The practice of people taking hallucinogens has quite a long history. Scientists have discovered dishes with the remnants of psychotropic substances even in the small Antilles. At the same time they were used 2,500 years ago.
The use of hallucinogens in general was a common practice among the peoples of Africa and America, becoming part of their culture. As a result, many people still use hallucinogens for one purpose or another. We will tell below about the most famous of them.
The term “lysergic acid diethylamide” is not widely known, but everyone knows about LSD. This substance appeared quite recently – it was synthesized in 1938 from ergotamine. And it, in turn, is formed from a fungus growing on rye. LSD was originally developed by the pharmaceutical company Delysid. However, in the 1950s the hallucinogen got bad reputation after the CIA investigated its influence on human consciousness. That project did not yield any meaningful results, but since then the drug has become popular. It is curious that the psychotropic possibilities of LSD were discovered accidentally only 5 years after it was received. After a wave of drug addiction in the 60’s he was banned. But already in our time the question of using LSD for medical purposes is being considered. In particular, it can significantly help people suffering from migraines.
Such a hallucinogenic mixture is prepared by the indigenous inhabitants of the Amazon basin. The main component of the drug is the liana Banisteriopsis caapi. Tribes make their brew, and then with it they carry out spiritual rituals and try to heal the sick. This drug is known for giving very intense emotions. In 2006, journalist Kira Salak, working for National Geographic, described her feelings about the use of this hallucinogen in Peru: “It is impossible to forget what I experienced.” I was filled with an endless sense of emptiness, a sea of suffering. “I suddenly realized that no one could There is no way out, no matter where I look, there was darkness everywhere, so dense that the very existence of the light even seemed incredible. Suddenly I got into a tunnel, a fire began to flare up around me.Increased figures arose around me, some of them begging for rescue, others – intimidation they say that I myself can not be saved. ” Nevertheless, after the end of the visions, Salak discovered that the state of depression in which she was before had become much softer. Such experience, as well as other reviews about ayahuasca, served as a basis for the desire of researchers to study deeper this hallucinogen. After all, it can be used to treat mental disorders, dispelling people’s anxiety, depression and relieving post-traumatic stress.
Under this name is known cactus, and its hallucinogenic properties, it owes to the substance contained in it – mescaline. Like most drugs of this kind, this binds the receptors of serotonin. As a result, kaleidoscopic images are formed in the brain, and the person himself begins to experience vivid emotions. The cactus itself grows in Mexico, its unique properties are known to locals for a long time. Indians use mescaline, which, by the way, enters, not only in peyote, but also in other cacti, for thousands of years, carrying out their rituals in a narcotic state. The use of this cactus as a narcotic substance served as the basis for numerous ships. After all, the people of Mexico argued that peyote is an integral part of their religious practices.
There is a hallucinogenic component in some specific fungi. It’s about psilobicin. This compound when it enters the human body is transformed into psilocin. He, like related psychotropic substances, binds the receptors of serotonin throughout the brain. As a result, a hallucination or synaesthesia is born, it happens that both these feelings immediately come to a person.Under the influence of magical mushrooms, people begin to feel that they are able to feel colors and their smells. The practice of using this natural material as hallucinogenic substances also has a thousand-year history. Today psilobicin is obtained in an artificial way, and doctors are exploring its use for medical and psychological purposes. After all, it can help in the fight against feelings of anxiety, depression and drug addiction. Angelic dust.
So in the common people they call phencyclidine. This drug is able to block the receptors of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. I must say that the use of such a hallucinogen is quite dangerous, much more than others. After all, a person begins to experience symptoms, as in schizophrenia, besides, there are also unpleasant side effects. That’s why angel dust in medicine is no longer used. And yet, half a century ago, the substance was used as an anesthetic. In this case, patients were not only people, but also animals. However, in the 60’s, the drug became popular in the street environment. More and more young people began to use it to experience the euphoria and the gifted omnipotence. But the side effects turned out to be quite strong and destructive for the psyche. The people using angel dust began to try to jump out of the window or to cripple themselves in other ways. And excessive doses of a hallucinogen caused also convulsions.
At the heart of this hallucinogen lies the African plant iboga. The drug itself has a long history of application in the tribes of Africa. The roots of the plant are used in the religious cult of the Bwiti. Recently, doctors found that ibogaine is able to help with the treatment of addictions from alcohol, heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine. But for medicinal purposes this substance is used only in Europe and Mexico, but in the US the drug is still banned. The fact is that the therapeutic use of ibogaine is a rather complicated thing. After taking the drug can disrupt the work of the heart, and can not escape anywhere from a common for all patients side effect – vomiting. Statistics show that among those who use this drug, every 300th dies precisely because of its effects. Today, several studies are under way that study the long-term effects of ibogaine on humans and the effects they produce on people. These special programs are aimed at getting rid of the addiction of drug addicts and they pass in Mexico and New Zealand.
This plant is also called the sage of fortune-tellers, a plant of seers or wise men. It grows mainly in the dense mexican forests of Oaxaca. Local residents have long learned to drink tea from the leaves of Salvia, it became part of their spiritual ceremony. However, to achieve a hallucinogenic effect, the plant can be dried. Then the resulting powder is either chewed or smoked. Salvinorins enter the body through the mucous membranes of a person. People then begin to experience hallucinations and distortions of the world picture. But there may be undesirable effects – a person may begin to behave inadequately or even lose the ability to move. In this condition, the recipient must be carefully monitored, because there is a risk of self-injury or injury. Today the law is very loyal to Salvia, not controlling its spread. However, one should expect that soon the drug will be recognized as illegal, it will be taken to the same class as marijuana. Since 2009, in Russia and some European countries, the state has begun to monitor the treatment of Salvia.
This is the simplistic name for the drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA. This drug acts directly on the serotonin in the brain. As a result, a person distorts the picture of the world, he himself receives an unprecedented charge of energy and a sense of euphoria. A side effect is a rise in body temperature, which increases the risk of getting a heat stroke. Few people know that the effect of ecstasy has been studied in animals.It turned out that the drug can cause permanent and potentially unfavorable changes in the brain. The first ecstasy was synthesized by German chemists Anton Kölisch in 1912. Then his pharmaceutical company was looking for a substance that could reduce bleeding, and MDMA was just a by-product. For almost half a century, no one even suspected that this substance is a powerful hallucinogen. In the 1950s, experiments with ecstasy were conducted in the American army, although the animals were then experimental animals. In the late 70’s, the ability of substances to influence the psyche attracted the attention of Soviet scientists, in the 80’s it is used in clinical practice by thousands of doctors in different countries. The strong effect of ecstasy became known outside of medicine, the drug became part of street culture. Today, this hallucinogen is strongly associated with nightclubs, discotheques and extreme music. Official authorities quickly realized the danger of a new drug, and by the early 1990s it had become illegal. At the moment, there is no evidence that taking one typical dose is detrimental to health. However, there is a subsequent depression after taking the substance, called serotonin failure. Yes, and taking ecstasy with alcohol or stimulants can lead to death. Today, ecstasy is still quite popular in the street environment, and doctors are again studying its possibilities to relieve post-traumatic stress.