Crater Lake is a unique natural phenomenon. It appears on the site of the crater of a volcano or in a hollow formed in the place of the failure of the summit of the fire-breathing mountain (caldera). Similar objects appear in places of meteorite fall or artificial explosions initiated by man.
Lakes formed inside the caldera are also called caldera. And for the crater lakes are volcanic, in which water is often saturated with gases, has an increased acidity and a precipitate of a saturated greenish color. The same lakes, which are in already extinct or dormant volcanoes, usually have fresh water. It is also exceptionally transparent.
The fact is that such reservoirs are devoid of input flow and sediment. Crater lakes are themselves miracles of nature, they are worth knowing and worth a look. Paradoxically, these mysterious reservoirs have appeared thanks to fire and volcanoes. Crater lake Crater, volcano Mount Mazama.
This crater lake is the main attraction of the National Park in Oregon, USA. This place even got the name “Lake Creater”. Its fame is based on the fact that the purest water body has a deep and rich blue color. Lake Creater is located in the caldera, whose depth is 1220 meters. This place appeared after the destruction of the Mount Mazam volcano. Lake Creuter became the deepest in the country, its depth is 594 meters. Water comes here only due to precipitation – there is neither its external inflow, nor outflow. Thus, Creight is one of the most famous and brightest lakes in the world. A special glory to this place was brought also by a log called “Lake Old Man”. For more than a hundred years it has been floating in the Creter in an upright position. Since the water here is quite cold, the tree is perfectly preserved.
Kilotoa Crater Lake.
In the Ecuadorian Andes, volcanoes also raged. In place of one of them, and this lake appeared. It occupied the caldera of the westernmost volcano. Its width is about three kilometers, and it appeared because of the strongest explosion, which was the result of an eruption that occurred 800 years ago. That cataclysm produced mudflow and pyroclastic flows, which reached even the Pacific Ocean. And the ash from the volcano cloud came to the northern Andes. Since then, part of the caldera has occupied the lake, its depth is 250 meters. Water Kilotoa has a greenish color, which is due to the minerals dissolved in it. Although along the shore and beat warm keys and small geysers, the water in the lake remains cold. And hot springs appeared here thanks to fumaroles, cracks in the crater. Most of them are located on the eastern slope of the once formidable volcano. Crater Lakes of Albertina Rift.
In Africa, there are areas where the population density is quite high. Nevertheless, they try to preserve the flora and fauna in their original form. This place can be considered the park of Queen Elizabeth, strewn with crater lakes. They appeared here because of volcanic explosions. Only thanks to environmental laws adopted in the middle of the last century managed to preserve an unusual natural monument – the Western or Albertine Rift. Now here is a protected area, protected by the state. The rift valley is formed by large linear depressions in the earth’s crust. Here it is surrounded by high African mountains – Virunga, Mituba and Rwenzori Ridge. Between them is a number of deep-water lakes Rift Valley. Especially known Tanganyika, whose depth reaches 1470 meters. Almost all of this territory lies in national parks – Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwenzori National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda. Although Lake Victoria lies between two parts of the rift valley, it is also considered part of its system. So all the Great Lakes of Africa are due to their appearance rifts, most of them lie within the Albertine Rift.
Crater Lake Kelimutu.
On the Indonesian island of Flores is the volcano Kelimutu. It became the home of three crater lakes of different colors. Lake Tiwu Atambupu is also known as the “Lake of the Elderly”. It lies to the west of the rest, and the blue color prevails here. Two other lakes are called Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (Lake of boys and girls) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Magical, or Magic Lake). Between them lies the wall of the crater, and the water there is accordingly green and red. Volcano Kelimutu is a unique place for geologists, because at the top of one mountain are located just three lakes and all of different colors.
Crater Lake Mount Pinatubo.
The climatic eruption of Pinatubo volcano occurred on June 15, 1991 in the Philippines. It became so strong that it destroyed the Air Force and US Navy bases located 18 kilometers away. And the summit crater became the home for the appearance of a lake here. This place is located near the borders of the provinces of Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales. And to the capital of the country, Manila, from here about 90 kilometers. On the island the lake is the deepest with an indicator of 800 meters. It feeds on the rain.
Crater Lake of Occam.
The Japanese like to give poetic names to natural objects. The lake on Mount Zao, Honshu Island, received the name of “five colors.” The volcano itself is located on the border between the prefectures of Yamagata and Miyagi, which is in Japan. The mountain is not easy, it consists of a whole cluster of stratovolcanoes. On the island of Zao is the most active volcano. Its eruption in 1720 caused the appearance of a crater here, which then filled the lake of Occam. Its “color” name is due to the fact that the water here changes its color depending on the weather. The diameter of the lake itself is small – only 360 meters, and the depth is only 60 meters. Nevertheless, the “Lake of Five Colors” is one of the most famous tourist attractions in this area. Crater Lake, Mount Kathmai.
The Alaska Peninsula is famous for its large nature reserve and Katmai National Park. On its territory is a large composite volcano. The diameter of this mountain is about 10 kilometers. And in the central caldera is a lake, which has a size of 3 to 4.5 kilometers. From here near the island of Kodiak. The hollow was formed during the eruption of the volcano Novarupta in 1912. The caldera has a maximum depth of 2,047 meters. By 1975, the water surface of the lake was at an altitude of 1286 meters, and the calculated height of the day of the caldera at an altitude of 1,040 meters. Crater lake on the Taal volcano.
Luzon Island, which is the location of the complex volcano Taal in the Philippines. Its caldera is partially filled with a lake. The depression appeared here because of the powerful eruptions that occurred in the prehistoric era. It was in the period of 140,000-5,000 years before our era. Lake Taal is best seen from the Tagaytay Range. The reservoir is considered to be one of the most picturesque and attractive in the country. From the volcano to the capital of the Philippines, Manila, only 50 kilometers. A large rock called the “Point of Volcano” should be raised by a lake. It is a splinter from the old bottom of the crater. Over time, this place was filled with a lake. It is two kilometers wide and is known as the “Lake of the Main Crater”. Crater Lake Deriba in Jebel Marra.
In Darfur, in the west of Sudan, there is the extinct volcano Jebel Marra. Its crater is located at an altitude of 3042 meters. The last time the volcano revived 4 thousand years ago. But today it is considered to be not extinct, but asleep. The fact is that on the slopes there are still hot springs and fumaroles, from which steam and gas come out. Caldera Deriba is the highest point in the Sudan after South Sudan proclaimed independence. The diameter of the depression is 5-8 kilometers. Inside the crater are immediately 2 lakes. Around them is a white line, which shows how down the drain the rainwater. Crater Lake, Mount Ruapehu.
In the southern part of the New Zealand volcanic zone, Taupo is an active stratovolcano. From here, 23 kilometers to the city of Ohakune and 40 kilometers to the southern coast of Lake Taupo, which is located in the Tongariro National Park. On the slopes of the active mountain is a glacier. Despite this volcano is considered active, it is generally one of the most active in the world and certainly the largest in New Zealand. The volcano is also the highest point on the North Island. Three of its peaks, Tahurangi, Te Heuheu and Paretaytayonga, respectively, have a height of 2797, 2755 and 2751 meters. Between them is the main crater, which in periods between frequent eruptions has time to fill with water and form a lake. Crater Lake Yak Lum.
In the province of Ratanakiri in the northeast of Cambodia there is a popular place among tourists – the crater lake Yak Lum. From here about 5 kilometers to the provincial capital, the city of Banlung. The lake is famous for its beauty, but it is located in a volcanic crater that arose 4 thousand years ago. The depth of the pond is about 48 meters, and the water is extremely clean and transparent. Curiously, the shape of Yak Lum is the right circle with a diameter of 720 meters. Around the crater lake is vigorous life. Tropical forests are represented by tall and lush trees, they are home to many birds, as well as several species of parrots.
Crater Lake Kerid.
Iceland is known as a country of volcanoes. There is nothing surprising in that there is a crater lake. The most famous is in the Grímsnes area, which is in the south of the island. It is here that the famous tourist route “Golden Circle” passes. The whole area is known as the Western volcanic zone. There are several crater lakes at once, which are located on the Reykjanes peninsula near the Langjökull glacier. Caldera Kerid like other volcanoes in this area consists not of the usual black volcanic rock, but of red. The width of the caldera is about 170 meters, its diameter is 270 meters, and in depth it goes down to 55 meters. Kerid is one of the most recognizable volcanic craters. This caldera was formed 3,000 years ago, and the surrounding area was formed 3,000 years ago. The slopes of the crater are quite steep, they are covered by crumbly vegetation. But one of them is more gentle, it is studded with mosses. It is from here that it is easiest to climb to the top. The very crater lake, unlike its counterparts, is shallow, only 7-14 meters. This indicator depends mainly on precipitation. In the water from the soil penetrate minerals, which make it even opaque, but very bright, aquamarine shade.
Crater Lake Likankabur.
In the southwestern region of Chile, on the very border with Bolivia, lies the unusual stratovolcano of Lycanthabur. It lies southwest of Laguna Verde and rises above the Salar de Atacama area. The volcano is distinguished by its amazing symmetry. In addition, its various parts belong to different countries. Two-thirds of the north-eastern slope at an altitude of 4,360 to 5,400 meters from the foot are the territory of Bolivia. And the rest, the bulk, including the remainder of the north-eastern slope, as well as the crater, belong to Chile. From the crater to the border only about 1 kilometer, the width of the cavity is about 400 meters. Inside the crater there is Lake Likankabur, which measures 70 by 90 meters. It is covered with ice for most of the year. The fact is that it is located high in the mountains, being one of the most remote from the level of the World Ocean in the world. Even though the air temperature can reach 30 degrees below zero, plankton organisms live in the lake. Geothermal crater lake of Viti.
In the central highlands of Iceland, in the most remote part, there is an active stratovolcano of Askiya. It refers to the complex of calde, located in the mountains Dyngjufjoll. They themselves are low, reaching a record of 1510 meters.A word askja in the translation from Icelandic is translated simply – “caldera”. The access of tourists to this place is limited to just a few months in a year. Caldera is northeast of the Vatnajekul glacier, precipitation is rare here, and for the year, only about 450 mm of precipitation falls here. Once it was here that the astronauts trained in the Apollo program, preparing to land on the moon. Lake Esquiwan appeared here in 1875 as a result of a volcanic eruption. The total area of the reservoir is 12 km2. At the beginning of its formation, the lake was warm, but today it is almost always icebound. With an exponent of 220 meters, Esquiwan remains the second deepest lake in Iceland. And on the northern shore of the lake there is a small Viti crater with a diameter of 150 meters. In it there is a geothermal lake, whose depth is only 7 meters. There are many unusual minerals in this place, they make the water opaque and rich in blue. From the lake there is a strong sulfuric smell. Heavenly lake, Mount Baekdu.
This crater lake is located right on the border of China with North Korea. His caldron was the caldera, located on the top of the Baekdu volcano, which is part of the Changbai Mountain Range. Part of the mountain is in the Korean province of Ryangan, and part – in the Chinese Jilin. This caldera, which gave shelter to the Heavenly Lake. It was formed during a large volcanic eruption in 969. The reservoir is located at an altitude of 2190 meters, and its area is about 9.82 km2. The length of the lake from north to south is 4.85 kilometers, and from west to east is 3.35 kilometers. The average depth of the lake is 213 meters, and the maximum depth is 384 meters. More than half of the year – from October to June the lake is covered with ice.