Today the borders of states, although practically legal everywhere, are still a zone of discord. These disputed places are also deadly dangerous. The reasons for the conflict between neighbors can be many and each state has its own. We will describe below the main border conflicts that have turned these strips of land into pretty dangerous places.
Sudan and South Sudan.
The length of the border between these states is 1,350 miles. In 2005, finally ended the civil war in Sudan, lasting 22 years! The BBC reports that during this time, a half million people became victims of the struggle for power. Finally, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed, which singled out the most troubled zone, South Sudan, into autonomy. But there soon held a referendum, which decided on the independence of this area. As a result, on July 9, 2011, South Sudan became independent. But the neighbor did not leave these lands alone, having carried out border bombardments in June. Their result was the resettlement of 113 thousand to other border states. Although as early as June 20, the official government of Khartoum made peace with the People’s Liberation Movement of Sudan (these southern insurgents and took the helm of the new state). Even peace agreements involving the UN and the African Union do not stop Khartoum (the capital of the Sudan) from continuing their fighting in the Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan areas.
India and Pakistan.
The length of the border between these countries is 1800 miles. This territory is very dangerous, because India and Pakistan have recently fought three times, the death toll has exceeded 115,000 people. In addition, both countries continue to build up their nuclear capabilities. Since the official delimitation of territories in 1947, the border areas of these two countries have been marked by constant violence. As a result, more than a million people died here. The military losses in the clashes between India and Pakistan are not so great – only 15 thousand people. But only in Kashmir – a disputed territory, 100 thousand civilians were killed. In three areas of Kashmir under India, there is a ceasefire line, also known as the control line. It exists in the two areas of Kashmir that belong to Pakistan. Both sides call for giving them disputed territories, but, of course, no one reacts to the calls of the enemy. Although no full-scale military operations are taking place in Kashmir today, there are frequent exchanges between the troops of the two countries. In the end, in the summer of 2011, India and Pakistan for the first time in recent years sat down for formal negotiations on disputed territories. Let the Indian Foreign Minister say that she came with open thoughts and in the hope of constructive, but there is little hope of a diplomatic settlement of the old conflict. And the rates are gradually rising. Most of Pakistan’s military budget goes exactly to confrontation with a dangerous neighbor. As a result, Islamabad today is the seventh largest army in the world, which spends 16% of the state budget. And these expenses practically do not lend themselves to public study and control.
Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Here the border is 1500 miles. The greatest danger on these lands is the weak influence of the law, a large number of Al Qaeda fighters and other groupings, frequent bombing by unguided unmanned aircraft. Everyone has known for a long time that these territories are one of the most dangerous in the world. Kabul believes that the 1500-kilometer Durand Line can not be considered an international border with Pakistan. The government of Afghanistan claims to Pashtun land in the north-west of its neighbor. The UN estimates that 1.7 million registered Afghan refugees are officially living in Pakistan. There they were led by unstable, occupation and constant civil war. The history of the border conflict has been centuries old. The reason for the confrontation is that Pashtuns make up 40% of the population of Afghanistan. And in Pakistan this ethnic group is 15-20%.That’s what the Pashtun nationalists are stirring up the conflict on both sides. They dream of creating an independent Pashtunistan founded on the borderlands of both countries. Since May 2007, the confrontation between the Afghan and Pakistani military has become particularly fierce. The troops are constantly suffering numerous losses. But he accuses one side of the other of fomenting the conflict.
United States and Mexico.
The border between the two states stretched for 1950 miles. The conflict erupted here in December 2006. Then the President of Mexico Felipe Calderon decided to start a serious fight with drug cartels. For this, 10,000 soldiers and policemen were thrown to the war with them. The head of the country gave an oath to crush the mafia clans. At the head of the troops was a “heavyweight politician” – Foreign Minister Razes Akuna. He, in turn, promised to return the state territory, in fact captured by crime. On both sides of the border, lawlessness began to take off. The vengeance generated a wave of murders, both in Mexico and in the United States. Every day drug cartels are fighting for their existence. Authorities report that over the past 4 years, 40,000 people, somehow involved in the spread of drugs, have been killed here. Half of them belong to the six states of Mexico adjacent to the border. Hundreds of thousands more Mexicans lost their homes and were forced to move or to relatives away from dangerous areas or in the US. Although it is believed that most of the bloodshed occurs on the territory of Mexico, the cities of El Paso and Texas have received the dubious fame of the most dangerous border settlements in the United States. Particularly bloody was 2010. Of the 15,000 killed, 3,100 were in Ciudad Juarez. This Mexican city is on the banks of the Rio Grande, and on the other side of the border is the American city of El Paso.
Cambodia and Thailand.
There are 500 miles of common border between states. But this territory remains controversial even from the colonial past of both countries. As a result, dozens of people die here, thousands of people have been resettled on both sides of the border. The reason for the conflict lies in the temple of Preahvihea, which is located just on the border. Thailand argues that these lands have never been completely demarcated. Criticism is subjected to a map compiled a hundred years ago under the French occupation of Cambodia. There is no complete clarity in it. For a long time there was controversy, until in 1962 the International Court of Justice decided to give the ancient temple of the XI century to Cambodia. But the dispute over the land of 1.8 square miles around the sacred place was never resolved. In recent years, tensions in relations between neighbors have only increased. Indeed, in 2008, UNESCO announced the inclusion of the temple in the list of World Heritage sites in Cambodia. Although initially this decision was supported by the Thai government, it subsequently gave a “back up”. Nationalist groups in the country in every possible way fomented opposition at the state level.
Congo and Angola.
The border between these countries is 1560 miles. The main danger here for women – thousands of girls and women, displaced by circumstances from Angola, are subject to violence by the security services of both countries. It would seem that relations between countries should be excellent. After all, it was Angola that helped the Congo government fight off its neighbors – Uganda and Rwanda – during the devastating war of 1998-2003. But the good relations between the neighbors quickly deteriorated. This manifested itself in constant disputes over the revision of borders, the rights to own oil fields. And all this took place against the background of how the Congo reconciled with its eastern neighbors – Rwanda and Uganda. As a result, both countries began to conduct mass evictions of residents from the border areas. This was literally punitive measures. Only in 2099 211 thousand people left the border areas. Now vulnerable refugees are hostage to martial law, but it is the hardest for women.The UN reports that Congolese girls and women displaced from the border areas of Angola are constantly subjected to sexual violence on both sides of the border. Such a large number of cases became shocking even for the region, accustomed to such phenomena. Only in January 2011, local leaders, community leaders, registered 182 cases of rape in seven border villages in Angola. The UN mission has confirmed 1,357 such cases in only a border village in the 6-8 months of 2010!
India and Bangladesh.
The border between the countries is almost 2500 miles. Over the past 10 years, only Bangladeshi citizens in these territories have killed 1,000 people. Countries are historically and geographically closely related. Bangladesh was once called East Pakistan. He gained independence from West Pakistan during the bloody events and the civil war of 1971. At the same time, the new country was strongly supported by India. That conflict cost the lives of a million people, and the economy and infrastructure of Bangladesh were significantly undermined. Since then, the young state is on the path of recovery. In its length the border is the fifth in the world. As a result, illegal immigrants are constantly flowing through it to India. As a result, about 10-20 million natives of Bangladesh infiltrated the neighboring country.
North Korea and South Korea.
Between these countries only 150 miles of the common border. The danger here is overshooting – border fortifications are filled with two million soldiers, besides, North Korea also possesses nuclear weapons. When the Korean War ended in 1953, both belligerents decided to withdraw their troops from the front line. Thus, a buffer demilitarized zone with a width of 2.5 miles was to be formed. Although both sides agreed to a cease-fire, the peace agreement was not formally signed. In fact, the two countries are still at war. Although the demilitarized zone that separates both Koreas has been “peaceful” for sixty years, in fact, this border is the most militarized. After all, it is patrolled by two million soldiers on both sides.
Venezuela and Colombia.
The length of the border between these states is 1275 miles. Recently, hundreds of leftist insurgents have left the borders of Venezuela and are leaving for neighboring Colombia. Recently, various diplomatic relations were broken between the countries, and the President of Colombia, Alvaro Urbibe, also submitted a complaint to the Organization of American States against Venezuela. The country’s leader accused his colleague, Hugo Chavez, of supporting the rebels from the “Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia”. Another revolutionary organization, the “National Liberation Army” is also allegedly financed by Venezuela. The insurgents have been fighting for over half a century to overthrow the government of Colombia. In 2011, relations between the countries have largely improved. In Colombia, in August 2010, a new President came to power, Juan Manuel Santos. One of his first actions was the establishment of good relations with the neighboring country and personally with Hugo Chavez. Warming in the relationship between the two countries had a significant impact on the situation of the leftist insurgents. After all, they could have been hiding in Venezuela for a long time, hiding from the security forces of Colombia. But the border area remains quite dangerous to this day. Revolutionaries of the FARC are blowing up oil and gas pipelines, attacking trains and conducting a real war with the Colombian special services.
Chad and Sudan.
The length of the border between these African countries is 850 miles. The danger here is represented by armed rebels, who are hunting for hundreds of thousands of refugees from Darfur. This region has become a hotbed of conflict between the two countries. Here, in the west of the Sudan, a civil war broke out, and spread to Chad.Only in January 2010, after several years of mutual attacks, Chad and Sudan signed a peace that was to stop the clashes and prevent the armed rebels from using the territories without hindrance. By that time the border had been closed since 2003. When it was opened, 262,000 Sudanese refugees from neighboring Darfur already lived in 12 refugee camps in eastern Chad. And even earlier, there were 180,000 displaced Africans. They were placed in 38 camps. The countries have normalized their relations and even managed to reach peaceful agreements with some leaders of militants controlling borderlands. Nevertheless, interethnic clashes and human rights violations are still taking place here. With this, the authorities have nothing to do.
Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
The total territory of these two countries is 900 miles long. But these places are restless. In the north of Yemen, the leader of the local Zeidite al-Huti is active, the Arabian Peninsula itself is filled with al-Qaeda supporters, and the unrest in Yemen can engender a mass flow of emigrants to a more prosperous Saudi Arabia. It is not surprising that in 2003 she started building a fence along its border. But only a year later the work was suspended. The neighbor began to complain about the violation of previous border agreements. In 2009, the regular Saudi army conducted a small war with the Yemeni rebels. This served as an excuse for continuing the work. Riyadh allocated large sums for the creation of a network of obstacles. The rumors also added rumors that the Yemeni rebels could be supported by Iran. As a result, insurgents under the leadership of al-Huti joined the Yazidists who professed the Shiite direction of Islam. To date, Saudi Arabia has been motivating the creation of a fence by the fact that it is necessary to protect the country from armed terrorists and from illegal immigrants. It will also help in the fight against the smuggling of drugs and weapons.
China and North Korea.
The border between these countries stretched for 880 miles. Friendly relations between countries led to a weakened protection of the common border. But soon Beijing became worried. It turned out that the unstable situation in North Korea led to a mass flight of citizens. As a result, thousands of refugees tried to penetrate illegally into China. When in the late 90’s in Korea was a great famine, the border was literally awash with 100-300 thousand people. China decided it was time to build the fortifications. Here in 2006, barbed wire appeared, concrete barriers. In November 2010, China accelerated its work. After all, humanitarian organizations began to publish reports that a crop failure of potatoes, barley and wheat in North Korea could lead to a famine for six million people in the country. To date, China has built a nine-kilometer fence along the Yalu River and around the Chinese city of Dangdon. This is where the refugees most often try to cross the border.
Israel and Syria.
Between these countries there are only 50 miles of border. But the situation here is extremely unstable. After all, instability in Syria can be used to create a border conflict. This can distract the people from internal problems. Today Israel and Syria are officially still at war. But for 37 years the border between them remained a relatively quiet place. Today, the Israeli authorities accuse the President of Syria Bashar al-Assad in his attempt to inspire protesters to cross the border. Such a measure is aimed at diverting attention from the merciless repression carried out in Syria against participants in protest actions. In May 2011, during the popular unrest in Syria, hundreds of citizens invaded the Golan Heights, marking the day of Nakba, the creation of Israel in 1948. The Israeli soldiers in response opened fire on them. Then four people were killed, a few dozen were wounded. All this time the northern border of Israel and Lebanon were much more restless.In Rafah, which is located between Egypt and the Gaza Strip, each person was checked for illegal weapons and money of unknown origin. However, the chaos that now reigns in Syria can “blow up” this part of the border.