are geological formations on the surface of the Earth, where magma comes out in the form of lava. These mountains are not only on Earth, but also on other planets. Thus, the Olympus volcano on Mars reaches a few tens of kilometers in height. Such formations are dangerous not only for lava, but also for the release of a large number of dust and ash into the atmosphere.
The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyyafyallayekyul in 2010 made a lot of noise. Let it be strong and not the most destructive, but its proximity to Europe led to the impact of emissions on the mainland’s transport system. However, history knows many other cases of destructive impact of volcanoes. Let’s talk about the ten most famous and large-scale ones.
August 24, 79 erupted Vesuvius volcano, which destroyed not only the famous city of Pompeii, but also the cities of Stabia and Herculaneum. Ashes reached even Egypt and Syria. It would be a mistake to think that the catastrophe killed Pompeii alive, out of 20 thousand people only 2 thousand died. Among the victims was the famous scientist Pliny the Elder, who approached the volcano on the ship in order to investigate it and was thus practically at the epicenter of the disaster. During the excavations of Pompeii, it was discovered that under the multimeter layer of ash the life of the city at the time of the catastrophe stopped – objects, houses with furnishings were left in their places, people and animals were found. Today, Vesuvius remains the only active volcano in the continental part of Europe, there are more than 80 eruptions of it, the very first happened presumably 9,000 years ago, and the latter occurred in 1944. Then the cities of Massa and San Sebastiano were destroyed, and 57 people died. At 15 kilometers from Vesuvius is Naples, the height of the mountain is 1281 meters.
Tambora, Sumbawa Island.
Cataclysm on this Indonesian island happened on April 5, 1815. This is the largest in terms of the number of dead people and the volume of discarded material in modern history of the eruption. The catastrophe associated with the eruption, and the subsequent famine, were destroyed by 92,000 people. In addition, the culture of Tambor completely disappeared from the face of the earth, with which the Europeans only met shortly before. The volcano lived 10 days, having decreased during this time in height by 1400 meters. Ashes for 3 days hid from the sun the territory within a radius of 500 kilometers. According to the testimony of the British authorities in those days on Indonesia it was impossible to consider anything at arm’s length. Most of the island of Sumbawa was covered with a meter layer of ash, under the weight of which even the stone houses were scattered. 150-180 cubic kilometers of gases and pyroclassics were emitted into the atmosphere. The volcano, therefore, had a strong impact on the climate of the entire planet – ash clouds poorly missed the sun’s rays, which led to a noticeable drop in temperature. The year 1816 became known as the “year without summer”, in Europe and America snow fell only in June, and the first frosts appeared in August. As a result, there were massive crop failures and famine.
Taupo, New Zealand.
27 thousand years ago on one of the islands there was a strong eruption of the volcano, surpassing in strength even Tambor. Geologists consider this cataclysm the last such force in the history of the planet. As a result of the work of the super volcano, Lake Taupo was formed, which today is the object of tourists’ attention, as it is very beautiful. The last eruption of the giant took place in 180 AD. Ashes and a blast wave exterminated half of all living things on the North Island, about 100 cubic kilometers of tectonic matter hit the atmosphere. The eruption rate of the rock was 700 km / h. The ashes rose into the sky and painted sunsets and sunrises around the world, which was reflected in ancient Roman and Chinese annals.
The volcano, located between the islands Sumatra and Java, produced on August 27, 1883, the largest explosion of its kind in modern history.In the course of the cataclysm, a tsunami of up to 30 meters in height appeared, which simply washed away 295 villages and cities, with the death of about 37,000 people. The roar of the explosion was heard on 8% of the entire surface of the planet, and pieces of lava were thrown into the air at an unprecedented height of 55 kilometers. The wind blew so much volcanic ash that in 10 days it was found at a distance of 5330 kilometers from the scene. The mountain-island after this split into 3 small parts. The wave from the explosion rounded the earth from 7 to 11 times, geologists believe that the explosion was 200 thousand times stronger than the nuclear strike on Hiroshima. Krakatoa also woke up earlier, so, in 535, his activities markedly changed the climate of the planet, perhaps then the islands of Java and Sumatra were divided. On the site of the volcano destroyed in 1883 during a submarine eruption in 1927 a new volcano appeared, Anak Krakatau, which is still quite active today. Its height is now 300 meters due to the new activity.
, Santorini, Greece.
Approximately fifteen hundred years before the eruption of the volcano on the island of Fehr, which put an end to the whole of the Cretan civilization. Sulfur covered all the fields, which made further farming unthinkable. According to some versions, it is Fera who is the very Atlantis described by Plato. Someone believes that the eruption of Santorini entered the annals as a fire pillar, seen by Moses, and the parting sea is nothing but the consequences of the departure of the island of Fehr under the water. However, Vulcan continued its activity, in 1886 its eruption lasted a whole year, while lava pieces flew straight out of the sea and rose to a height of 500 meters. As a result – several new islands nearby.
Eruptions of this Italian volcano are known about 200. Among them there were also quite powerful, so, in 1169 during the cataclysm killed about 15 thousand people. Today Etna remains an active volcano with a height of 3329 meters, waking up about once every 150 years and destroying one of the nearby villages. Why do not people leave the slopes of the mountain? The fact that frozen lava helps the soil to become more fertile, that’s why the Sicilians settle here. In 1928, moreover, a miracle happened – the flow of red-hot lava stopped before the Catholic procession. This inspired the believers so much that in 1930 a chapel was erected on this place, after 30 years the lava stopped already in front of it. The Italians guard these places, so in 1981 the local government around Etna created a reserve. It is curious that a calm volcano even hosts a blues music festival. Etna is quite large, exceeding the size of Vesuvius 2.5 times. The volcano has from 200 to 400 lateral craters, every three months one of them erupts lava. Montagne-Pele, Martinique Island.
The eruption of the volcano on the island began in April 1902, and on May 8 a whole cloud of vapor, gases and hot lava fell on the city of Saint-Pierre, located 8 kilometers away. A few minutes later he was gone, and out of 17 steamships that were at that time in the harbor, only one survived. The ship “Roddam” escaped from the clutches of the elements with broken masts, smoking and littered with ashes. Of the 28 thousand who lived in the city, two were saved, one of them was called Opost Siparis, and he was sentenced to death. He was rescued by the thick stone walls of the prison. Subsequently, the prisoner was pardoned by the governor, spending the rest of his life on trips around the world with stories about what happened. The force of the impact was such that the monument on the square, weighing several tons, was thrown aside, and the heat was such that even the bottles were fused. It is interesting that the outpouring of liquid lava did not occur directly, the impact was caused by vapors, gases and sprayed lava. Later, a sharp lava plug with a height of 375 meters emerged from the mouth of the volcano. It also turned out that the bottom of the sea near Martinique fell by several hundred meters.The city of Saint-Pierre, by the way, became famous for the birth of his wife Napoleon, Josephine Bogarne.
Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia.
A volcano with a height of 5400 meters, located in the Andes, splashed out lava flows on November 13, 1985, and the main blow fell on the town of Armero, located 50 kilometers away. Only 10 minutes took lava to destroy it. The death toll exceeded 21 thousand people, and at that time in Armero lived about 29 thousand. It’s sad, but no one listened to the information of the volcanologists about the forthcoming eruption, as the information of specialists was repeatedly not confirmed.
Pinatubo, the Philippines.
Until 12 June 1991, the volcano was considered extinct for 611 years. The first signs of activity appeared in April and the authorities of the Philippines managed to evacuate all residents within a radius of 20 kilometers. The very eruption claimed the lives of 875 people, while the US naval base and the US strategic air base, 18 kilometers from Pinatubo, were destroyed. The discarded ash covered a section of the sky at 125,000 km2. The consequences of the disaster were a general decrease in temperature by half a degree and a reduction in the ozone layer, so that a very large ozone hole formed over Antarctica. The height of the volcano before the eruption was 1486 meters, and after – 1745 meters. At the site of Pinatubo, a crater of diameters of 2.5 kilometers was formed. Today in this area there are regular tremors that prevent any construction within a radius of tens of kilometers.
The eruption of this volcano on June 6, 1912 became one of the largest in the 20th century. The height of the column of ash was 20 kilometers, and the sound came to the capital of Alaska, the city of Juneau, located for 1200 kilometers. At a distance of 4 kilometers from the epicenter, the ash layer reached 20 meters. The summer in Alaska was very cold, as the rays could not break through the cloud. After all, thirty billion tons of rocks were understood in the air! In the same crater, a lake with a diameter of 1.5 kilometers was formed, and it became the main attraction of the National Park and the Kathmai Reserve formed here in 1980. Today, the height of this active volcano is 2,047 meters, and the last known eruption occurred in 1921.