Science obliges all researchers to carefully plan experiments, select equipment, personnel, take into account a variety of circumstances. Sometimes millions of dollars and even billions of dollars are spent on preparing for the experience itself. Accidents in this matter are simply unacceptable. All important scientific discoveries were not carried out, lying on the couch.
Thanks to systematic work, including theoretical work, people found the elementary parts and decoded their genome. But sometimes reality itself throws up such conditions to scientists that it is possible to learn more about the world around us and in reality. Life helps to carry out some experiments randomly, scientists can only analyze the results.
Communication of nuclear bombs with obesity.
In the fight against excess weight, people start using different tricks. Someone has pills, someone chooses cunning diets. Several scientists from different countries working in the team decided to study how quickly a person acquires fat cells and then part with them. It is known that when the body weight changes, the number of fat cells does not change, they are simply filled with fat in different proportions and mass. And although it is known about the constancy of cells, scientists decided to find out whether they remain in the human body forever, or instead of the dead, the body produces new ones. For the experiment, it was decided to use animals fed with radioactive food. In their body, active DNA should have appeared, along which it was possible to determine how quickly cells die. It is quite logical that scientists for this experiment did not plan to involve people from ethical considerations. Only now the wave of nuclear weapons tests in the 1950-1960s, conducted by the USSR and the United States, has already resulted in the contamination of food to varying degrees. So in the organisms of all people who lived on the planet at that time, there were already radioactive markers. Scientists could simply take and examine 14 people who lived until the time of the tests and after their peak. It turned out that the number of fat cells grows until the end of the adolescent period. Then our body updates them about 9% annually. It turned out that the Cold War unwittingly provided scientists with valuable information in the fight against obesity.
Wealth through the land lottery.
Sociologists often wonder – how rich would the children and grandchildren of those who suddenly got wealth at their disposal. That’s just to conduct such an experiment is not easy. Not only will the wealth that you need to spend for the sake of experience be required, so it would take more than a decade to wait for the conclusions. True, there is an opportunity to get an answer to this question in the past. There is an example of how material goods got to people by chance. In 1832, for the joy of sociologists and economists, this measure was taken by the state of Georgia. After the government of this state took the land from the indigenous population, it was decided to divide it by lot. The names of the white people were written on paper and put in a hat. Some got rich land, which became akin to winning the lottery. Modern economists have studied the fate of those who were involved in this scheme. It turned out that the receipt of unexpected wealth did not change people in any way. They did not become more literate, and education did not change their attitude. And their children remained the same, doing all the same and retaining their financial status. And those who did not win the land, and those who were lucky, sent their children to the same schools. There were no distortions in the results observed. You can certainly remember that in the XIX century, the state of Georgia was different than now. In modern times, everything could be different. Nevertheless, this experiment that happened unexpectedly showed that the unexpected wealth in itself does not guarantee the improvement of the life of subsequent generations.
Award for Ability.
They say that people need to be praised for better training.But what will happen if you divide a group of students and give one half of them some certificates or orders for their abilities and talents? But such an experiment can not be carried out in reality, because parents will be against putting such experiments on their children. But scientists were able to suddenly find information on this matter, based on the fact that all people have just bad days. Examinations and testing of knowledge is a very serious and insidious test. Knowledge of the subject is important, but often people simply can not demonstrate all their skills. Someone does not sleep all night because of excitement, at times people come to the exam for those who fell ill, with fever. If people declare that overcoming a mark of 80 percent of points guarantees an excellent rating, then there are many who did not reach quite a bit, although they clearly know the subject. And among those who have overcome this bar, some probably just with the help of adrenaline or coffee showed too high a result for themselves. In 1960, a study was conducted that studied this phenomenon. Scientists examined those students who passed the exam for the laudable certificate. The results of those who were on both sides of the success line were compared. The names of those who succeeded, got into newspapers and university booklets. But scientists came to the conclusion that those students whose results were near the line could with equal probability be on one side or the other. The results of the study showed that praise does not itself have an effect on the life of the subjects.
University researchers who seek to investigate people’s behavior in terms of risk with money are having a hard time. You can not put financial people at risk, and you will have to spend money on giving real prizes. In the real world, people are constantly playing, this is a very interesting and complex science, in which there are different probabilities. And what do the inquisitive scientist do? Help to answer this question television shows. All participants usually have the same chances of winning and changing their destiny (but not their children). For science, one of the best in terms of providing material was the game “I agree or not.” She was even described in one scientific work, showing that this television show has features that make it even perceive not entertainment, but a real economic experiment. The show “Agree or not” was the result of a study in which it was found that men risk more often than women. It is also interesting that the person’s initial material position does not in any way affect his desire to take a chance or stop on a guaranteed win. Thanks to the show, scientists found out that people tend to take risks if they have not been lucky lately. The researchers explain this by saying that people are trying to return to the position they have lost. And for this they are ready even to risk even more of the former.
Study of twins in Minnesota.
People often ask themselves what shape our character – nature or education? In order to know the exact answer, you need to create several clones and place them in different conditions. But science does not yet allow this. But you can study several identical twins, who were separated by the will of fate, and fell into different families. The most famous example of such a randomly obtained experiment can be considered the study of twins that occurred in Minnesota. There, since the late 1970s, scientists began to investigate what similarities and differences were observed in twins, who were separated as children. It turned out that these native people most often were similar in their characters, interests and temperament. Twins were similar in exactly the same way as those people who grew up together. And other studies have shown that male homosexuality is much more determined by genes than female. The representatives of the strong half among the twins found twice as many gays as the opposite sex.In Sweden, twins were studied for smoking. It turned out that there was a genetic predisposition to this addiction. And again, this influence is expressed more in men.
Sociologists have always wondered what would happen to our society, if it were divided, and each group of people would live in a place with their own specific resources. Would it affect the character of people? Throughout history, human civilizations have supplanted each other, not at all from academic interest, but for their deep reasons. To understand this question was helped by a natural experiment. On the Polynesian islands, a few thousand years ago the people of Eastern Lapita settled. When the researchers studied the effect of the environment on these people, a strange pattern emerged. Those who lived in arid areas with scarce resources, were inclined to show great militancy and violence. And on the richer islands, the same Hawaii, there was already a more complex government structure, and a kind of monarchy developed. This form of government allowed the society to hide its negative features.
The influence of foreign television on the dictatorship.
Tyranny is forced to isolate itself, without missing information from outside. That is why control over information is an important component of totalitarian societies. It’s no coincidence that many websites are blocked in China, and only state television broadcasts in North Korea. After all, information from outside can tell the population how much they lack, that their life can be completely different. In the German Democratic Republic, in fact, democracy did not particularly “smell.” But in this country a natural experiment was conducted, which demonstrated the entire influence of external media. Neighboring West Germany broadcast its television channels so that they could easily be accepted in the GDR. That is why the inhabitants of the communist country knew what their neighbors live by. But the television tower spread its signal not to the whole territory of the GDR. This geography led to the fact that in some parts of the “democratic” country residents were content with internal communications to obtain information. It is logical to assume that those Germans who saw Western life in their TVs were more prone to unrest. In fact, people who lived in the communist country, who watched Western TV programs, were happier. Most likely, they considered these programs simply a form of entertainment, less upset by their way of life. The conclusion is disappointing – the majority of the population is ready to live under the totalitarian form of society, if only the television shows entertainment programs.
Transmission of viruses through sexual contact.
To organize a full-fledged experiment to transfer the virus between people will be extremely easy. Ethics simply will not allow to deliberately infect a person. In this regard, it is not surprising that a man discovered the sexual way of transmission of viruses, carried by insects, in a random way. American biologist Brian Foy, collecting for his studies of mosquitoes in Senegal, fell ill with dengue fever. Bloodsuckers have bitten several times their abuser, having infected him with a virus. This was the usual case. But the wife of the scientist, Joy, worked in Colorado as a nurse. Here such kind of carriers of a tropical fever was not observed, and she never left her native state. That is why, after finding the same symptoms of her illness as her husband, doctors realized that there is another way of transmitting the disease. Then followed the study of a sick woman, as well as consultations with experts on so many exotic in America virus disease. Soon the doctors came to the conclusion that the scientist actually fell ill with another rare disease, the virus Zeka. He is often confused with dengue. Several tests only confirmed the new diagnosis. But the scientist’s wife could not get this disease through the usual methods.Then the specialists began to look for another explanation for the unusual transmission of the virus. It became almost certain that he was transmitted through sexual contact, soon after the doctor returned from his trip. Foy himself said that Joy was not very happy with what she had to endure thanks to her husband.
There are several areas where things must necessarily be isolated from moisture. A classic example is electronic manufacturing and pharmaceuticals. In this connection, history is amazing, as the substance most efficiently absorbing moisture was absolutely accidentally found. About his theoretical existence, they talked a lot, calling even “impossible material”, questioning the fact of existence. The University of Uppsala has long been thinking about how to get such a substance. It turned out that it was just necessary to forget some components by chance and to give the experiment to last the whole weekend. On Monday, the cherished substance was found. The scientists found the already formed gel, which contained the very same material that no one could find for so long. This substance can absorb water incredibly quickly. At one its gramme the surface area makes 800 square meters, and all thanks to microscopic pores. And the production of a new substance, upsalita, requires less energy than less effective analogues. Further experiments were already planned, they allowed to optimize the process of obtaining the substance and to form its economic prospects.
Rubber ducks and ocean currents.
Observing the currents of the oceans is a difficult and painstaking task. You can not just throw something into the water and watch what happens next. But fortunately for scientists, about 10,000 containers are lost annually by sea. One of them, which fell in 1992 in the waters of the Pacific Ocean, made it possible to significantly expand knowledge about ocean currents. And they helped in this rubber toys, which were transported in a container in the amount of 29 thousand pieces. Along with the yellow dots, red beavers, green frogs and blue turtles were neighbors. Soon these floating toys began to be found in unusual places. Druzhkov-floaters were found in Hawaii and Alaska. Someone managed to go north to overcome the Arctic and get to Scotland. Others set off in the opposite direction and reached the shores of Australia. Thanks to these ducks scientists learned how much it requires the flow to complete a complete revolution. Previously, there was no information about this person. So far, several thousand ducks are swimming in the ocean. So, finding them on the beach, it’s worth taking a close look at the participants of such an important experiment.