Complete blindness is determined by a person if he does not react at all to light. But in many countries there is such a thing as practical blindness. In this case, a person is still able to perceive some kind of visual information. True, this ability is so insignificant that it has no practical value.
Of all the world’s disabilities, it is blindness that is considered to be the most complex in its characteristics. A person can be born without vision, and may lose it at later moments of life. In any case, his life will largely change. Of course, the problems can be overcome. We admire those who became above their illness and managed to establish a relatively full life.
We will talk about the most famous blind people below. The fact that some of them were blind, not everyone even knows. But these people by their actions were able to change the world, which they could not see. Although they were blind, they could still have a true vision.
The great Russian mathematician worked all his life on non-Euclidean geometry. His last work, a sick and blinded scientist, already dictated to his students in 1855. During the life of the work mathematics were not understood and accepted, but 10-12 years after his death came the triumph of his ideas.
This Englishman became Minister of the Interior in the government of Tony Blair. This appointment became quite loud, because in the country there were not yet blind people who had held such a high post. The fact that David can not see it became clear almost immediately after his birth in 1947. Parents raised the boy in the knowledge that he can do everything himself, if he wants. The municipality decided to give four-year-old David to a special boarding school. The boy went through a tough school of life, fell in love with the sport. At the age of 16, David went to a conflict with the director of his college, who did not want to give children full study. Self-reliance and a passion for education remained with David for life. He graduated from the political and social sciences course, taking a place in the city council of Sheffield. Since 1987, Blunkett is a member of parliament, and later a minister. The politician managed to get to the top thanks to his phenomenal memory and enormous efficiency. But the political career quickly collapsed. But not because of abilities, but because of love. Blunkett did not hesitate to bring the circumstances of his fatherhood to the public.
This Olympic athlete has never let her illness break her spirit. The woman was born in 1969 in Santa Maria, California. Ranyan suffered Stragard’s disease. This is the degenerative state of the eyes, which led to blindness. The woman refused to participate only in the competitions of the Paralympic athletes, although she was a multiple champion there. Runyan was the first visually impaired athlete to take part in the Olympics. She could even get into the finals of the 1500 meter race at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Runyan also owns a national record in the 5000 meters race, she also performs at marathon distances. A woman is not limited to sports only. She is not only a runner-marathon runner, but also a master in special education. Marla is a professional motivator that helps people overcome barriers and fully reveal their potential. She said that she decided to achieve success while still a small child. After all, doctors told her that blindness will prevent success in life. Ranyan addresses children and families with impaired vision: “Your future is not written in advance, it’s up to you to decide how to react to the loss of sight. Watch the child, and he will show you what he or she wants to do. ”
The person whose name was named one of the most coveted prizes in the world, was also blind. Joseph Pulitzer, with whom the prize in the field of journalism is connected, was born in the Hungarian Mako in 1847.At the age of 17, Joseph emigrated to the United States, where he began his career as a reporter. Over time, Pulitzer decided to take up politics and won the post in the legislature of Missouri. Pulitzer became famous for his irreconcilable position in relation to corruption and illegal gain. In 1872, he bought two newspapers in St. Louis, making one of them, much more significant and vivid. Pulitzer used all his political influence and investigative skills to identify illegal lotteries, gambling and tax evaders. In 1883, he acquired the “New York World”, exposing the public cases of illegal incomes and fraud of the government itself. Everything was aimed at attracting a mass average reader. In the newspaper there was also humor, sensations, advertising, many illustrations. As a result, the edition circulation has grown over 15 years from 15 thousand to a million! However, having achieved success, Pulitzer could not rejoice at it to the full extent. After all, by 1887, he was almost completely blind and had to leave the post of editor-in-chief of his publication. The journalist’s life was bright. Despite his deteriorating eyesight, he did not turn a blind eye to social crimes and remained a guardian of justice. Pulitzer died in 1911. Two million dollars from his fortune were donated to Columbia University so that the Graduate School of Journalism was established there. In honor of the journalist, the most prestigious award in this profession was given, given every year.
This one of the most famous opera singers in the world is also deprived of sight. Andrea did everything possible to make his name ceased to be unknown in the art world. He appeared in the world in 1958 in Lajatico, Italy. When Bocelli was 12 years old, during the game of football he hit the head with a ball. As a result, the boy, who also had congenital glaucoma, completely blind. Although today Bocelli is known for his unique angelic high voice, he did not immediately find himself in music. Andrea graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Pisa, where he received a law degree. At one time he worked in his specialty, and singing, accompanied by pianoforte in bars and at parties, became his hobby. But the talent did not go unnoticed, he was heard and Bocelli got a contract to record his songs. Andrea subsequently worked with starring Luciano Pavarotti and Sarah Brightman and sang for the Pope himself. In 1994, the singer made his debut in San Remo, releasing several multi-platinum discs in Europe and the USA. Bocelli’s velvety voice, like his dedication, earned him the love of fans around the world. The singer himself says: “Everything that matters in life consists in intention. Go to the goal persistently, insisting on it. ”
This person became one of the most influential and important figures of art, becoming leaders of the Impressionist movement. He was born in Paris in 1840. From an early age Monet was a rebel, spending all his free time not in the classroom, but on the street, creating sketches of nature. Later he entered the famous art school, the Swiss Academy, where he began to study the art of painting landscapes. Then Monet met some of his like-minded artists, in particular with Renoir and Pizarro. They became the core of the Impressionist movement, a new movement in painting. This type of art singled out light, movement and emotions over realism. The style of Monet is based on complex short strokes and contrast points. Near the picture looked pretty chaotic. But as soon as I stepped a little further away, as a large scale painting acquired a beautiful and soft focus. The most famous works of Monet are “Water Lilies” and “Sunflowers.” Many critics asked later the question of how the loss of visual artists due to several cataracts affected the style of his work. Monet died in 1926. His paintings are now worth millions, any significant museum wants to get the canvas of this impressionist. Today they are in the Louvre in Paris, in the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
Glory to this woman was brought by her activities for the liberation of slaves. In the middle of the XIX century, she made 19 trips to the South, freeing 300 slaves from prison and inspiring thousands more to escape. The very same Harriet lived in partial darkness, being partially blind. Tubman was born in 1820 in the family of a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland. The girl was sold as a child into slavery, but she fled, eventually becoming one of those who helped abolish the death penalty in the Civil War. Tabmen was able to create an underground railway, a network of safe houses and secret places for runaway black slaves. This helped them find shelter, food and protection from their pursuers. Blindness was pursued by Tubman due to a severe head injury she received as a teenager because of a heavy blow. A glorious woman died in 1913, the last twenty years of her life she spent in the care of sick children and elderly people living in her house. Throughout her life, Tabmen never gave her skin color or weak eyesight the opportunity to deprive her of the right to feel herself as a Man. She said: “Do not let the problems control you. Be guided by your dreams. ”
Many call this scientist the father of modern science. This Italian scientist was a real visionary, although he had a poor vision. He was born Galileo in 1564 in Pisa, Italy. He became an astronomer and inventor who, with his theories about the place of the Earth in the universe, helped shape modern science in its present form. It is believed that it was Galileo who invented a modern telescope, a compass and a thermometer. This scientist became the first to look at planets and stars with the help of a telescope. During his observations, he noted an important fact, not the Sun and the planets revolve around the Earth, as previously thought, but vice versa. Such conclusions forever changed the development of astronomy, but also created a conflict with the Catholic Church. She betrayed his trial for his crimes, forcing the scientist to confess his delusions. Galileo under pressure has recognized that the Earth is still the center of the universe. To avoid imprisonment, Galileo agreed to spend the rest of his life under house arrest in Florence. At this time, the vision of the scientist began to deteriorate rapidly, until blindness. The cause was cataract and glaucoma. Although Galileo was almost blind and was chained to his house, he still continued to study, invent and write until his death in 1642.
Today every blind person has the opportunity to read. Thank for this one man – Louis Braille. He was born in 1809 in the French town of Kuvre. At the age of three, the boy wandered into his father’s workshop and was wounded with a tool. The trauma was infected, the result of a serious illness was blindness. In those days there were few opportunities for the blind, that’s Louis’s parents and they gave the boy to a regular school. There he managed to learn, relying solely on his memory, and not reading and making notes. In 1819, Braille received a scholarship at the French Royal Institute for Blind Children. There the teenager began to develop a system of embossed symbols, based on the military communication strategy. Its soldiers use to communicate in the dark. At the age of 20, Louis was able to develop the world-wide alphabet for the blind based on six code points. They made it possible to compose words, numbers and even scientific symbols. Braille published his discovery at the Paris Industrial Exhibition in 1834. In the end, Braille took 20 years to make his invention blind by the whole world. This happened two years after the death of the inventor in 1852. With the help of the Braille system, now all the blind can read with their fingers. The developed code is now used all over the world and is considered an official written language for visually impaired people.
This musician is one of the most influential in the American show business. We can say that it was Charles who paved the way for African-Americans in the music industry. Surprisingly, he made this completely blind man! Ray Charles was born in 1930 in Albany, Georgia. The great American composer helped his creativity to change the face of modern music. It is believed that it is Charles who stands at the roots of the emergence of soul music, which combines tunes, jazz and rhythm and blues. Born to visually observable glaucoma, Charles was blind by seven years. He studied at a special school for the blind, but left it at the age of 15 to continue playing the piano on his own. Charles was both a talented singer and composer. After a series of performances on small clubs, he eventually signed a contract with the label “Atlantic Records”. It was at this studio that his famous hits “I’ve Got a Woman”, “Hit the Road, Jack” and “Georgia on My Mind” were born. Many of Charles’s albums became multi-platinum, and the musician himself was able to break racial barriers, which became one of the first black musicians to conquer the radio. In total for his life, Charles received 13 Grammy Awards, including the 1987 award for life achievements. The blind musician died in 2004. Charles never allowed his blindness to stand in his way to success. He himself joked: “I do not know what I would do if I had no more hearing.”
The fact that the creativity of this singer enthralls audiophiles for more than a decade, is not something surprising. This talented and prolific author, among the best in the history of music, made his career by being blind. Stephen Judkins was born in 1950 in Saginaw, Michigan. But he grew up in Detroit, in the central part of the city. Wonder was a child-child prodigy. Already at the age of eight he taught the piano, organ, harmonica and percussion. Blindness Stevie was due to excess oxygen in the incubator, where he was placed immediately after birth. But this shortcoming could not stop the career of a talented person. In 1962 he was discovered by the famous producer Gordy, who invented a new, stage name for him. The first recording of Stevie Wonder appeared when the boy was only 12 years old. His first single, “Uptight”, made the musician a rising star. In collaboration with producer, Stevie was able to work with such heavyweights of music as Smokey Robinson. Together they created the song “Tears of the Clown”. This composition only strengthened the fame of Wander, as a great American composer. He continued to win the public’s love with his hits “My Cherie Amour” and “Once Upon a Time”. The album of 1971 “Where I” became multiplatinum. Known for his hits, for example “I just called to say that I love you,” Wonder also has a magical scenic charm. He performs in black glasses, like his idol Ray Charles, and wears a heavy three-dimensional braid. His songs the singer performs quite vigorously and plastically, showing in the dance. How to play the piano. Wander has released more than 20 successful albums, in 1989, hitting the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2005, the singer received a Grammy Award for his lifetime achievement.
Many believe that this woman was the most famous visually impaired of all times and peoples. After all, she overcame complex obstacles in order not only to live a normal life, but also to make her unusual. Helen was born in 1880 in Alabama. In a year and a half the girl became blind and deaf because of childhood illness. Although her parents told Helen that she could not now lead a full life, they decided to put her in a special institution. This gave the girl a chance. Even as a young child, Keller has achieved great success in teaching. But her life changed dramatically when, at age seven, she met a new teacher – Anne Sullivan.This young teacher was very patient, she could Keller read Braille, write and play music. Progress Hellen surprised friends and family. Keller continued to surprise everyone when she was able to finish college, get married and start writing articles. As a result, they were published in magazines quite a lot. And the book “The Story of My Life” has become a worldwide bestseller, being published in more than 50 languages. During her life, Keller traveled the whole world, she met with the heads of 12 countries, received several honorary doctorates and a large number of awards. In 1962, the story of Keller and Sullivan formed the basis of the Oscar-winning film The Wonderworker. The woman became known for her inspirational speeches about the possibility of overcoming any obstacles. Keller wrote: “Nature can not develop in a quiet and simple environment. Only through experience, trial and suffering can the soul be tempered, ambition and inspiration to success developed. ”
The blind old man is the most famous blind of antiquity. It is to this poet-narrator that the creation of the “Iliad” and “Odyssey” is attributed. About life and personality of Homer, almost nothing is known. He lived approximately in the VIII century BC, and for the right to be called his homeland, there are still seven cities fighting. At that time, many soothsayers and singers were blind. Many researchers believe that as a demon singer in the Odyssey, also blind, Homer portrayed himself. Although the fact that Homer was blind, is not reliably confirmed. This is just a historical reconstruction, which is largely based on the arguments given. The importance of Homer’s poems is great – the education system in Ancient Greece was built precisely on their study. Dialect of the poet served as the basis for many subsequent works by other authors. According to Herodotus, Homer died on the island of Ios.
Vanga Dimitrova was born in 1911 in the Ottoman Empire, in the family of a Bulgarian peasant. At the age of 12, the girl got into a violent tornado, which carried her hundreds of meters. After hitting the ground, Vangu fell asleep on the ground, and sand hit the eyes. She needed an urgent operation to save her sight, but the family could not afford it. For the first time interest in Vanga appeared during the Second World War. It was said that she could locate the missing people, even if they died and were buried. The gift of Wangi was recognized even by the authorities. Since 1967, she is a civil servant with her salary. Since that moment, visits to the clairvoyant have become paid. She herself said that her abilities are due to some invisible beings with whom she spoke. There are opinions that Vanga predicted the disintegration of the USSR, an accident in Chernobyl, the flooding of the Kursk submarine. Shortly before his death in 1996, Vanga reported that the Earth is visited by alien ships from the planet Vamfim, a meeting with them will happen in 200 years. Before her death, the clairvoyant predicted an early victory over cancer, the discovery of a medicine for old age and big discoveries in the intangible.