Everyone has long known the existence of a relationship between insanity and talent. Below, we will talk about how some “patients” with their talents could influence the rest of a healthy humanity. The list does not find politicians, because they are just executors, and it will be about the creators. Of course, with this ten, the number of celebrities “not in themselves” is not exhausted, their number is much larger. So you can treat this collection as a subjective choice, complementing it to your liking.
Edgar Alan Poe
(1809-1849). Opens the list of this American poet and writer. Its susceptibility to “mental disorders” is noted, although an accurate diagnosis has not been established. He suffered from memory failures, persecution mania, sometimes he behaved inadequately, he was haunted by hallucinations and fear of the dark. In the article “The Life of Edgar Poe” Julio Cortázar describes one of the attacks of the writer’s illness. In the summer of 1842 Edgar suddenly remembered Mary Devereaux, whose uncle he once unfastened the whip. A half-crazed state caused a trip from Philadelphia to New York.
Although the woman was married, the writer sought to know for sure whether she loved her husband. Several times Po crossed the river on the ferry, asking Mary’s address from passers-by. Reaching his goal, Edgar made a scandal, after which he decided to stay there for tea. At home, this caused extreme surprise, besides, the writer entered the house without their consent. The uninvited guest retired only after he crushed several radishes with a knife and demanded that Mary sang his favorite song. Found the writer only a few days later – losing his mind, he wandered around the surrounding woods.
Frequent depression began in Edgar Po since the late 1830’s. On the psyche and alcohol abuse, under his influence, the writer fell into violent insanity. Soon to the opium was added and opium. The writer’s mental state worsened after the serious illness of his young wife. In 1842, twenty-year-old Virginia, who was also Po cousin, contracted tuberculosis, dying after 5 years. Edgar survived his wife only for two years, but during this time he tried several times to fall in love and even made proposals several times. If the first engagement did not take place, since the eccentric fiance simply frightened off the chosen one, in the second case the groom himself disappeared.
Shortly before the wedding, Po fell into an insane state, drunk heavily. As a result, he was found in one of the cheap Baltimore restaurants after 5 days. Edgar was placed in a clinic, in which he died after a few days, suffering from severe hallucinations. One of Po’s greatest nightmares was death alone, as he did not try to avoid him, he came true. Although many of his friends promised to be with him at the last minute, but at night on October 7, 1849, alongside Edgar, none of his relatives was found. The last person Poe called for him was Jeremy Reynolds, the famous polar explorer.
By managed to infect the public with two popular genres. The first of these is a horror novel created under the influence of Hoffmann’s gloomy romanticism. However, it was Poe who managed to create a genuine atmosphere of fear and nightmares, viscous and sophisticated. This manifested itself in the novels The Heart-Revealer and The Fall of the House of Escher. The second genre, in which he showed himself, was the detective. Monsieur Auguste Dupin, the hero of Edgar’s stories “Murder on Morgue Street,” “The Mystery of Marie Roger” became the prototype of Sherlock Holmes with his deductive techniques. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
(1844-1900). The German philosopher had a frightening diagnosis of “nuclear mosaic schizophrenia.” In his biography, it is customary to call this phenomenon simpler-an obsession that may have occurred against the background of syphilis. The most striking symptom was megalomania. The philosopher sent out notes in which he announced his immediate domination on Earth, he demanded to remove paintings from the apartment walls, since this is his temple.
About the darkening of the mind, cases like hugs with a horse on the town square testified.The philosopher had frequent headaches, his behavior was not adequate. The medical card of the writer testifies that he sometimes drank his urine from his boot, could inartically cry out, the hospital watchman was mistaken for Bismarck. Nietzsche somehow tried to barricade his door with glass shards, he slept on the floor next to the bed spread, jumped like an animal, made grimaces and protruded his left shoulder.
The cause of the disease was several apoplexy attacks, as a result of the last 20 years of his life, the philosopher suffered from mental disorders. But it was during this period that his most significant works were published, for example, “Thus spake Zarathustra.” Half of this period Nietzsche spent in specialized clinics, the house could not do without the care of the mother. The writer’s condition was constantly deteriorating, as a result, at the end of his life he treated only the simplest phrases: “I’m dead, because I’m stupid” or “I’m stupid because I’m dead.”
The society received from Nietzsche the idea of a superman. Let and it seems a paradox that this sick person, jumping on a goat, is associated now with a free person, standing above morality and existing above the concepts of good and evil. Nietzsche gave a new moral, “the morality of gentlemen” was to replace the “morality of slaves.” He believed that a healthy morality should glorify the natural aspiration of any person to power, and any other morality is inherently morbid and decadent. As a result, Nietzsche’s ideas formed the basis of the ideology of fascism: “The sick and the weak must perish, the strongest ones to win,” “Falling!”. The philosopher became famous for his assumption “God is dead.”
Ernest Miller Hemingway
(1899-1961). This American writer suffered from acute bouts of depression, which led to mental distress. Symptoms were the writer’s suicidal tendencies, persecution mania and frequent nervous breakdowns. When in 1960 Hemingway returned to America from Cuba, he immediately agreed to treatment in a psychiatric clinic – he was tormented by frequent depressions, a sense of insecurity and constant fear. All this interfered with his work.
Twenty sessions of electroshock did not bring any result, the writer said so: “Doctors who made me an electric shock, writers do not understand … What was the point of destroying my brain and washing my memory, which is my capital, and throw me out to the side of life? It was a brilliant treatment, that’s just the patient they lost. ”
After leaving the clinic, Hemingway realized that he could not continue writing, and then his first attempt at suicide, interrupted by his relatives, happened. Wife of the writer persuaded him to undergo a second course of treatment, but he did not intend to commit suicide. A couple of days after the release, Hemingway shot himself in the head with his favorite gun …
Hemingway infected us with the disease of the “lost” generation. Like his friend Remarque, he wrote about a particular layer of destinies that were affected by the world war. However, the term itself was so capacious that today almost every generation seeks to try this definition on itself. Thanks to the writer, a new literary device was born, the “iceberg method” – behind the meager and concise text there is a generous and emotional overtones. Hemingway spawned a new “machismo” not only with his creativity, but with life. His characters are stern wrestlers, who prefer not to scatter words. They understand that their struggle, perhaps, does not make sense, but they still fight to the end.
A vivid example of this character was the fisherman Santiago from the Old Man and the Sea. It is with his mouth the author says: “Man is not created to suffer defeat.” A person can be destroyed, but he can not be defeated. ” To the great regret of many, the writer himself-a soldier, hunter, sailor and traveler, whose body was covered with countless scars, did not fight for his life. But it should be noted that his death was the result of adherence to ideals.Hemingway wrote: “A man has no right to die in bed, either in battle, or bullet in the forehead.” John Forbes Nash
(born in 1928).
This American mathematician, who became a Nobel Prize winner, became known to the general public after the release of Ron Howard’s film “The Mind Games.” Nash’s diagnosis is paranoid schizophrenia. Her symptoms are persecution mania, nonsense with obsessions, conversations with non-existent interlocutors and problems with self-identification.
As early as 1958, Fortune magazine called Nash the rising American star in mathematics. However, the first signs of the disease also appeared at that time. In 1959, Nash was dismissed from his job and placed in a psychiatric clinic in the suburbs of Boston for compulsory treatment. The scientist’s condition improved only after a course of chemotherapy, along with his wife Alicia, Lard Nash moved to Europe. There he tried to get the status of a political refugee. However, the request was denied to the scientist and the French authorities deported him back to the United States. As a result, the family of a sick genius settled in Princeton, Nash himself did not work, because his illness quickly developed. In 1961, the scientist was forced to undergo an insulin therapy course at the New Jersey Hospital, but after being discharged from there he fled to Europe, leaving his wife and children. In 1962, Alicia filed a divorce, although she continued to give help to her husband.
Returning to the United States soon, the scientist improved his condition so that he could start working at Princeton University by constantly taking antipsychotics. However, Nash suddenly decided that drugs could damage his mental abilities and work, as a result – another deterioration. For many years, Nash appeared in Princeton, recording on the boards incomprehensible formulas and talking with voices. The inhabitants of the university ceased to be surprised, perceiving the scientist as an inoffensive ghost. In the gray of the 80’s Nash came to himself and again took up mathematics. In 1994, 66-year-old John Nash received the Nobel Prize in Economics, for the analysis of the equilibrium in the theory of non-cooperative games. The main discoveries were made back in the 50’s, before the onset of the disease. In 2001, the scientist again reunited with his ex-wife.
Thanks to Nash, a new scientific approach to the economic theory of games and mathematics of competition arose. The scientist rejected the standard scenario in which the winner and the defeated are present and created a model in which both competing parties lose only in the long run. This scenario was called “Nash equilibrium”, both sides are in balance, since any change can only worsen their positions. Nash’s research in the field of game theory was also actively used by the US military during the Cold War era. Jonathan Swift,
(1667-1745). Experts still argue about what kind of diagnosis to put this Irish writer – Pick’s disease or Alzheimer’s. It is known that Swift suffered from dizziness, loss of memory, lost orientation in space and often did not recognize people and surrounding objects, poorly caught the meaning of the speech of the interlocutor. These symptoms constantly increased, leading the writer at the end of his life to complete dementia.
Swift gave society a new form of political satire. His “Gulliver’s Travels”, although they did not become the first sarcastic glance of the enlightened intellectual on the surrounding reality, but the novelty manifested itself in exactly how it was considered. If at that time it was customary to make fun of life with the help of literary “magnifying glass”, then Swift, who served as dean of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, used a lens with curved glass. Subsequently, his reception was picked up by Saltykov-Shchedrin and Gogol. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778). The French writer and philosopher suffered paranoia, which was expressed in a persecution mania. In the early 1760s, Rousseau’s book, “Emile, or Education,” was born, which spawned his conflict with the state and the church.Over time, this only strengthened Rousseau’s innate suspicion, giving rise to painful forms. The philosopher always suspected conspiracies, he began to lead the life of a wanderer, trying not to stay anywhere for a long time. After all, according to his ideas, all his friends and acquaintances are plotting something against him or at least suspecting him. Once, in the castle in which Rousseau was staying, the servant died and Jean-Jacques demanded his autopsy, since he believed that everyone sees him as a poisoner.
But thanks to Rousseau, the world saw pedagogical reform. The current methods of educating children are largely based on “Emile …” Rousseau. So, in return for the repressive method of raising a child, Rousseau even then proposed to apply affection and encouragement. The philosopher taught that it is impossible to force a child to mechanically memorize dry facts, it will be much easier to explain it to living examples, which will give the opportunity to perceive new knowledge. Rousseau believed that the main goal of pedagogy is not the correction of the personality to existing social norms, but the development of talents available to man.
The Frenchman believed that punishment should take place, but be a consequence of the child’s behavior, and not a blunt instrument of demonstrating the will of the strong over the weak. Rousseau advised mothers to feed their children on their own, and not to delegate to nurses. Today, pediatrics fully supports this opinion, it is proved that only mother’s milk can positively influence the health of the child. And to the issue of swaddling, Russo was skeptical, since this limits the freedom of movement of the child.
Thanks to Rousseau, a new type of literary hero was born and new directions in the literature. The philosopher’s fantasy gave birth to a beautiful creature – a savage who is guided not by reason, but by moral moral feelings. Within the framework of romanticism and sentimentalism, it developed, grew and grew old. The philosopher put forward the idea of a legal democratic state, which was reflected in his work “On a social contract.” It is believed that this very work inspired the French to the “Great Revolution”, but Rousseau himself did not adhere to the radical measures applied in her course.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol
(1809-1852). The famous Russian writer suffered from schizophrenia, interspersed with periodic attacks of psychosis. Gogol attended audible and visual hallucinations, periods of apathy and extreme inhibition (until the lack of response to external stimuli) were replaced by attacks of extreme activity and excitement. The writer often plunged into depressive states, experienced acute hypochondria. It is known that Gogol believed that the organs in his body are somewhat displaced, and the stomach is at all “upside down”, chasing him and claustrophobia.
Various manifestations of schizophrenia accompanied Gogol throughout his life, but the greatest progress came in the last year of his life. In January 1852, the sister of a close friend of the writer, Ekaterina Khomyakova, died of typhus, which caused Gogol’s strongest attack of hypochondria. He complained of the fear of death, immersed in constant prayers. The writer refused to eat, complaining of indisposition and weakness, believing that he was mortally sick. Of course, doctors did not find any illness, except for a small intestinal disorder.
On the night of 11 to 12 February, Gogol burned his manuscripts, explaining this then by intrigues of evil spirit, the author’s condition began to deteriorate sharply. And the treatment was not at all professional – put leeches in the nostrils, wrapped in cold sheets and dipped his head in the icy water. As a result, on February 21, 1852, Gogol died. The true causes of his death remained unclear. Various hypotheses are being put forward – from mercury poisoning, to suicide and the fulfillment of a contract before the devil. But most likely the writer simply brought himself to complete nervous and physical exhaustion. Perhaps today’s psychiatrists could solve his problems and save his life.
Thanks to Gogol, our society has a specific love for a small man, a man in the street.This feeling is half of pity, and half of disgust. The writer was able to create a whole constellation of accurate Russian characters. It was Gogol who created several “role models”, which are still valid today. It is enough only to recall Chichikov and Bashmachkin.
Guy de Maupassant
(1850-1893). A well-known French writer suffered from progressive paralysis of the brain. Symptoms of the disease were suicidal tendencies, hypochondria, hallucinations and delirium, violent attacks. Hypochondrias accompanied Maupassant all his life – he was very afraid of going insane. Since 1884, the writer began to observe frequent nervous attacks, accompanied by hallucinations. He even tried to commit suicide twice, being extremely excited. But both attempts, with a pistol and a paper knife, were unsuccessful. In 1891, the writer was placed in the clinic Blanche, where he was in a semi-conscious state until his death.
Maupassant brought physiology and naturalism to the literature, his works are often eroded, which became a novelty. The writer felt the need to constantly struggle with the lack of spirituality of society, which was fixed only on consumption. Today, the works of the clones of “The Beloved Friend” are created by French authors Michelle Uelbek and Frederic Begbeder, in Russia Sergei Minaev can be considered the successor of Maupassant.
Vincent Willem van Gogh
(1853-1890). The famous Dutch painter suffered from schizophrenia. He was visited by sound and auditory hallucinations, bouts of delirium. Aggression and gloom could quickly turn into a joyful excitement. Visiting Van Gogh and suicidal thoughts.
The disease has progressed significantly in the past 3 years of the artist’s life, seizures have increased. During one of them, the famous surgical operation took place. Van Gogh cut off the lobe and the lower part of the left ear. This fragment he sent in the envelope of his beloved as a souvenir for memory. Not surprisingly, Van Gogh was placed in a hospital in Arles for the mentally ill. Then there were the hospitals in San Remy and in Auvers-sur-Oise. The artist himself realized that he was deeply sick. In one of his letters he wrote: “I have to adapt to the role of the madman without a hunch.”
Until his death, Van Gogh continued to create, although from the buyers to his pictures of interest, no one has ever arisen. The artist led a literally beggar way of life, often starving. Contemporaries recall that at such times he even sometimes ate his colors. But it was during the periods of clouding of consciousness that masterpieces of world painting were born: “Night Cafe”, “Landscape in Over after Rain”, “Red Vineyards in Arles”, “Road with Cypresses and Stars”. However, Van Gogh could no longer be in a clouded state – on July 27, 1890, he fatally wounded himself with a pistol shot.
Thanks to Van Gogh, animation has come to our world. After all, his creative manner, in which dynamic scenes were realized with bright colors, the reality was grotesquely distorted and the atmosphere of sleep (horrible or, conversely, happy children’s) was created, served as the basis for many works of the current multiplier artists. Today, thanks to the insane poor artist, we began to understand that the artistic value of any work is a relative thing. After Van Gogh, who painted unpretentious sunflowers, drinking absinthe, already posthumously became the champion of auction sales.
(1895-1925). The famous Russian poet suffered manic-depressive psychosis. He was accompanied by a persecution mania, sudden outbursts of rage and inadequate behavior. They remember how Yesenin repeatedly crashed furniture, beat dishes and mirrors, insulting others.
Fits of psychosis are often provoked by the poet’s love for alcohol. As a result, Yesenin repeatedly underwent treatment in specialized clinics not only in Russia, but also in France. But the treatment, alas, never yielded results.So, after leaving the clinic of Professor Gannushkin, a month later the poet committed suicide – he hanged himself on a steam heating pipe in the Angleterre hotel in Leningrad. Although in the 70 years and there was a version of the murder followed by a staged suicide, but it was not proven.
Thanks to Esenin, Russian literature received new intonations. The poet made the norm the love of nature, the village and the local resident, accompanying it with sadness, touching tenderness and tears. Even direct followers of the poet appeared in the ideological aspect – “peasants”. Many of Esenin’s works were created in the style of a city hooligan romance, which laid the foundation for the current Russian chanson.