One of the first houses of a reasonable man became a cave. In the Middle Ages, these rooms inside the rocks became again popular. There appeared whole castles, monasteries and cities. People here lived, rested, prayed. Even today in the north of China, about 40 million people live in cave houses. People used it as natural formations, they also created their own. As a result, the resulting cave cities were very unusual in appearance, only remotely resembling the prevailing culture here. The most famous such settlements will be discussed below.
These caves are only 92 kilometers from Beijing. This cave house is quite ancient. Only remains a mystery when he appeared. After all, in historical sources there is no mention of this place. The cave people here cut out on a steep cliff, hanging over the city of Zangshaning. The cave is one of the largest in the country. It is divided into 110 stone rooms, within which today there are many people.
Tunisia has almost everything. But if the tourist wants to see something really unusual, he should go to the south of the country. There is the cave city of Matmata. There has been a tribe of troglodytes for 1500 years. These people are very civilized, dress like ordinary nomads. On the slopes of the mountains they dug artificial caves. There are about 700 of them all. They are used by people as rooms. Dug craters can reach 10 meters in diameter and height. The length of the rooms can reach 20 meters, while they are connected with each other through the aisles. Alkova in the walls serve as beds, if residents require a new regiment, it is simply cut down in a soft wall. The reason for the appearance of the cave city is simple – the breed is so soft that it is easier to build dwellings right in it than to build from it.
This place is 225 miles from Kabul. The tourists always tried to get here. The city of Bamyan lies at an altitude of 2,800 meters, and its population – 61863 people. This is the largest city in Hazarajat, the central region of Afghanistan. The city lies on the territory of an ancient Hindu Buddhist monastery. Noteworthy here are carved in the rocks of the Buddha statue. One of them has a height of 55 meters, at one time it was the highest statue of this deity in the world. During the reign of Kanishka the Great, Bamyan was an important center of Buddhism. Sculptures of the deity, and the territory itself were sacred. The priests created here a lot of cells, which led round holes in the rocks. But already in our time, the Taliban forces deliberately blasted these statues, destroying the main pride of the cave complex.
Sassi di Matera.
This city is considered a real monument in the open air. It is no accident that Matera is listed as a UNESCO heritage site. It is believed that the settlement originated in prehistoric times, becoming one of the first in Italy. The city, spread out on the slopes, attracted the attention of many directors. In particular, it was here that Mel Gibson’s film “The Passion of the Christ” was filmed. In the city, most of the buildings are actually caves. And some streets of the city lie on the roofs of other buildings. Once here in the gorge flowed the river, on its slopes and a prehistoric town appeared. Today, the water flow has practically disappeared. In Sassi there are more than 120 rock churches with Byzantine frescoes. Crypt of Original Sin with its drawings is considered a kind of Sistine chapel for other rock churches. In the middle of the last century, the Italian government tried to move the townspeople from Sassi to other places. But this caused a protest from the local residents, they wanted to continue to live on the land of their ancestors. Mount Verde, United States.
This National Park is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is located in the district of Montezuma, Colorado.Mesa Verde Park was created back in 1906 to preserve nature around the most beautiful human rocky dwellings in the world. The entire park covers an area of 211 square kilometers. Numerous guests can see numerous remains of villages and houses built by indigenous people, including in the rocks. The dwellings in the cliff began to be built from the end of the 12th century by the Anastasis Indians. Today this mountain is known as Verde. The Indians learned to build the first apartment buildings. They preferred to settle tightly on the peaks of the mountain and even on the cliffs. Many of their facilities in general were cut down in the rocks. So, draws attention to the Rocky Palace.
Highlands of Bandiagara, Mali.
This natural monument is located in the Mopti area. This sandy fee is 500 meters above the surface of the earth. The length of the rocks is about 150 kilometers. People have been living on steep slopes for a long time. The last 500 years this is the Dogon tribe. Before them there are living tallemas and tolons. Many rock formations have remained from them. The Tallums cut down the caves, using them as cemeteries for the deceased. The Dogons continued to build their settlements in the form of terraces at the foot of the rocks. Since 1989, this highland has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The rock is one of the largest in the world.
This cave city is a monastery. It was excavated in the mountain of Erusheli, which is in the south of the country. The history of the creation of Vardzi goes back to 1185, to Queen Tamara. The monastery was located on the south-western border of Georgia and was intended to block the gorge of the Kura from the invasion of the country by the Iranians and Turks. Initially, all the premises were hidden under a rock, and only three underground passages led to the surface. Over time, the monastery expanded, it had more than six thousand apartments. The church, throne room and farmland belonged to him. In 1283, an earthquake destroyed most of the city, revealing caves. But the monastery was rebuilt, so that in the 16th century it was already destroyed by the Persians, and then by the Turks.
This mysterious unique village was built in the early 13th century. There is Kandovan in the eastern part of Iranian Azerbaijan. The uniqueness of the buildings is that they were cut down by caves directly in cone-shaped rocks from volcanic ash. From a distance the village resembles a huge colony of termites. Thanks to the material from which the houses were created, there was a comfortable temperature there in winter and summer. Nature seemed to take care of the preparations for the dwellings, it remains only to hollow out the insides, the windows, the door and build a ladder. Modern Kandovan has already and stone extensions, adjacent directly to the rocks. In the center of the village is a hotel, it also hides in the rocks. The room with a jacuzzi here costs 200 dollars. Today there are about a thousand people living in the village.
This rock, 86 meters high, turned into a battle fortress that was designed to protect the valley. Virtually the entire citadel of Ortahisar is a cave in a huge stone. This place is located 6 kilometers from Urgup, south of the route from Nevsehir. The very name of the monument is literally translated as “average fortress”. Simple and picturesque from this building literally sculpted to the rock, which all, like a beehive, is covered with courses. The building is quite old, and the rock slips in places have exposed the old passages. Houses here are mostly two-story, upstairs leads a staircase without a parapet.
This small village is located 8 kilometers from Goreme. Uchisar is the highest point in Cappadocia. Glory to this place brought an unusual geological formation. People built a castle right in the rock. The mountain itself looked like mashed cheese. Previously, this place was popular, but frequent natural disasters, and wind erosion, scared away the inhabitants, and there are few tourists here. Uchisar is a quiet place. And the history of the castle began in the 15th century, when the Byzantines built it.They used the structure in stone as a fortress and observation post, allowing them to exchange signal lights with other similar posts. Today there are hotels right in the caves, where you can stop and admire the picturesque stone valley.