an amazing material that has become firmly embedded in our daily life.
This line belongs to the
, which was created by the Dutch inventor and naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). He lacked only a magnifying glass, so the device was assembled, with which the scientist first considered the flea. After Levenguk examined a drop of water and was horrified, he drank only wine and tea.
The sixth place firmly holds
, applied from the 18th century, with the help of which there was a real revolution in construction. Cement production technologies are constantly being improved, recently the German architect Lantz developed a technique for making it from canine excrement.
In 300 BC. in India,
steel изобрет was invented. Steel products and steel military weapons have helped, where by force, and where culture unite disparate empires into a single modern civilization.
The most ancient weapon material is
, and this eighth place belongs to the ranking of the technology of its production. First, copper was extracted very simply – finding nuggets. About 5 thousand years ago in Asia Minor they learned how to smelt copper from minerals. It is interesting that one of the oldest metallurgical areas was Donbass, archaeologists found there copper mines and furnaces for smelting this metal.
In 1912 Max von Laue discovered
X-ray diffraction by crystals
, which made a huge contribution to the development of nuclear physics. Do not forget about the contribution to this area of the Curie and Rengtin.
The last place in the ranking was taken by the
converter for smelting out of cast iron
, created by the Englishman Bessemer in the 19th century. But the authors of the rating ignored the equally important open-hearth method of obtaining steel.