The goal of any state is the longest existence. The countries achieve this in many ways – if before empire forged by aggressive campaigns and cruel discipline, today the people are given democratic freedoms.
As a result, countries exist for centuries, until for a number of reasons they do not disintegrate or change their form. But security and stability can not be ensured for all – some states lasted only a few days and even hours. They do not even have time to celebrate something in history, but remember about them for the sake of certain conclusions.
Republic of Fiume, 1 year 109 days.
Today the city of Fiume is Croatian. And after the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian Fiume struggled between Italy and the young country of the Slovenes, the Croats and the Serbs. The question was to be resolved at the Paris Conference, but in the meantime the poet Gabriele d’Annunzio, along with the Italian nationalists, entered the city on September 12, 1919, displacing the troops of the British, the French and the Americans. D’Annunzio invited his country to annex the city, but Italy did not just give up, so, under the pressure of the international forces, it arranged a blockade of Fiume. Then a year later the city and its environs became a republic of Fiume, an independent state. On September 8, a flag with a bold motto “Who is against us?” Rose above the city, the poet himself wrote the Constitution of the new state in verse. It became a mixture of anarchism, democracy and national syndicalism, a kind of predecessor of the Italian fascist. Laws were curious places – it was assumed the existence of compulsory music education. The economy of the republic was divided between corporations. On November 12, Italy and Yugoslavia signed the Rappale Treaty, according to which Fiume was recognized as a free city. This did not suit D’Annunzio, who immediately on behalf of the republic declared a war on Italy on December 3. But on December 30, after the firing of Fiume by the enemy fleet, the city was surrendered – the republic ceased to exist.
Markov Republic, 243 days.
During the Revolution of 1905, riots erupted in Russia. The disturbances lasted until 1907, and not always the authorities managed to extinguish the seats of popular discontent and even the formation of some structures. The village of Markovo was 150 kilometers from Moscow. Then in the fall of 1905 a meeting was convened, which was called upon to make important decisions on the life of the region. Agronomist Zubrilin read out a request from 12 points, which were sent to Moscow. After a tumultuous debate, it was decided to proclaim their own republic, which happened on October 31. The president was the peasant Petr Burshin. The new state refused to recognize the tsarist power, pay taxes and send into the army recruits. Soon the authorities of the republic demanded that the autocracy be overthrown and a Constituent Assembly convened. Mark’s fame grew, the young country even helped neighboring strikers. Even a professor from Chicago asked to help this republic. And in 1906, after suppressing the main centers of resistance, the authorities finally began to follow Markovo. July 18, 1906 in the parish included the Cossacks, the country’s leadership was arrested and sent into exile. Despite the rapid fall of the republic, local residents continued to passively resist the authorities.
Free State of Shventen, 218 days.
Emil Negermann, pastor of a small village of Shventen with a predominantly German population, in 1919 announced the creation of an independent state. During the Poznan uprising in December 1918, almost the whole province was under the rule of the rebels. The Germans fought fiercely for their lands. But after the German garrison was refused in the village, the local community decided to defend its village. So on January 6, 1919, the independent free state of Shventen was created, which quickly agreed and non-aggression with neighboring Polish villages.Having access to water, the state planned to create its fleet in the future, for protection from the side of the lake. Meanwhile, the army consisted of 120 German soldiers who fled here from the Polish uprising. Pastor Hegermann was declared President, as well as Minister of Foreign Affairs. But with the economy it was hard – the main production was brewing, which was not taxed. As a result, in the summer of 1919 the authorities of an independent country recognized that it can not survive. On August 10, 1919, a petition was made to join Prussia.
Republic of Edzo, 184 days.
This state existed on the Japanese island of Hokkaido in 1868-1869. It is believed that this was the first republic in the history of Asia. And it appeared during the War of Bosin. Supporters of the shogun were defeated by the imperial troops and, together with the remnants of the fleet, fled to the northernmost of the large islands of the archipelago. Then on December 25, 1868, the first in the history of the country elections were held, which made former Admiral Enomoto Takeaka the President of the Republic. The military seized the port of Hakodate and adjacent areas, which allowed to form a country of 83 thousand square kilometers. Of course, the emperor of Japan did not recognize the new state, especially since it was not at all peaceful. With the support of France, the islanders even tried to steal the battleship that the Americans sent to Japan. Already in March 1869 the emperor sent to the Edzo fleet with a small seven thousand army. During the battle of Miyako, the Republic was defeated. From her hastily left the French advisers, and on June 27, Edzo officially ceased to exist. Then the island was renamed Hokkaido. It is interesting that after the completion of the prison term, Takeaki held high state high posts, including the ambassador to Russia.
The Partenopean Republic, 142 days.
When Napoleon conquered Egypt, King Ferdinand IV of Naples joined the coalition of anti-French forces. The troops from Naples entered Rome occupied by the French, where they collided with the revolutionary army. The city was taken, but after the counterattack was again abandoned. In a panic, King Ferdinand fled to Palermo, Naples was left to Prince Francesco Pinatelli, who immediately burned the fleet. On January 12, he signed a capitulation to the French. But the Neapolitans did not want to give up. They fought bravely, but on January 23 the French entered Naples, announcing the creation of the Parthenopean Republic. It had to be based on the principles of freedom, equality and brotherhood and supported by the French army. But the new government was dependent on the military, who demanded money. The republic did not have its own army, and an attempt to instill democratic values also failed. The Royalists, meanwhile, sent Cardinal Ruffo, who raised the revolt, to Calabria. He was supported by Admiral Nelson, who with his fleet approached Naples. June 13, 1799 Ruffo entered Naples and interrupted a lot of supporters of the republic. June 21, the country ceased to exist. The monarchy in Naples was restored, over one hundred Republicans were executed.
Hungarian Soviet Republic, 134 days.
After the end of the First World War, the great empires collapsed, on whose fragments, like new mushrooms, new countries began to emerge. In Hungary, the power was seized by an active and radical Communist Party, which declared the creation of the Hungarian Soviet Republic on March 21, 1919. The new government announced the cancellation of titles and privileges, separated the church from the state, guaranteed freedom of speech, free education. The industry, transport and housing, as well as commercial enterprises, were nationalized. Immediately the leader of the young country, Bela Kun informed Lenin about the proclamation in Hungary of the dictatorship of the proletariat and proposed jointly to oppose the external enemies. But Russia was already involved in the Civil War, supporting the local communists only morally.The population first supported Bela Kun, because he promised to restore the pre-war borders of Hungary. But after the mass executions and the selection of grain from the peasants, the reputation of the authorities was shaken. Then the dictatorship decided to fulfill the promises and return the lost lands. In May, the Hungarian army occupied part of Slovakia. But the Entente troops retaliated, forcing the Red Army to capitulate. On August 6, the Romanians entered Budapest, ending the existence of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Many of her supporters were shot without trial and investigation.
Crimean People’s Republic, 34 days.
December 13, 1917 in Bakhchisaray, the Tatars declared their independence. It happened in the political vacuum, which was at that time on the territory of the peninsula. The old power fell, and the new one was occupied by the Civil War that had begun. The Kurultai of the Crimean Tatars declared itself to be the parliament of the new country, the government was headed by Noman Celebidjihan. The Islamic state announced the independence of governing bodies from religion, the electoral rights of women. It was planned to make all citizens equal, even Jews escaped persecution. The progressive republic allowed peasants and girls to study in schools. Relying on its own armed forces, the new government tried to occupy the Crimea. But the attempt to capture Sevastopol failed. Moreover, local workers and sailors knocked out the Tatars from Simferopol, which meant the end of the existence of the Crimean People’s Republic.
Bavarian Soviet Republic, 27 days.
Bavaria, a powerful and important German province, began to be ruled by the people after a strike on November 7, 1918, when the German monarchy was overthrown. And on April 13, 1919, the Council of Workers ‘and Soldiers’ Deputies announced the creation of a new state. The government was headed by Socialist writer Ernst Toller, who at that time was only 25 years old. Immediately, the Red Army entered the battle to establish control over the whole of Bavaria. But on April 27, because of internal disagreements, the Communists withdrew from the government of the new country. Toller himself, seeing the hopelessness of the situation, left his post and went to fight for the republic as a simple Red Army man. A few days later the German army launched an offensive and on May 1 entered Munich. The last time the government of the republic gathered for the session on May 3, and in a couple of days even resistance stopped.
Republic of Connaught, 12 days.
Another name for this short-lived country is the Republic of Ireland. It appeared during the Irish uprising of 1798 in the territory of the province of Connaught. The Movement “United Irish” was supported by the French, who sent a detachment of several thousand men, led by General Jean Humbert. August 27, the United Army defeated the British and captured the northern part of the province. John Moore, the local resident, became the president of the proclaimed republic. The union of freedom, equality and brotherhood was supposed to be built on the basis of French experience. And on September 8 a new battle took place. This time the British were much more than the rebels. Humbert fought for freedom for only half an hour and quickly gave up. The republic ceased to exist.
Carpathian Ukraine, less than a day.
Shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, the autonomous region of the same name, part of Czechoslovakia, decided to declare independence. As a result of the Munich conspiracy in 1938, Czechoslovakia was essentially given to Germany. In this regard, the autonomy of a weakened state demanded from him great rights. March 15, 1939 was proclaimed an independent country – the Carpathian Ukraine. Its president was Augustin Voloshin, who first sent a telegram to Hitler with a request to protect his country’s sovereignty. But just in those days the border clashes with Hungary led to her invasion of the region. Carpathian Ukraine offered to lay down their arms and peacefully enter into Hungary.Voloshin only replied that his country is peaceful and does not want to fight with anyone, but is ready to repulse the aggressor. Already on March 16, the Hungarian army captured Khust, and all Transcarpathia was occupied by 18 March. The new government did not last a day. The Germans only shrugged their hands, refusing to take the country under their protection. The fighters for independence held partisan activities in the region for another month. And after the Second World War, the territory of the Carpathian Ukraine passed to the USSR, becoming the Transcarpathian region within Ukraine.