To learn the secret of the life and functioning of a variety of human systems, doctors sometimes start out for terrible experiments. It is good, if animals become victims and participants. But sometimes authorities do everything to help mad doctors, I pursue my goals. The history left us the names of the most famous doctors whose experiments cause not so much scientific interest as horror and awe. Vladimir Demikhov and his two-headed dog.
In 1954, the Soviet surgeon Vladimir Demikhov showed the world the result of his next experiment – a two-headed dog. On the neck of an adult German shepherd, the head of a puppy and its two front paws were transplanted. Both heads played, breathed, strived to bite each other and drank milk. Although both dogs died soon due to tissue rejection, in the fifteen years of his work Demikhov created 19 more such monsters. The maximum period of their lives was a month. However, Demikhov did not produce only monsters, the main purpose of his research was the transplantation of human organs. It was the Soviet physician who created the foundation for the subsequent successful operations of transplantologists. Demikhov was the first to write a fundamental work on organ transplantation, for which he received a doctorate degree. In 1962, his “Experimental transplantation of vital organs” was published in New York, Madrid and Berlin for a long time becoming the only work that illuminates the transplantation of tissues and organs. The glory of the doctor, who first transplanted the heart of a man, went to Christian Barnard in 1967. However, he twice visited the laboratory of Demikhov, considering it his teacher. Doctor who drinks vomiting.
Stubbins Firf, a British medical student, brought his name to the history of science in a very unusual way. He conducted a series of senseless experiments on the study of yellow fever. Stubbins believed that this disease is not at all contagious. The doctor analyzed the fall in the incidence of winter and concluded that it was caused only by heat and stress caused by heat. In fact, the yellow fever is more often manifested in the summer, but the rest of his assumptions proved to be erroneous. Only 60 years after the death of FIFA, Cuban Carlos Fangi discovered that mosquitoes suffer a fever. In the history of America, the most severe epidemic of this disease occurred in 1793, when in Philadelphia 5 thousand people died, which was 10% of the urban population. These events prompted Firth to enter the University of Pennsylvania to defeat the disease, which so painfully struck home. Stubbins first of all suggested that the fever is not contagious. To prove his theory, he decided to conduct experiments on himself. To do this, Firf decided to directly contact the liquids collected from the bodies of sick people. As a result, mad experiments were conducted – the vomiting of patients was rubbed into the incisions on the body, buried in the eyes. Further more. Firf fried vomit in a frying pan and breathed this steam. To finally confound the skeptics, the student also began to drink vomiting. Entering into the rage, the medic decided to prove that he would not be harmed by other bodily fluids. The same procedures he began to do with urine, saliva and blood. All these experiments did not lead to infection of the doctor with a fever, which he considered a proof of his theory. Only years later it turned out that the medic took samples from patients when they were already at a late stage of the disease. At this time, the fluids were already not contagious. So crazy experiments were in vain. A fever is very contagious, but for the transfer of infection the blood must be contacted directly, which is facilitated by mosquitoes.
Joseph Mengele is a deadly angel.
Mengele served as an officer in the SS troops, working as a doctor in the fascist concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. In history, the physician got notoriety, controlling the selection among prisoners for their subsequent experiments on them. For his experiments on people Mengele received the nickname “Angel of Death.” In 1940, the doctor entered the medical corps, where until 1942 he served in the SS division “Viking”.After being wounded in Russia, Mengele was found unfit for further regular service, was promoted to captain and went on to serve in a concentration camp. The 21-month stay there of the doctor made him one of the most wanted fascist criminals. Such fame of Mengele was brought by his experiments on prisoners. Another nickname, “White Angel”, he received when he selected people. Rising above the platform in his white cloak, the doctor waved his hands, identifying one to the left, and the other to the right. Some prisoners went on cruel experiments, and others – straight into the gas chambers. History says that somehow Mengele drew a line in the children’s block at a height of one and a half meters, and those who were below it sent to death. The doctor conducted very cruel experiments on people. For children, he tried to change the color of his eyes, for which he introduced various chemical substances. Mengele often amputated limbs, experiments on girls included their sterilization and electric shock. It is not surprising that most of the victims of the experiments did not suffer from the experiments, having died either directly from them or from the infections that have been entered. One night Mengele put 14 pairs of Romanian twins on his marble table. When the doctor put them to sleep, he methodically killed by injecting chloroform directly into the heart. After that, the doctor began to dismember the bodies, studying each piece. Studies of twins in Auschwitz in general were the favorite theme of Mengele. Once he even tried to create a Siamese twin, sewing together two gypsy children. However, in the place of their connection, an infection got on their hands, which led to gangrene. Johann Konrad Dippel – Dr. Frankenstein.
This doctor was born in the castle of Frankenstein, near Darmstadt. This allowed the scientist to add to his surname the adjective Frankenstein. Dippel studied at the University of Giessen, where he learned not only philosophy and theology, but also alchemy. There he received his master’s degree in 1693. Since then, the scholar has published his theological works many times under the pseudonym Christian Democritus, many of them have reached us. They say that during his stay in the family castle, Dippel was engaged in terrible experiences, which included alchemy and anatomy. Although then nitroglycerin was not discovered, it is believed that it was experiments with him that led to the destruction of the scientist’s tower. True, in the history of the castle there is nothing about any explosions in those times. Most likely, these myths appeared later. Local residents with caution told that Dippel conducted terrible experiments with corpses, trying to transfer the soul from one to another. According to legends, when these townspeople learned about these studies, they drove the scientist out of their lands. It was Dippel who became the prototype of the famous novel by Mary Shelley about Frankenstein. Giovanni Aldini and his electric dances.
The name of this scientist is not well known, but the whole world knows his uncle – Luigi Galvani. It was this Italian, the professor of anatomy, who discovered galvanism. Help him in this experiment on a dead frog. When Galvani passed a current through it, her limbs twitched. But Aldini went in his experiments much further than his uncle – he began to use human corpses. The general public was introduced to the experience of the body of the executed murderer, George Forster. The doctor connected the electrodes to his body, let the current flow. The dead man began to make horrific dances, his left eye opened slightly, as if he wanted to look at the tormentor. This sight frightened the audience, some thought that the dead man could indeed come to life. One spectator was so shocked that he died immediately after the performance. Here is how Aldini described the experiences of a contemporary: “The dead man had a convulsive breathing, his eyes opened again, and his lips moved. The murderer’s face no longer obeyed any controlling instinct, it began to make strange faces. This led to a loss of consciousness in one of the assistants, who then for several days could not recover. “It is believed that the activities of Aldini and his spectacular performances on the passage of current through the corpses and made him one of the prototypes of the already mentioned Frankenstein. Sergei Bryukhonenko and his lively head.
This Soviet scientist worked in the Stalin era. Studies Brukhonenko have become very important for further operations on the open heart. The physician became the head of the Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Surgery, where in 1957 he was first conducted such an operation. Bryukhonenko is known for his main discovery – the device of artificial blood supply (auto-injector). He allowed in a primitive form to replace the heart and lungs, carrying out their functions. The device was used with varying success during experiments on dogs in the 1930s. This was even made a documentary film “Experiments on the revitalization of organisms.” During the experiments, the head of the dog was separated from the body, supporting its life with the help of an auto-injector. Now the truth of the removed procedures is questioned, but the experiments themselves have been well documented. To prove that the dog’s head on the table is alive, the doctor showed her reaction to external stimuli. She reacted to blows on the table and even ate – a slice of cheese slipped out through the food tube. These experiments became an important stage in the history of medicine, because it was proved the possibility of creating an artificial heart and organ transplantation, reviving a person after a clinical death.
Andrew Jur, a butcher from Scotland.
Although this Scottish physician has numerous other achievements, he was given the fame of four experiences over the corpse of Matthew Clydesdale. This happened on November 4, 1818. At first the doctor cut the dead neck and extracted a part of the vertebra. Then a cut was made in the heel and left thigh. Two electrodes were connected to the neck and thigh, an electric current was sent through them. This caused strong uncontrollable cramps. When the current was let into the heel, the leg hit the assistant hard. Another assistant made the diaphragm of the deceased shrink, imitating breathing. After receiving the executed Clydesdale Jur found that while his blood was inverted, and the neck of his hanging did not break. The doctor decided to return the deceased to life by electricity. The third experiment showed facial expressions. Yur made a cut on the forehead of the deceased. When contacts were connected to the face, Claidesdale began to show various emotions – fear, anger, anguish and despair, as a result, there appeared a distorted smile. This spectacle so shocked the audience that one doctor even chose to leave the place of the terrible experiment. The latter experience suggested a complete revival of the dead man. Another incision was made on the index finger. As soon as they let in a current, the dead man raised his hand and pointed at the spectators. Many of them were filled with horror.
Shiro Ishii, Dr. Evil.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Ishii served as lieutenant general of the special military biological unit of the Japanese Imperial Army. But his main vocation was microbiology. Shiro studied medicine at Kyoto University. In 1932 he was the head of secret experiments for the Japanese army. In 1931 a special unit 731 was created for these purposes. A whole city of 150 buildings with a total area of 6 square kilometers was built not far from the Chinese Harbin. Ishii conducted vivisection of living people, including pregnant women, fertilized by his own doctors. The prisoners amputated limbs and attempts were made to change the cut off parts in places. To understand how gangrene proceeds, the prisoners froze bodies, and then heated them to normal state. On live people, the influence of flamethrowers and grenades was tested. Prisoners were infected with various infections and diseases, studying their influence on the body. To understand how neglected venereal diseases affect people, prisoners were forcibly infected with gonorrhea and syphilis. However, Shiro Ishii managed to avoid punishment – the American peacekeeping army guaranteed the monster physician immunity.As a result, he never went to prison, having lived up to 67 years and died of a throat cancer.
Kevin Warwick, who became the first human cyborg.
No one doubts that cyborgs will appear among us in the near future. Meanwhile, the first human robot has already appeared. They became Kevin Warwick. This English professor of cybernetics was so involved in the study of cyborgs that he decided to become one of them. Under his skin in 1998, he implanted a primitive transmitter. With his help, the scientist learned to control the work of heaters, lamps, doors and other similar devices. The experiment was based on the study of human susceptibility, the scientist wanted to understand how easy it is to manage such a chip. In 2002, the more complex neural device was introduced into the nervous system of Warwick. Now it had access to the nerve impulses of the host. The experiment turned out to be quite successful, now Warwick could be mentally controlled by a mechanical manipulator arm. A little later, another experiment was held, widely publicized. In the body of the scientist and his wife, they planted special chips. Thanks to them, the effect of telepathy or empathy was to be created. To send remotely signals between devices, the Internet was used. And this experience ended successfully – for the first time in the history of medicine, an exclusively electronic connection was established between the nervous systems of two people remote from each other. His research related to cybernetics, Warwick continues. John Lilly and his touch camera.
This scientist decided to check what would happen if the brain was cut off from all external stimuli – sound and light. To do this, in 1954, Lilly came up with a special pressure chamber. In this dark soundproof reservoir there was dense and warm salt water, filling it by a quarter. This made it possible for a person to neutralize the force of gravity, giving a sense of weightlessness. Subjects could swim there for a long time in a state of complete isolation. The first person to try the camera was John Lilly himself. For an hour he was cut off from the world, experiencing vivid imaginations. He refused to talk about them, calling them too personal. The scientist came to the conclusion that within us there is a certain scheme that can control consciousness. We ourselves can inspire ourselves with fear or joy, regardless of the external situation. The hallucinations of subjects were difficult to study scientifically. That is why the research has not been continued. But in 1972, Lilly founded his own firm “SamadhiTank”, which began to produce similar containers for home use. These experiments themselves led the scientist to the question of the brains of large intelligent mammals, in particular, the dolphin. In 1980, the work of Lilly served as the basis for the movie “Changed Conditions”. As a result, the eccentric scientist became a kind of guru, dying in 2001 at the age of 86 years.