Science is unthinkable without experience and practical research. However, in their turn, there are also those who turned out to be, though not meaningless, but useless as a result. Here are twenty of the brightest of them. Some experiments amaze with their cruelty, and some simply shock the results. One thing is for sure, the field of human activity is truly unlimited, so we should expect new unusual experiments and results.
Elephants are exposed to LSD.
A group of researchers wondered what would happen to elephants if they were under the influence of hallucinogenic substances? And so, on August 3, 1962, a group of scientists from Oklahoma City decided to do this strange experiment. The director of the local zoo, Warren Thomas, made an elephant prick, which introduced 297 milligrams of LSD to the Taxco elephant. The course of the experiment was observed by scientists from the medical school at the University of Louis West and Chester Pierce. It should be noted that the dose itself is quite large, it exceeds the normal human 3000 times. So far, such a volume of the drug has remained the largest ever introduced to an animal. According to the researchers, it was this amount of LSD that needed to be introduced to the elephant to get the effect, the dose should not be small. The scientists explained later that the purpose of the experiment was to find out if the substance in the elephant would cause the so-called state of the must. With it, male elephants experience like intoxication and insanity, while a sticky liquid is released from their temporal glands. However, most likely, they were perverted by curiosity. However, the reasons for the experiment are not so important, he immediately went wrong. Taxco reacted to the injection as if a bee stung him – for several minutes he roared in his pen, and then fell to his side and died an hour later, despite the efforts of the experimenters. Scientists have come to a timid conclusion that elephants have an excessively high susceptibility to LSD. Subsequent years there was a long debate about what exactly killed the elephant – the drug itself or the drugs that the animal was trying to save. After 20 years, a staff member at the University of California Ronald Siegel decided to settle this dispute by giving a similar dose to two other elephants. However, the scientist had to give written consent for the replacement of elephants in the event of their death. Siegel avoided injecting the substance by injecting, instead he gave the elephants a solution of LSD with water. After drinking the liquid, the elephants not only did not die, but did not express any unusual signs of disorders. Animals behaved sluggishly, swayed and made strange sounds resembling squealing. After a few hours the animals returned to their normal state. Siegel noted that the dose received by Taxco could exceed the threshold of toxicity, so death could also occur due to the use of LSD. Disputes on this topic in narrow circles continue to this day.
Imagine that you have become a voluntary participant in a psychological experiment. But in the laboratory, the researcher reports that it is required that you kill an innocent person. Naturally, you will refuse, and he will insist, referring to the consent of the participant of experiments to obey any instructions. Most people, analyzing this situation, are convinced that they would never agree to such a terrible action. However, in the early 1960s, Stanley Milgram conducted an interesting and well-known experiment on obedience, which showed that not everything is so unambiguous and optimistic about this issue. It turns out that the “correct” sounding of the request leads to the fact that almost every participant will obey and become the murderer. Milgram reported to all investigators that they would become participants in the experiment, which aims to determine how punishment contributes to learning. One of the volunteers was actually a front-line actor, and he had to memorize a series of words. The present subject should also offer phrases for memorization and, every time in case of error, punish the student with electric shock.Each wrong answer added an additional 15 volts to the discharge strength. And then the experiment began, the student gave incorrect answers, the discharge strength quickly grew to 120 volts. The participant began to shout that it hurt when the discharge reached 150 volts, the pupil demanded because of the pain of stopping the experiment and his release. This embarrassed the volunteers, and they asked the researcher about how they should act. To which Milgram calmly confirmed that the conditions of the experiments imply continuation of the experiments. The scientist was absolutely not interested in learning and his connection with the punishment, he was interested to know how long people will press the button and send the discharge. Will they be able to stop in time or continue to obey the authority of the researcher, sending all the new categories. Surprisingly, the student’s eager cry from the next room did not confuse most of the volunteers, two-thirds of them continued to send discharges until the last moment, when the voltage reached 450 volts, and the victim frightenedly silent, staging death. At the same time, the examinees laughed nervously, their sweating increased, but they continued to press the button. Frightening was the fact that in the absence of life’s reactions from the student, volunteers were ready to send almost everything else even further to strong ranks. Milgram, on the basis of observations of thousands of participants with bitterness, had to state that if the concentration camps for some reason appeared in the United States, and not in Germany, there would be no shortage of suitable personnel for them.
Create a two-headed dog.
In 1954, the learned world was shocked by the news that Vladimir Demikhov was surgically created a monster dog. On the outskirts of Moscow, the scientist transplanted the head of the adult German shepherd to the neck, shoulders, and also the apron of the puppy’s paw. This dog has been demonstrated to journalists from all over the world. Surprisingly, both heads could simultaneously lap the liquid, when it began to flow out of the puppy’s head through the cut esophageal tube, the dog shrank in fright. This achievement was immediately used by the Soviet Union for political purposes, as proof of the superiority of our medicine. Demikhov continued his experiments, for fifteen years he created about twenty two-headed dogs. For understandable reasons, none of them lived long, the creatures died because of tissue rejection. The record lifetime of the monster was one month. According to the scientist, these experiments became part of experiments in the field of surgery, the main purpose of which was to implant the human heart and lungs. This goal was achieved in 1967 by another doctor – Christian Barnard, who recognized, however, that it was Demikhov’s work that paved the way for his results.
Stimulation of heterosexual behavior in a gay man.
In 1954, James Olds and Peter Milner, colleagues at McGill University, found that the septal part of his brain was responsible for the well-being of the person. If this place is stimulated by electrical impulses, then a feeling of strong pleasure will be caused, and the person will be sexually aroused. The discovery was first demonstrated in rats whose brains were connected to a wire. When the animal realized that it can stimulate itself, simply by pressing the lever, it with maniacal persistence pressed the lever at a speed of up to two thousand beats per minute. This discovery was used in 1970 by Robert Hys of the University of Tulane. The scientist decided to find out whether multiple stimulation of the septal zone is possible to help the transformation of a homosexual into a heterosexual man. The subject was named “patient B-19”, two electrodes were inserted into the septal zone of the brain, and during the experimental sessions a controlled effect was made on this zone. After a while, the man reported on the increase in sexual motivation. He then assembled a device that allowed the subject to stimulate himself. Quite quickly I-19 joined the pleasures.During the three-hour session, the man pressed the pleasure button fifteen hundred times, he was seized with euphoria, and the experiment had to be suspended. At this stage of the experiment, the subject’s libido was so already inflated that the scientist moved on to the final stage, during which a woman was presented, who wanted to do with B-19 sex. She became a 21-year-old prostitute, His sought special permission to participate in an experiment from the authorities. An hour later, between the man and the woman who were in the same room, nothing happened, then the prostitute took the initiative, and a sexual act took place. According to His, this can be considered a positive result. To be further with the patient, little is known. According to the scientist, the young man returned to his former homosexual prostitution, but for some time he had an affair with a married woman. This, in the opinion of an optimistic researcher, indicates a partial success of the experiment. However, Hez did not try to try to remake the homosexuals anymore.
Life of an individual dog head.
It turns out that the experiment to create a two-headed dog is not the most terrible thing that a man can do with an animal. Scientists have long since the French Revolution, when the guillotine sent thousands of heads into the baskets, they thought it possible to make the head live separately from the body. In 1920, such an experiment was conducted by the Soviet physiologist Sergei Bryukhonenko. He created a primitive apparatus of artificial circulation, which was called “auto-injector.” With the help of this device, the scientist was able to maintain life in the dog’s head, separated from the body. One such goal was demonstrated at the Third Congress of Physiologists of the USSR in 1928. To prove the life of the head, Brihonenko hit the table with a hammer, which caused a flinch, and the dog’s eyes reacted to the light. The physiologist even fed a piece of cheese to his head, which fell from the esophageal tube at the other end. This experience sparked a lot of discussion throughout Europe. The great Bernard Shaw even said about this: “I am attracted to the idea that my own head is cut off and I could continue to dictate plays and books without worrying about illnesses, without having to dress and undress, eat, and do something yet, besides creating masterpieces of drama and literature. ”
Creating a hybrid of a monkey and a man.
Rumors about the conduct of such experiments in the USSR have been going on for a long time, and when the archives with the disintegration of the country opened, it became known that attempts were indeed made to create a human and monkey hybrid by crossing with chimpanzees. In order to carry out the plan, which was conceived in 1927, Dr. Ilya Ivanov was sent to Africa, who was a world celebrity in the field of veterinary biology of reproduction. However, the scientist dreamed of doing more than just breeding cows, and therefore agreed to participate in the experiment. However, Ivanov’s work was not crowned with success, largely thanks to the staff of the research center of West Guinea, where experiments were conducted. The fact is that the scientist constantly had to hide the true purpose of his being there. In Ivanov’s diary it is said that the news about the experiment could lead to the most sad and unpredictable consequences. Therefore, strong secrecy and prevented doing anything, however the doctor described two attempts of artificial insemination of the female monkey by human spermatozoa. Ivanov was disappointed, however, he returned to his homeland with an orangutan named Tarzan, apparently hoping to continue his research already here, in a more suitable setting. It turned out that for the experiment, there were even female volunteers who agreed to take the child out of Tarzan. But soon orangutan died, the very same scientist was sent to the camps. And these studies ended. According to rumors, the delights were later continued by other scientists, but no evidence of this was found.
Prison experiment at Stanford.
Researcher Philip Zimbardo was interested in the question of why violence always prevails in prisons? Is this related to the character of the inhabitants themselves, or is it the fault of the very power structure of such institutions? To clarify this issue Zimbardo created in the basement of Stanford University something similar to a prison. The group of volunteers consisted entirely of nice young guys, none of them had previously been tried, psychological tests also confirmed their normal nature. Randomly, the group was divided into “guards” and “prisoners.” According to the researcher’s plan, within two weeks it was necessary to simply observe the interaction between the participants and the way they will perform their roles. The rest was literally a legend. In “prison” social and living conditions began to deteriorate amazingly quickly. The first night, a riot was held, the guards, seeing the disobedience of prisoners, brutally suppressed the speeches. At the same time, the most sophisticated actions were used to influence prisoners: random searches with complete stripping, cutting down the rights to use the toilet, depriving food and sleep, and simply verbal insults. Such pressure led to the rapid breakdown of the mores of prisoners. The first of them left prison in 36 hours, as he began to feel that he seemed to burn from the inside. The next six days led to the denial of the participation in the experiments of four more prisoners, one of them the whole body was even covered with a rash due to stress. It became obvious that the participants quickly tried on new roles, forgetting that this is a game. Even Zimbardo himself was subjected to a degrading atmosphere of the situation. Soon, under the influence of paranoid fears that prisoners are plotting to escape, he turned to the real police. Then the scientist understood how far he had gone. After just 6 days of experience, merry college students became gloomy prisoners and guards with sadistic inclinations. The experiment was immediately completed, and the students were dismissed to their homes. It is curious that the “prisoners” sighed with relief, and “guards”, on the contrary, were upset. After all, they liked the acquired power so much that she did not want to part with it at all.
Matching facial expressions and emotions.
In 1924, an experiment was conducted by a student at the University of Minnesota, Carney Landis, whose goal was to find out whether emotions could evoke a characteristic facial expression. For example, is there a common facial expression for all, with which we all express shock or disgust? Almost all subjects studied together with Carney in the same course. The researcher led the students to the laboratory and drew lines on their faces so that the movements of the muscles were more noticeable. Then the subjects were exposed to various stimuli, which were aimed at creating the maximum psychological response, during which people were photographed. The students were offered to smell ammonia, look at obscene photos, and also drop a hand into a bucket with slippery frogs. The apotheosis of the experiment was the request to decapitate a living white rat lying on a tray. At first, almost all refused to do so, but two thirds of the people finally agreed to fulfill this request. Landis noted that the majority performed this task rather clumsily, trying to do the job quickly, the subjects were dragging out this work. For those who refused to decapitate the rat, Landis did it himself. First of all, this experiment demonstrated with what an amazing desire people participate in strange experiments, while fulfilling all the requirements. Before the experiments of Milgram with obedience was another forty years. Landis then did not understand that the very fact of the consent of the subjects to participate in the program was no less interesting than the study of their facial expressions. The researcher purposefully went to his original goal, although in the end he could not match the facial expressions and emotions.It turned out that in different people, expressing the same emotions, facial expressions are still different, even the same disgust for everyone, caused by the decapitation of a rat, is accompanied by various facial expressions.
Drinking someone else’s vomit.
Many researchers are ready for the most unexpected steps to prove their theory. One of them was a medical student Stubbins Firf, who lived in Philadelphia in the 19th century. He observed during observations that the yellow fever raged in the summer, and in winter it disappeared. So, the student decided, this disease is not contagious. According to his theory, the disease arose because of too many stimuli – food, heat, noise. To confirm his theory, Firf showed that he could not get a yellow fever, no matter how much he wanted – the researcher even made small incisions on his hands and watered them with fresh vomit received from the patients. Then he began to dig up vomit in his eyes, he continued with the inhalation of her fumes. The next step in the way of experience was the absorption of a pill made of vomiting, after all the student began to drink whole glasses of clean and undiluted black vomit. And it still did not lead to his illness. The end of the experiment, Firf spent working on other fluids, spoiled by yellow fever – blood, then, urine and saliva. Left in the end healthy, the researcher announced a successful proof of his theory. However, life proved him wrong. Yellow fever is actually contagious, but it requires that it get into the blood directly. Usually, mosquitoes become carriers of the disease. However, considering all the experiences that Firf has put on himself to get infected, the mere fact that he was alive is a real miracle.
Brainwashing with a healing purpose.
Once Dr. Ewen Cameron decided that he had found a cure that could cure schizophrenia. In his opinion, the patient’s brain can be reprogrammed in such a way that he begins to work as healthy, and this can be done with the help of imposed speculative models. The doctor’s method was for patients to wear headphones for several days in a row and listen in a circle of audio messages. Such mental introductions could last even for weeks. Journalists also called this method brainwashing. Cameron’s involuntary experimental subjects in the 50’s and 60’s of the 20th century were hundreds of patients from the Montreal Hospital Allan Memorial Clinic, some of whom were not schizophrenic at all. Someone got into the hospital with anxiety due to menopause, they were also stuffed with soothing drugs, tied to a bed and forced to spend days chatting about phrases about how they were loved and how confident they were. To test his method, Cameron put the patients to sleep with medication and made him listen to the phrase that it was necessary to pick up a scrap of paper from the ground. Then the doctor took the patients to the gym, where a piece of paper lay on the floor. The researcher happily noted that many patients spontaneously approached and picked up paper from the floor. Such experiments were soon interested in the CIA, which even secretly financed this program. However, over time, the scouts realized that the method did not bring the desired results, the allocation of funds ceased, and the doctor was given to understand that his ten-year experiments were “a journey in the wrong direction.” As a result, in the late 1970s a group of former Cameron patients filed a lawsuit against the CIA for supporting experiments, but some unannounced amount paid to the victims led to a settlement agreement.
Monkey head transplant.
Experiments of 1954 by Vladimir Melihov with two-headed dogs gave rise to a “surgical arms race” between the USSR and the United States. Americans naturally tried in every possible way to prove that their surgeons were the best. That is why the government agreed to finance the project of Robert White. The result was a series of experimental surgical operations at the brain research center in Cleveland, the top of which was a successful monkey head transplant.The event occurred on March 14, 1970, a carefully planned event that required several hours of work of the doctor and his assistants. During the operation, the head of one monkey was separated from the body and transplanted to a new body. When the animal woke up, it found that her body was changed, so the monkey watched men angrily and clicked with teeth. Complications from the operation did not allow the animal to live longer than a day and a half, White said that it would be easier to transplant the head back, rather than fight for life. The scientist thought that the public would welcome the experiments and their results, but they, on the contrary, scared off and horrified everyone. However, this did not stop the researcher, he launched a whole campaign to raise funds for an operation to transplant a person’s head. Was even found the first volunteer for this operation – the paralyzed Crege Vetovitz. Today the public still does not accept the idea of human head transplantation, although Robert White, the leading neurosurgeon of Cleveland, is still trying to realize his idea while searching for like-minded people and assistants.
Managing the bull remotely.
One day, random spectators could see the next spectacle. In the arena for bullfighting under the scorching sun was a Yale University student, Jose Delgado. There was also a huge evil bull. So he saw a man and rushed at an accelerating rate to attack. It seemed that the scientist would suffer a terrible fate, but as soon as the bull approached Jose, he pressed the remote control button in his hands. Thus, a signal was sent to the chip implanted in the animal’s brain. The bull stopped abruptly, snorted and obediently left home. Thus, a demonstration of how behavior can be controlled with a device called “Stimosiver” was conducted. It is such a computer chip that can be controlled remotely by remote control, thus causing electrical impact on various areas of the animal’s brain. Such stimulation could be manifested in a variety of limb movements or manifestations of emotions, perhaps suppressing appetite. In this same experiment it became possible to stop the furious bull. Although such an experiment is still similar to science fiction, it was conducted in 1963. In the 1970s and 1980s, studies in this field (electrical stimulation of the brain) were noticeably weakened under the influence of the public, which branded an attempt to control the human consciousness. However, research has not completely stopped, recently news has appeared about remote-controlled pigeons, rats and even sharks.
Education of a monkey child.
There are many examples in history when animals raised human children. In most cases, children, alas, continued to behave as before, even after returning to human society. Psychologist Winthrop Kellogg decided to check what would happen if the situation unfolded 180 degrees? What happens if the animal is brought up by a person, like his own child? Can in such a situation over time the animal acquire any of our habits? To test this question, Kellogg in 1931 brought home a seven-month-old female chimpanzee named Gua. The researcher had a nine-month-old son Donald, so together with his wife began to educate the monkey on a par with the child. Gua played and fed with Donald, while the scientist and his wife conducted regular tests, watching the development of the kids. For example, with the help of a cookie hanging on a string in the middle of the room, the time that the children needed to get a treat was measured. Although the monkey coped with such tasks much better than Donald, her language skills disappointed the scientist. Multiple attempts did not lead to the appearance of a gift of speech from Gua. The anxiety of the couple began to evoke the fact that Donald also seems to have lost this ability.Nine months after the experiment began, the language skills of the baby were slightly better than those of the monkey. At the moment when Donald began to report his desire to eat with the characteristic bark of a monkey, Kellogg and his wife decided that it was time to stop the experiment. It became clear that for the games and development of Donald, partners of his, human kind, were necessary. March 28, 1932 Gua was sent to the center of primates and more about her did not hear anything.
Suggestion in a dream about the terrible taste of nails.
In a dark hut in a rural suburb of New York in the summer of 1942, Professor Lawrence Leshan stood near the sleeping teenage boys and said: “My nails are terribly bitter, my nails are terribly bitter.” Today such behavior seems to be a mental disorder, but no, the scientist was not sick. He conducted an experiment on learning in a dream. The fact that the boys had a chronic and harmful habit to gnaw their nails, Leshan also wanted to know whether such a night influence on the psyche of children would help a negative statement. Perhaps this will help to wean them from a bad habit? At first the scientist reproduced the message with a phonograph, which repeated the phrase 300 times during the night, while everyone was asleep. However, a month later the phonograph broke down, so the persistent professor decided to pronounce this phrase himself, completing the experiment to the end. When at the end of the summer Leshan examined the nails, he found that about 40% of the children got rid of the addiction. It would seem that this method really worked! However, this opinion was later challenged by other scientists. In 1956 another experiment was conducted at Santa Monica College by other researchers, Charles Simon and William Emmons. However, an electroencephalograph was used to make sure that the subjects really fell asleep before starting to reproduce the message with suggestion. It turned out that under such conditions, the whole effect of learning disappeared altogether.
The impact of electric shock on human corpses.
In the late 18th century, the Italian Luigi Galvani, an anatomy professor, discovered that when an electric shock is applied to the limbs of a frog, they begin to twitch. This experiment soon became so popular that it began to spread throughout Europe, but soon researchers were bored with only frogs. It is quite reasonable that more interesting animals came to the field of view of the researchers, as well as the person. What will happen to his corpse if he passes an electric current through him? Galvani’s nephew named Giovanni Aldini began to travel across the continent and offer people to observe a horrifying sight. The most famous demonstration was held on January 17, 1803. The poles of the 120-volt battery were connected to the body of the previously executed murderer, George Foster. When placing contacts in the ear and mouth, the face of the dead man began to wrinkle with pain, and the muscles of the jaw twitch at the same time. The left eye opened slightly, as if George was trying to look at who was torturing him after his death. At the end of Aldini’s show, one wire pushed the corpse into the rectum, and the other connected it to the ear. As a result, the dead performed a disgusting dance. Here is what the London Times wrote about this: “The ignorant part of the public might seem that the unhappy is about to come to life.” Another area of research in this field was devoted to attempts to resurrect dead with the help of electric current, but there was no success by itself. Obviously, it was these experiments that inspired Mary Shelley to write in 1816 a legendary novel about Frankenstein.
Attempt to look at the world through the eyes of another living being.
In 1999, assistant professor of neuroscience, Young Dan of the University of California, Berkeley, conducted a curious experiment. The researchers under his supervision conducted anesthesia of the cat with sodium pentotal, then the animal was immobilized with Norcuron and firmly fixed on the operating table.The metal terminals were attached to the cat’s eye proteins, then the animal was forced to look at the screen, which constantly showed the swinging trees and a man with a high collar and a sweater. The experiment was not at all an aversion therapy in the spirit of the “Clockwork Orange,” and it did not set out to disgust anything. Thus, the researchers tried to penetrate the brain of another being and find out how it looks at the world. Fibrous electrodes were inserted into the center of the cat’s brain, which was engaged in image processing. Scientists measured the electrical activity of brain cells, then transmitting information to the computer. These data were decoded and converted into an image. As a result, when the cat saw images of trees and people on the screen, the same images, only slightly blurred, appeared on the computer screen. This technology has tremendous commercial potential. Many people are amazed at the opportunity to see the picture from a mini-camera installed on the helmet of a football player of the American football league, but you can see the picture in general with someone else’s eyes. Or do not need more cameras at all, since you can just shoot with a blink of an eye. Only such an intrusion into the brain is fraught with malfunctions in the further work of the organism.
Investigation of the sexual desire of turkeys.
It turns out that turkeys are not at all choosy, they are ready to mate even with a natural-looking stuffed little idea, with as much zeal as usual. This fact interested the scientists Martin Shane and Edgar Hale, representing the University of Pennsylvania. People decided to find out what minimal stimulus turkeys needed to cause sexual attraction in those people. In the course of the experiment, the stuffed turkey consistently removed one part after another until the turkey lost interest in the lady. Even after removing the tail, legs and wings, the stupid bird continued to approach the scarecrow and try to mate with it. Even when there was one head on the stick, the turkey showed interest in it. However, in reality it turned out that the bird prefers the head on a stick to a decapitated body. Then Hale and Shane decided to find out how accurately the head should be depicted in order to keep the turkey’s attraction. The best effect was the effect of fresh heads of females, recently chopped and planted on sticks. However, for lack of other options, the bird was content with a simple head created from cork wood. Probably turkeys believe that if there is no opportunity to live with someone you love, then you should love someone who is nearby. Also, researchers conducted experiments on the study of sexual behavior and other domestic birds, in particular on white legions, a variety of chickens. The results were published in an article with the pathos title “Influence of morphological variations of the stuffed chicken on the sexual attraction of cocks”.
Offer from a stranger to have sex.
On the campus of the University of Florida in 1978, an attractive young girl approached the men and announced her sympathies and readiness to have sex with this person literally on the same day. Many “lucky ones” were upset to learn that they were just the object of an experiment conducted by psychologist Russell Clarke. The scientist asked the student attending lectures on social psychology to help him find out which gender in such a situation would be more inclined to accept a tempting and direct proposal from a stranger. The only way was to go out and see how things were going. Here are students and students and went to the university, bothering with obscene offers to strangers. The results are hardly surprising. Three-quarters of the guys gladly agreed to the offer of a stranger, the refusing people usually explained this by having a permanent friend or wife. But an attractive man at all could not get the consent of any of the women to meet with him in an intimate atmosphere. The ladies ultimately demanded that they be left alone.At first, serious psychologists regarded such an experiment as a banal joke, but soon Clark received recognition and even praise for his experiment, which so effectively showed how differently they relate to the sex of a man and a woman. Now this experiment is considered to be classical. But the reason for the appearance of such a serious difference in attitude towards sex is still being discussed by scientists.
Teaching a puppy with an electric shock.
In 1963, the above-mentioned results of Stanley Milgram’s research on obedience, which shocked the entire scientific community, were published. Scientists thought that people can not be so easily manipulated, they tried to find the mistakes that were made during the experiment. Charles Sheridan and Richard King expressed the opinion that the subjects simply adhered to the rules of the experiment, realizing that the cries of the victim could not be real. That is why these two scientists decided to repeat the experiment, substantially changing it. Now there was no actor, the victim of electrical discharges was real. Of course, it would be too much to use for such purposes, that’s why a cute and furry puppy was chosen for this role as an adequate replacement. Volunteer students were told that the puppy was trying to teach how to distinguish between continuous light and flickering. If the animal could not get into the right place, then the subjects were sent a current discharge by pressing a special button. As in the experiments of Milgram, the voltage with each wrong action increased by 15 volts. Only this time the puppy was beating a real current. With increasing tension, the puppy at first simply barked, then began to jump, and in the end just howled with pain. This led the volunteers to fear, many openly began to cry, the subjects breathing became quicker, they shifted from foot to foot. Someone even tried to tell the dog how to get up. However, most of the people, about 80% continued to press the button, increasing the voltage to maximum. Interestingly, six male students generally refused to participate in such an experiment, but all thirteen women who participated took it to the end.
Studying the death throat.
In October 1938, the first experiment of its kind was conducted. In it, the prisoner John Deering, sentenced to death, last time dragged himself a cigarette, sat down in a chair, allowed him to put a black hood on his head, and attach a target to his chest. On his wrists were fixed electronic sensors. This volunteer volunteered to take part in studies that aimed to measure the heartbeat of a person at the time of a shot in his chest. Prison doctor Besley, who organized the experience, decided that if Diring would still be executed, then why not additionally help science? After all, so, perhaps, there will be new information about the effect of fear on the work of the heart. An electrocardiogram showed that at the time before the shots, the human heart beat like a jackhammer with a frequency of 120 beats per minute, and this despite the apparent calm of Deering. After the command of the sheriff to shoot, the heart rate increased by another half. Four bullets hit the prisoner’s chest, throwing the body back. One of them stuck directly into the heart, into its right part. However, for another 4 seconds the heart continued to contract. The heart rate then fell and finally stopped after 15.4 seconds after the first shot. Giving an interview to the press the next day, Dr. Besley noted the courageous behavior of the prisoner, because behind the showy calm there was a storm of emotions and a strong fear that the electrocardiogram showed.