Our consciousness is stuffed with myths. Part of them has nothing real under itself and is only a product of the folklore of modern civilization. But other myths are just man-made propaganda and designed to hide the undesirable truth from the masses. How to distinguish one from the others? Consider the most famous world myths and mystifications.
Autopsy of the Roswell aliens.
In 1995, there was a sensational video from the English producer Ray Santilli. It shows how in 1947 they uncovered a dead alien. This event was called the Roswell incident. Later it turned out that this film is a fake, the humanoid itself is a sham, and the producer himself was the customer. Later this incident was even beaten in a British television comedy with Declan Donnelly and Anthony McPartin.
Giant from Cardiff.
In 1868, the American archaeologist George Hull began to create a major hoax. In Cardiff, New York, a three-meter giant carved from gypsum was transported from Chicago. The giant with his right hand squeezed his stomach, it seemed that at the time of death he suffered greatly from pain. 2 years in the end, it took Halla to prepare a hoax. To do this, he recreated the smallest details of the giant with the help of sharp instruments – fingernails were noticeable, on the skin – pores, the genitals were elaborated in detail. And now, on October 15, 1869, the burial was “accidentally” discovered by the workers. No one doubted that it was either a petrified giant, or at least an ancient statue. The farm was crowded with tourists. The then famous impresario, PT Barnum, offered $ 50,000 for the find, but was refused. Without thinking twice, he created his own giant, saying that he managed to make a purchase. A lengthy trial started, each side claimed that the opponent’s giant was a fake. As a result, Hull had to admit that the Cardiff giant was just a hoax.
Boy on the ball.
In October 2009, the whole world was agitated by the report of the six-year-old Falcon Hin, who in Colorado carried a homemade balloon into the sky. The kid was in grave danger, he could break or freeze. When the ball landed on one of the fields, the rescuers abandoned the boy to save him, but they did not find him there. They began to check the version of the child’s loss from the basket during the flight. But soon it became known that the boy was alive and well and was not going anywhere. And the whole story is a mystification of Falcon’s parents. Earlier they had already received their portion of glory, having participated in the reality show, that’s what they wanted again to be under the sights of television cameras. However, the joke turned for them a criminal case.
Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
In the beginning of the last century in Russia there was information about the existence of a secret document “Protocols of the Elders of Zion”. Soon the texts began to be published. The publishers said that this collection is a document of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy. It was alleged that in 1897 the Swiss Zionist Congress took place in Basel, Switzerland, at which the main provisions for the seizure of world domination were adopted. The texts described how to penetrate the state governance structures, gain control over other nations and eradicate other religions. Despite the fact that the “Protocols” have been proven for a long time, many still believe in this anti-Semitic hoax. Especially belief in the secret thoughts of Jews is widespread in the Islamic world. There, in some countries, the study of the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” is even included in the school curriculum.
In 1994, a document appeared on the Internet in which Microsoft allegedly claimed that it had acquired the Catholic Church. In this press release, Bill Gates himself stated: “The combined resources of Microsoft and the Catholic Church will allow us to make religion easier and more fun for a wider range of people.”The document was so widespread that the head of the company had even to give an official refutation. This event was the first large-scale Internet rally. Approximately at the same time, another hoax began with the participation of the same company. This time it was much more confusing. Users around the world began to receive emails in which Microsoft offered them to participate in an important study. For this it was necessary to send this letter to friends. For such an action promised to pay as much as $ 245. If the recipient sends the letter to someone else, the first recipient will be paid an additional $ 241. And so on. Wishing to earn extra money was a lot, of course, the company itself did not conduct such a campaign. The result was only the flow of spam, and not a large number of rich people.
Phenomenal Sidd Finch.
In April 1985, the American magazine Sports Illustrated published an article about the new acquisition of the New York Mets baseball team, Sidde Fince. It was reported that he is able to throw the ball at an amazing speed of 270 km / h, which is 2 times higher than that of other players, and never misses. Surprisingly, Sidd had never before professionally engaged in this game. Such striking results were achieved through the activities in the Tibetan monastery under the leadership of the great lama Milaraspa. In this story many people believed, the magazine was filled with letters asking to tell more about the player and his training methods. In fact, the story was a banal April Fool’s Day, which was invented by sports journalist George Plimton.
Diaries of the Fuhrer.
In 1983, the famous German magazine “Stern” began to publish sensational excerpts from the allegedly alleged diaries of Adolf Hitler himself. The magazine laid out several million marks to purchase the notes of the leader for 1932-1945. However, meticulous skeptics have found out that these documents are a fake. The exposure itself became even more hoax than the diaries themselves. The authors of deceit were the former Nazis, who tried to somehow rehabilitate the image of Hitler, to impart humanity to him.
A joke over Sarah Palin.
During the election campaign for the presidency in 2008, Sarah was the candidate for the post of vice-president from the Republican Party. A female politician was the victim of a telephone rally by a Canadian comedian and radio presenter Mark-Antoine Odette. The caller introduced himself as French President Nicolas Sarkozy. During the fascinating conversation, Palin had time to discuss with her interlocutor the political issues, the difficulties of hiking with Vice President Cheney and, of course, the beautiful wife of the French politician. Despite the fact that during the conversation the journalist hinted several times that it was a rally, Sarah did not understand anything until the end. So, the pseudo-Sarkozy explained that to follow the progress of the pre-election race with the help of his adviser in America, the French singer Johnny Holliday, the Canadian singer Stefa Kars and at all called the Prime Minister of Canada. But this did not in any way arouse Palin’s perplexity. At the end of the conversation, the “president” said that he liked the documentary about Palin, while mentioning the pornographic tape “Nailin Paylin” from the founder of Hustler, in which the main actress was similar to Sarah. The same only answered: “Thanks a lot, it’s so cool”. Odett then opened her eyes to what was happening, naming her name and the radio station she was working for.
Fake Olympic champion.
In 1972, the German student Norbert Sadhaus cleverly joined the 42-kilometer marathon race at the Munich Olympics. To the finish was less than a kilometer, the athlete was tired, that’s a joker and was able to overtake them all and come to the finish line first. “Olympic champion” quickly found himself at the center of attention. True, the glory did not last long – officials quickly exposed the pretender.But he was able to get into history as an outstanding joker.
In August 2008, the whole world was flooded with news that science finally got a snowman at its disposal. Dead, true, but in perfect condition. This was announced at a special conference in the Californian Palo Alto by the “cryptozoologist” Tom Biscardi and two yeti hunters – Matthew Witton and Rick Dyer. However, on closer inspection, it turned out that the bigfoot corpse is nothing more than a gorilla rubber suit. However, the hoax was a success – the sensational news was reprinted by all the leading media, even today photos of a rubber gorilla in the refrigerator come up as an illustration to articles about a snowman. It is interesting that in 2005 the same Biskardi already arranged something similar. Then he was able to make good money on selling online views of the remains of bigfoot, which in the end, so no one saw.
Mystification with bathrooms.
In 1917, in the popular New York edition of the New York Evening Mail, a false story of bathing appeared in the United States. Thus, journalist Henry Mencken specifically demonstrated how the public can easily be deceived by the media. In the article it was told that the baths appeared in the USA extremely reluctantly, appeared there in the middle of the XIX century. Then, ostensibly, the baths were officially recognized as harmful to health, in this connection they were in some cases taxed or even banned altogether. But even the absurdity of the information given and their sheer falsity did not prevent the article from getting famous and repeatedly quoting in various publications and even serious scientific works. Self-revelation came only eight years later, when Menken published the truth. However, even this did not prevent the false reputation of the baths. For example, in 1952, part of Menken’s article was quoted by President Truman in his speech on health. In 2004, the “Washington Post” used a false fact in the column “I bet you do not know that …”.
The first snapshot of Nessie.
Many people tried to see the mysterious inhabitant of Loch Ness. And so, in 1934 in the English “Daily Mail” appeared the first in the history of the Loch Ness monster. The author of the picture was the London-based physician Wilson, who claimed that he made a shot accidentally, walking around the lake. The forgery was only exposed in 1994, when it became known that the fake was made by Wilson and his three accomplices. At that time, two of them confessed to the deed, and the first confession dates back to 1975. However, then the public left that fact without attention, since no one could believe in the deception of Dr. Wilson, because he did not seem to have any reason to cheat.
Hamburger for left-handed people.
One of the most famous April Fool’s plays was held in 1998, when the Burger King snack chain published an article in the USA Today magazine about the creation of a new hamburger called “Left-Handed Whopper”, designed specifically for 32 million left-handed Americans. The announcement stated that the novelty uses the same composition as in the original Whopper, but for the sake of the left-handed customers, all the ingredients are rotated 180 degrees. Although the next day Burger King published a refutation, saying that it was a joke, in restaurants already several thousand customers had time to demand a new sandwich. Yet more people demanded for themselves Whopper – the original sandwich for right-handed people.
Autobiography of Howard Hughes. The author of the loudest literary hoax of the 20th century was the American writer Clifford Irving. After a series of failures in his field, he decided to organize a scam: to create a fake autobiography of Howard Hughes, an eccentric billionaire. The idea was a success, because everyone wanted to know more about him. Irving himself received money and fame, but in the end he was accused of fraud and was imprisoned.In 2006, this story served as the basis for the film with Richard Gere “The Mystification.”
Leap from Brooklyn Bridge.
This building cost the country 16 million dollars and took away 26 human lives. It’s no wonder that the notorious fame was fixed behind the bridge. A lot of suicides threw him into the waters of the East River. But the very first jump was quite successful. Desperate young man Steve Brody argued with friends that he could jump from a height of 42 meters and stay alive. Subsequently, it turned out that his friends threw off a scarecrow from the bridge, Steve himself at the right time just emerged in the right place. However, the exposure did not prevent him for a long time to enjoy the glory of the heroic diver from the Brooklyn Bridge.
There is a long history of the emergence of mysterious figures in the fields. Especially they became famous for England in the last 20-30 years. On the causes of the anomaly, there were many versions: from aliens to magnetic fields. In 1991, two British artists Dave Chorley and Doug Bauer said that all circles created in English fields over the past thirteen years were created by them. According to them, they were able to deceive scientists, farmers’ organizations and government agencies. The very circles were created with the help of poles, boards and ropes. In support of their words, the artists were able to reproduce quite an authentic circle in a corn field in Kent. However, such a prosaic reason many did not convince. Therefore, it is possible that their very story is a hoax in this story.
Shroud of Turin.
This shrine is kept in the Cathedral of John the Baptist in Turin. The Shroud is an undeniable proof of the existence of Christ for many believers, but the inquisitive brain of scientists is trying to get to the bottom of the truth despite religious dogmas. Over the shrine, a lot of scientific research has been carried out, from historical to modern radiocarbon analysis. Although scientists have questioned the authenticity of the relic, to refute convincingly its age and status, as well as to confirm they could not. Today, as a result, in addition to the main there are about 1300 other hypotheses about the Shroud of Turin. One of the most popular versions says that this shrine is created much later, Leonardo da Vinci, and it is captured exactly this. This version is confirmed by radiocarbon analysis, which referred the time of the creation of the shroud to the era of Leonardo.
Death of Paul.
There is a long-standing legend that in 1966 Paul McCartney of the Beatles group was killed and replaced by a double with a similar appearance and voice. Legendary supporters attribute this fact to the termination of the group’s concerts this year. However, the speeches stopped even before the supposed date of Paul’s death. Meticulous researchers, as proof of the version, find some “keys” in the Beatles’ work – the design of covers, texts and music, which allegedly give a hint of the death of one of the participants. There are also such proofs as sounds heard during the scrolling of a record backwards, obscure metaphors in lyrics, ambiguous images, etc. True, some of these “keys” with each other do not agree, as they do not correspond to the well-known facts from the life of McCartney and other members of the group. Sometimes even the question arises – is not this a joke or another “conspiracy theory”. Sociologists have repeatedly investigated this legend. At one time it was believed that this rumor was deliberately dismissed by the Beatles themselves as an advertising trick and hoax. However, all members of the group have repeatedly denied their involvement in the creation of this rumor.
In 1912-1913 the Englishman Charles Dawson, who was engaged in archeology without education, but at the call of his heart, introduced the scientific world to the skulls of early hominids. This find was the missing link between primates and humans, and stone tools were also found in the excavations near Piltdown village.The discovery was quickly dubbed a scientific sensation, it remained so until 1949, when it became clear that the Piltdown man was a clever hoax. Parts of the skull belonged to the orang-utan and man, and the age of the stone tools did not exceed 3 thousand years. The complex of finds was intentionally tinted with special colors so as to recreate the shade of ferruginous gravel. The teeth on the jaw were specially filed. But Dawson’s guilt remained unproven. There is even an opinion according to which Dawson was the only one among archeologists, scammers, who did not suspect what was really going on.
War of the Worlds.
One of the most famous hoaxes was the pseudo-documentary radio show of The War of the Worlds by Herbert Wells. On the eve of All Saints’ Day, on October 30, 1938, a story appeared about the landing of the Martians, directed by Orson Wells. News on the radio caused panic among millions of residents of the East Coast of the United States and parts of Canada. After all, the radio performance was created in the form of a report about a real invasion of aliens. Reliability of the production was given to the inclusion in the air of other radio stations, as well as a fictitious appeal to the population of President Roosevelt. People so believed in the reality of what was happening, that there were massive cases of hysterics, residents jumped out the windows and ran out of houses in a panic. Gigantic traffic jams were formed on the roads, cars rushed, not observing any rules. The phones of the state institutions, the police and the hospitals called without interruption – people begged to save them. The most belligerent citizens demanded to open arsenals and distribute weapons to the population for protection, to mined roads along the route of aliens and even to use suicide bombers with explosive-filled airplanes. There were even witnesses who, with their eyes, saw the Martians and the atrocities they were doing and miraculously avoided death themselves. These picturesque descriptions made panic even more. In the morning, however, the passions subsided, people began to return home. Orson Welles, thanks to this radio show, went down in history as a man who managed to scare America.