The Internet has entered the life of people just recently. Before that, the main source of knowledge were books. At the same time, their history is closely connected with political and economic circumstances. Also, the destiny of books was often influenced by religion. Even in the Ancient World, people came up with a letter to preserve their knowledge in long-term records.
Since the middle of the XV century, the era of the printed book has come. The first was the Gutenberg Bible. Since then, many books have appeared, many of them have become the cause of fierce disputes. Often books were written for propaganda purposes. Researchers of the conspiracy theory have collected a whole collection of rather controversial prints. We will tell below about the most famous and influential books, rather controversial in nature.
Helen Keller was an American writer, she was involved in politics and teaching. Born in 1880, the girl was quite healthy, but at the age of 19 months she was struck by a severe illness. Doctors diagnosed “acute blockage of the vessels of the stomach and brain.” Today we can assume that it could be scarlet fever or meningitis. As a result, Helen quickly lost her sight and hearing. In 1887, a young woman, Anne Sullivan, became the teacher of the girl. She was only 20 years old, she herself suffered from visual impairment. The teacher had to teach Helen to communicate by touching her hand. The story of how Anne Sullivan helped Helen destroy the walls of her isolation from the outside world, was widely known after the release of “The Miracle Worker” in 1962. When Helen was 11 years old, she published her first short story, entitled “The King Frost” (The Frost King). This story told of King Jack Frost and his treasure chest, which is transported by servants-wizards. At the time of this story, Helen communicated exclusively with Anne Sullivan. In fact, it was she who dictated this story to her student. But after the book became popular, it turned out that it was a direct reproduction of one of the works of Margaret Canby. During the scandal, many articles appeared that directly accused Keller of fraud. Many wondered how Helen was able at such a young age to come up with a story. Keller herself claimed that she had never heard the history of Canby before. But Sullivan herself claimed that her ward was reading this book with her fingers. During the investigation of this history, scientists came to the conclusion that Helen Keller, possibly read the story of Canby, but forgot about it, having experienced an attack of cryptomnesia. It was suggested that Sullivan read another’s story, passing the original to the student in her own exposition. At Boston Perkins School for Blind Children, where Ann was listed, an internal investigation was even conducted. For two hours, eight teachers interrogated Helen Keller to see if her teacher had deliberately falsified the facts. As a result, the commission was unable to pass a verdict on violation of the rules. These events caused the nervous breakdown of the poor girl. She decided not to publish her fantasies again. And the head of the school Michael Anegnos stopped believing in Ann and Hellen, calling them “living in lies.” These famous disputes Mark Twain in 1903 described as “idiotic and grotesque.” Helen Keller herself lived a long life, becoming the first deaf-blind person to receive higher education. About her life, she wrote several books, proving that you can lead a full life in such a state.
Trace of an octopus.
On December 21, 1988, Pan Am flight 103 flew from London to New York. On board the liner there were 243 passengers and 16 crew members. When the plane flew over South Scotland, an explosion broke out in it. On the left side of the fuselage a hole of half a meter in width was formed. The plane quickly collapsed and crashed into the ground. As a result of the fall, not only passengers were killed, but 11 people on the ground as well. The subsequent investigation found that the aircraft had become a target of terrorists.There were heated debates about the sequence of events that preceded the catastrophe. There were statements that the CIA knew about the impending attack. The latest information about those events applies to February 2011. Then the former Minister of Justice of Libya Mustafa Abdul Jalil stated that Muammar Gaddafi personally ordered to blow up this plane. In 1993, the light saw the book “The track of an octopus, or the untold story of Pan Am 103”. It tells how the terrorists managed to escape from the security service as a result of the operation of the special services. The US government monitored the ways of drug smuggling. For this, the dual agent was given the opportunity to conduct his goods, but the special control did not check it. Terrorists, led by Ahmed Djibril, managed to build a bomb instead of heroin. Even before the book was published in 1990, the author, Lester Coleman, was represented in the press as a double agent of the CIA. As a result of the published photo, the US government sued the Times for a $ 26 million claim. In 1991, when examining the lawsuit of families of the dead to the airline, Leicester under oath announced the involvement of the administration on combating drugs to hit the bomb on the plane. In response to such words, the federal court imposed a vow of silence on the plaintiffs and defendants. In 1993, the book “The Trail of the Octopus” was first published in England. This work contained the famous phrase “Nobody knows what is really going on.” Coleman himself said that he was forced to resort to political asylum in Sweden to finish his work. When he was under the protection of local justice, he swore under oath, which removed any responsibility from the airline for those events. In response, the administration to combat the spread of drugs filed a lawsuit in the London court. The case was settled, and thousands of copies of the text were destroyed. In September 1997, Coleman told the New York federal court that he had lied, alleging the assistance of the US special services to terrorists. The writer admitted his guilt by receiving a prison sentence. Since 2011, interest in the book appeared in the largest publishers – Kindle and Nook. Over the years, interest in the matter has not died away. Supporters of the conspiracy theory are based on the fact that among the passengers there were at least four intelligence officers. Many people were notified about the deadly danger shortly before the flight. For example, South African Foreign Minister Peak Botha was supposed to fly this flight with his delegation, but suddenly flew before flight 101. In 2003, Libya claimed responsibility for the blast. The government of this country promised the families of the victims $ 8 million. This allowed the UN to lift imposed sanctions against Libya. The restriction of trade with the USA was also lifted.
English, as she said.
After the publication of this book in 1883, immediately around her there were arguments. However, they were not serious, being associated only with ridiculous content. The works of the Portuguese author Jose de Fonseca became known as phrase books. Books helped travelers communicate in several foreign languages. The most famous publication was a Portuguese-French phrase book, actually created by Pedro Carolino. After the success of the book, he decided to print his own version of the Portuguese-English translator. But on the cover of his work Pedro decided to place the name of Jose de Fonseca without the knowledge of that. This step was to make the book popular. Problems began to arise when it became clear that Pedro Carolino himself does not even know English! As a result, “English, as she spoke” became one of the most ridiculous books written in the XIX century. This is a classic example of unintended humor. The fact is that the translation of phrases into English is completely inconsistent and incorrect! It is widely known that Pedro Carolino used the French-English dictionary together with the Portuguese-French phrase book José de Fonseca. But the attempt to create intelligible phrases in English failed.The words were translated literally in automatic mode, which led to the appearance of many absurd expressions. For example, the Portuguese phrase “rain as a bucket” was translated as “rain in the banks.” “Walls have ears” were translated as “walls by hearsay”, “crawl on all fours” began to sound like “go up to four feet,” “a lake full of fish” sounded like “a lake with multiplied fish.” In his preface to the American publication, Mark Twain wrote: “No one can add anything to the absurdity of this book, even it can not be imitated successfully.”
Passport to Mahonia: from folklore to flying saucers.
Jacques Valle is a French writer, ufologist, astronomer. He also has venture capital. More than half a century, Valle was an authority on matters of extraterrestrial life. In Steven Spielberg’s film “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” Valle even became a prototype for one of the characters. Jacques was a very respected researcher, who was able to make a significant contribution to the scientific study of this issue. Valle participated in the development of the first computerized model of Mars, as well as in the creation of the ARPANET network, which became the forerunner of the modern Internet. This scientist was also a member of the National Advisory Committee at the University of Michigan. Valle took part in the development of artificial intelligence, writing, in addition, four books on high technology. Jacques’s interest in technology lies in the fact that he invested in 60 new companies. Of these, 18 today issued their shares for open tenders. Valle, along with his mentor, astronomer Allen Heinek, carefully approached the study of the phenomenon of UFOs. The scientist studied it for many years, having visited with research in many places of the planet. Initially, Jacques published his work in which he supported the theory of extraterrestrial origin of UFOs. This is the best way to explain this phenomenon. The scientist argued that extraterrestrial forms of life visit our planet on their spacecraft. But in 1969 Valle suddenly changed his data, publicly declaring his previous conclusions hasty and not taking into account many other data. The scientist wrote a scandalous novel “Passport to Magony: From Folklore to Flying Saucers” in which a look at a UFO was produced from a different angle. In his book, Valle analyzed the commonality between UFOs and cults, religious movements, angels, ghosts and psychic phenomena. The text gives another hypothesis of visits, it is of an interdimensional nature. According to it, UFOs and related events come from other realities and dimensions that exist together with ours. Valle argues that UFOs are only a modern manifestation of the phenomenon that is present throughout the history of mankind. Previously, he was credited with a mythological or supernatural essence. Interdimensional visiting theory states that aliens can not live according to the laws of terrestrial time and space. This gives them the opportunity to be among us and remain unnoticed. The fact that Valle sharply turned into an opposition to the traditional views of ufologists, served his expulsion from their ranks. However, the scientific fame of the scientist, like his high intellect, made his theory quite popular. Valle convincingly suggested that the distances between the stars are too large to travel in a way that is understandable to us. The structures of the bodies of humanoids may not be suitable for long flights. Obviously, UFOs are able to manipulate time and space. Valle contributed to the study of some known supernatural phenomena, on the basis of his book there were new hypotheses about the appearance of UFOs. So, Hilary Evans explained the ability of the UFO to suddenly appear and disappear from the field of view and with the radar screen just entering and leaving our dimension. The behavior of the flying saucers testifies to the future direction of the development of terrestrial technologies.Valle also suggested that the secondary aspect of the UFO phenomenon is that people are being manipulated. The scientist advocated a more serious participation of science in studying this phenomenon, so that people can learn multidimensional travel as quickly as possible.
The ancient world has presented several fairly controversial books for the entire existence of the written language, including the religious texts of various denominations. For example, one of the samples of Sanskrit literature. This Indo-Aryan dialect served as the basis for Hinduism and Buddhism. In Sanskrit literature there are quite rich traditions of drama and poetry, a lot of scientific and technical, philosophical and religious texts. Many researchers devoted their lives to understand ancient records. A vivid example of such literature is the Puranas. In these religious texts tells about the history of the universe, from its creation to destruction, the genealogy of kings, heroes, sages and demigods. However, the most interesting in such texts is the strongest weapon, which has generated around itself many disputes. In the ancient scriptures it is said about the brahmaster. This is the weapon created by the god Brahma to protect the principles of dharma. Brahmastra is considered the most deadly weapon ever created. Its impact can not be stopped, but from the destructive power – to hide. Brahmastra is a very accurate weapon that can not pass by its purpose. It can hit one person, or maybe a whole army. To bring such weapons into action, a high level of mental concentration is necessary. In this case, the application of the brahmastra leads to an ecological catastrophe – in the radius of its action all animals and plants die out, and women and men become barren. Survivors lose hair and nails, food becomes unsuitable for consumption. In the withered earth, huge cracks appear. The sun, stars and the sky are enveloped by clouds, which leads to bad weather. Do not be an expert to understand that the properties of the brahmastra are quite similar to modern nuclear weapons. In ancient texts, weapons are usually referred to as a deterrent, simply as a threat of terrible use. In Ramayana, it is said how Brahmastra was used by Rama for the final blow in the battle with Ravana. But the clash of the two brahmasters can destroy the universe.
“Report from the Iron Mountain”.
In 1967, during the Vietnam War, American cities swept the wave of escalation and civil unrest. On October 16, a strange book “Report from the Iron Mountain, about the Possibility and Desirability of the World” was seen by the light. The book claims that it is a genuine secret record of the American government. The preface to the book was written by Leonard Levin, who was a freelance writer in New York. It was said that the report was created by 15 experts who are members of the Ad Hoc Study Group (SSG). According to the text, this education worked directly on the US government. The group first met in 1963 on the secret underground nuclear shelter “Iron Mountain”. The book says that the commission periodically met there since the mid-1960s. The learned men discussed the problems that await the US if the country finds itself in a state of permanent peace. The secret of the written report was discovered in 1972, when Leonard Levin stated in an article for The New York Times that all these texts were a hoax invented by him. Disputes began because the reports of the faction in Iron Mountain actually looked like secret documents. They included clever words showing mental activity. In the texts, the SSG came to the conclusion that the world would almost certainly be unprofitable for a stable society. War is very important for the economy, so for the United States to stay in this state for as long as possible. The report says that one of the board members, Professor John Doe, decided to release a report on this topic to the public.The group believed that the governments of the world’s largest countries could not exist without war, the conflict is a vital function for directing collective aggression. The SSG recommended that bloody games be conducted and invited the government to create alternative enemies to frighten the public. It could be messages about aliens, or about the pollution of nature that has escaped control. Scandalous was the proposal of the commission to resume slavery. The report details the reasons for the need for war. This is not only a means of resolving national disputes between states, but also a tool for managing unemployment, reducing the population. The war allows us to promote scientific research, develop art, ensure the legitimacy of the government, control crime, enabling the undesirable communities to publicly escape from the shadows. The report concludes that in the era of peace, it is simply necessary to find substitutes for all the functions of war. This will help prevent the collapse of society. Such could be deliberate emissions into the atmosphere. This global disaster will only rally all of humanity. Also, the report suggests that the government create false incidents involving UFOs. The report seriously suggests thinking about the eugenics program. The book states that without war, serious attention should be paid to the issues of human reproduction. It is necessary to introduce the program of artificial insemination and give it exclusively to the authorities. When the document became available to the broad masses, it caused panic among many government officials. Allegedly, President London Johnson was enraged when he learned about the leakage of information. American embassies around the world received messages that ordered to minimize the public discussion of the document. It was necessary to assert that the book has nothing to do with the official US policy. Over time, it became known that the book was the result of deceiving only one person, Leonard Levin. And his novel in 1996 was even recorded in the Guinness Book of Records as the most successful literary hoax. After its release, the notes were called the “New York Times” bestseller, the book was translated into fifteen languages. Despite all confessions, many people still consider this work a leak of secret government documents.
Germany must perish!
During the Second World War, political propaganda did much to shape the judgment of the general public. The history of how Hitler got control of Germany, Nazi propaganda even actively used in schools and business. But in the USSR, America and England, anti-German texts were widely spread. In 1941, at the height of the war, American Jewish businessman Theodor Kaufman began publishing brochures under the auspices of the American Peace Federation. Beginning in 1939, Kaufmann was determined to prevent his country from participating in the global slaughter. One of the brochures was called “Passive Purchase.” There was a call to Americans within two weeks to cut their spending, in order to demonstrate public protest against the country’s interference in the war. Other brochures contained calls for Congress. But with the outbreak of World War II, Kaufman switched his attention to the complete annihilation of the German people. His most famous book was called “Germany must perish!” The author released his 104-page work for his own funds in a specially open publishing house. Kaufman proposed after the victory to divide the territory of Germany between its neighbors, and forcibly sterilize all men and women. This is supposedly capable of significantly solving the problems of mankind. In the US itself, the book remained virtually unnoticed, but it was noticed in Germany. There Kaufman’s work was widely used as evidence of international Jewish plans for the complete annihilation of the German people.On July 24, 1941, the official newspaper of the Nazi Party “Volkischer Beobachter” published an article about this book on its first article. The book was called only “the product of criminal Jewish sadism.” The article said that Theodore Kaufman was closely associated with President Roosevelt, influencing the country’s policy. It was not true. At that time, Germany was trying to find approval among the people for its aggressive policy and attack on the USSR. Kaufman’s ideas were the best basis for the accusation campaign. That is why the name of Theodor Kaufmann for many Germans remains well-known today, whereas most people about him did not hear anything at all. The book “Germany must perish” became the official reason for the raid of Jews in Hanover. Since September 1, 1941, the Germans have demanded that Jews wear a yellow sign on their clothes. In the country leaflets were distributed, which stated that persons with such a sign were conspiring to destroy Germany according to Kaufman’s plan.
Poem about the God-man.
The author of this work, Maria Valtorta, was born in Caserta, in Campania, Italy. When the girl was 23 years old, an accident happened to her. She was walking on the street with her family, when suddenly a criminal attacked her and struck her unclear why with an iron rod. For three months Mary was bedridden. When the girl turned 27 years old, her family moved to Viareggio, on the coast of Tuscany. Gradually, the girl was able to walk normally, but the consequences of that injury were still made known to herself – Maria spent the last 28 years of her life in bed. In the midst of World War II, on Good Friday morning, April 23, 1943, Valtorta suddenly heard an outsider voice that asked to record it. After this, Maria wrote almost every day until 1947, but with interruptions until 1951. She used a fountain pen and a few notepads. At the same time Maria did not think about future texts in advance. She simply did not know what would be dictated to her the next day. The woman did not even reread her texts for the purpose of correcting anything. In one of her statements Mary stated: “I can safely say that my source was of inhuman origin. I did not know what I was writing about, and I did not always even imagine what was going on during the recording. ” From 1943 to 1951, Valtorta wrote more than 15,000 pages manually, having spent 122 notebooks on it. These pages became the basis for her book “The Poem of the God-man”, amounting to about 2/3 of all the author’s literary publications. The work details the life of Jesus from the moment of his birth to the very crucifixion. The text is sometimes more complicated in places than in the Holy Gospels. The book speaks volumes about the journeys of Jesus and about his conversation with his disciples, future apostles. Valtorta did not change even the chronological order of the texts. So it turned out that her writings are not consistently connected with her. Some of the last chapters were written before the first ones, but the text smoothly passes from one to the other. Most of the written episodes have a single format and structure. Maria begins with a description of the scene of action – the picturesque background, trees, mountains and weather that day. Her paintings are amazing knowledge of the Holy Land. Geologist Vittorio Tredichi said that such a detailed report by Waltorta on the topographical, geological and mineralogical aspects of Palestine seems inexplicable. The book describes 255 specific places in this country, while the Bible in general never mentioned 52 of them. Since the publication of the existence of these places has been confirmed by some ancient documents. In some cases, such as descriptions of feelings, Mary is very detailed and picturesque. Dr. Nicholas Pende was very surprised at the level of detail with which Waltorta described the anguish of Christ during the crucifixion. After all, the described phenomena are not all doctors can know, while the details are told in a medical style. The “God-man poem” was able to clarify some biblical secrets.The judgment of the high priest Caiaphas over Jesus is described in all the Gospels. But some refer him to the night time, while others believe that the action took place during the day. According to Valtorta, the trial took place twice, at night and after dawn. The book “The Poem of the God-man” contains a number of very specific indications of the positions of the moon and stars. In 1992, at Purdue University, astronomers analyzed the text in order to evaluate the date of what was happening according to the terms of the stars. The conclusion was very eloquent – this position of the stars was possible only in 33 AD, as the book says. In 1959, the book was listed as banned by the Holy Church. But since then, the Catholic Church has chosen to remain neutral on this issue. The book “The Poem of the God-Man” is not propagated, but it is not directly forbidden. Six children who saw the Virgin Mary in Medjugorje, strongly supported the authenticity of this book. It remains a mystery and the subject of many disputes about how it was Maria Waltorta who was able to create a text so similar to the Bible. On the Tombstone of the writer is inscribed in Latin “DIVINARUM RERUM SCRIPTRIX”, which means “writer of divine things”.
Hammer of witches.
Since the XII century, the Roman Catholic Church took up the Inquisition. Since that time, some very severe laws have been created, created under the guidance of priests. The Inquisition has become famous for its use of torture and executions to eradicate religious heresy. As a result, by the beginning of the 16th century, the Catholic Church had achieved a dominant position in the religious sphere in Western and Central Europe. During this period, many laws and regulations were adopted, but the most controversial of them is that regarding witches. Between the XV and XVIII centuries across Europe a whole series of hunting after them swept. Witches were searched even in European colonies in North America. People really believed that these satanic creatures seriously threatened the Catholic Church. It is not surprising that ideas about the danger and harm of witches for society are often published in novels and brochures. The most famous of them was the book of 1487 “The Hammer of Witches”. People who worship witchcraft were accused of aiding the devil. It was believed that they were engaged in evil magic, orgies in their meetings and Sabbath Sabbaths. In witchcraft, many people were accused for their crimes. During the entire period of persecution of witches, 40 to 60 thousand people were executed. Even more was the psychological impact of such a struggle, women were afraid to do anything that could be the reason for accusing them of witchcraft. The book “Hammer of Witches” was created by the church inquisitor Heinrich Kramer. Its goal was to systematically prove the arguments about the existence of witchcraft. The book tried in every possible way to discredit all those who did not believe in its reality. “Hammer witches” claimed that women are more inherent in witchcraft than men. The magistrates were given detailed instructions on the detection and conviction of witches. The connection of this book with the Catholic Church gave rise to controversy. Kramer himself claimed that he received approval from the highest circles of the Inquisition, but later even the priests themselves called the book unethical. Historians have discovered that the true author of the “Hammer of Witches” is the German priest Jacob Sprenger. And Kramer simply used his work without the consent of the author in the hope of glory. The preface to the book contains support from the Faculty of Theology of the University of Cologne. But, like much in this book, this part has been questioned. Most likely, it was forged by Kramer. As a result, for a long time the book became a desktop for secular courts throughout Europe during the Renaissance. The third part of the work describes just how to pursue witches. From 1487 to 1520 the text was published thirteen times, from 1574 to 1669 the book was published again a total of sixteen times. Despite the controversial Catholic approval of the book, published at its very beginning, it was not deleted, and caused a great popularity of the text.After the publication of the Hammer of Witches, the persecution of unfortunate women on charges of witchcraft became even more cruel and purposeful. People began to believe that witches are around them, and they are very dangerous. The book says that for witchcraft, three elements are needed – evil intentions, devil’s help and God’s permission. Meanwhile, the book was full of erroneous statements. So, it was meant that if a woman does not cry during the trial, then she is a witch. In our time, the book is condemned as an attempt to manifest hatred towards women. After all, all the ladies with a strong character were automatically ranked among the witches. And the very name of the book in Latin Malleus Maleficarum is feminine, hinting that they are the main source of evil. Otherwise, the book would be called Malleus Maleficorum, which means the male form of a noun to designate a sorcerer. The book “The Hammer of Witches” accuses them of infanticide, cannibalism, the creation of evil spells for those in power and the theft of male members. This makes it possible to understand what witches represented in the Middle Ages. It is unclear, due to what the text became so popular and how it was generally allowed for printing and distribution.
Sexual behavior of men.
Alfred Kinsey was an American biologist who founded the Institute for the Study of Sex, Sex and Reproduction in 1947. At the time of the launch of one of the largest studies on sexual reproduction in the history of the United States, Kinsey was a professor of entomology and zoology. He managed to write two controversial books, which became one of the most discussed in the twentieth century. In 1948 appeared “Sexual behavior of a man”, and in 1953 – “Sexual behavior of a woman.” In his publications Kinsey analyzes the data on the frequency with which people enter into various types of sexual activity. The scientist pays attention to the influence of such factors as age, social status and religious affiliation, on sexual behavior. Kinsey makes many comparisons between female and male sexual activity. Having appeared in the middle of the century books became a shock to the general public, engendering a lot of controversy around themselves. The indignation of many caused a different view of the traditional notion of sexuality, as well as the fact that the book touched on previously forbidden topics for publicity. Alfred Kinsey thanks to his work became the father of sexology. This direction investigated sexuality systematically and scientifically. The work of Kinsey has had a great impact on the formation of social and cultural values not only in the US, but also in other countries. But critics, after a detailed study of the scientist’s work, wondered how exactly he had received the necessary information. After all, the research of sex by Alfred Kinsey went far beyond a simple interview with participants in the trials. This included direct observation of their sexual activity. The scientist investigated a large number of direct homosexual behaviors. Kinsey said that it was necessary to win the trust of his charges. He encouraged his employees to do the same, experimenting with a wide range of sexual activities. The professor believed that personal experience would help scientists better understand the reports of the subjects. As part of the study, Kinsey created a nook in his attic, shooting private porn. Discussing this, writer James Jones and British psychiatrist Theodore Dalrymple note that this behavior was due to the sexual need of Kinsey himself. After the sudden death of Alfred Kinsey in 1956, real disagreements arose around the data in tables 30-34 of the male part of the studies. In the text, Kinsey calculated the number of orgasms at pre-adulthood. The scientist reported on the observation of orgasms in three hundred children aged from five months to fourteen years. It was noted that the information was obtained from observations of parents and teachers. Kinsey also said that he interviewed nine people accused of molesting minors.These people described Kinsey’s reaction to the sex of children. Such facts immediately aroused general bewilderment about the general approach of the scientist to research activity. The information that was obtained in the study of men could not be obtained without cooperation with the corrupters. In 1998, there was a documentary tape that directly claimed about the work of Kinsey with the German pedophile Balusek. However, the Kinsey Institute refutes all allegations, alleging that Alfred received information from one person, presenting it as received from several. In addition, people have doubts about the accuracy of the sample of the population compiled by the scientist. For the experiment, the selection of participants is a simple statistical procedure. But Kinsey in his studies used a disproportionate number of prisoners, prostitutes and especially homosexuals. In his experiments, the professor did not resort to black people at all. All these facts even led to the emergence of the anti-Kinsey movement, launched in 1981 by Judith Reisman.