When humanity has mastered navigation, lighthouses have been built for navigation. Usually it is a high tower, which, through a bright light, helps the ship to determine its location and course. People have built such structures since ancient times.
The Alexandria lighthouse was even one of the wonders of the world. Constructions gradually became more complicated, material for creating light was improved – coal, oil, kerosene. In 1820, with the invention of Frenkel lenses, the brightness of the lighthouses increased significantly.
Although today with the development of navigation the significance of such objects is falling, many of them are still in the ranks. Especially the lighthouses – beautiful and romantic buildings, which in any case attract attention, not ships, so tourists. About the most beautiful lighthouses and will be discussed below.
Hook Head, Ireland.
This operating lighthouse is one of the oldest in the world, and even in Ireland there are simply no equals. Legends say that in the 5th century, St. Duban lit a lighthouse light to warn seamen. And the monks built the tower, which for the next six centuries watched that the fire did not go out. In the XII century, the lighthouse was reconstructed, since its appearance remains unchanged. Normans between 1170 and 1184 years used for this structure local limestone and burnt lime, mixed with bovine blood. Even today, traces of red paint are seen through the beacon’s covers. The thickness of the walls is from 9 to 13 feet. The structure looks like a Roman in a squat, to that its width visually increases due to horizontal strips. The Hook Head Lighthouse is one of the main tourist attractions in Ireland.
This black and white structure with a height of 54.85 meters stands on the island of Wessan in French Brittany. The lighthouse is considered to be one of the most powerful in the world. The fact is that this part of the Atlantic coast is famous for its storms, high waves and numerous hidden granite reefs. That’s why the presence of the lighthouse is so important. Creach gives light, which is visible in clear weather from a distance of 60 kilometers. The principle of the work of this structure, as well as its history can be learned from the local museum. In the former engine room there is also a collection of buoys and floating beacons. And nearby is another lighthouse, Stiff. It was opened in 1700 and still operates.
Green Cape, Australia.
This lighthouse stands at the very edge of the Crash Bay in New South Wales. Her name was given by chance. The lighthouse has seen a lot of shipwrecks in its history. The structure is the most southerly in Australia. It was built in 1873 after a series of catastrophes. However, even the presence of this lighthouse in this troubled place could not prevent a catastrophe in May 1886. Then the ship Ly-ee Moon, going from Sydney to Melbourne, collided with a reef. Then 71 seamen died, and 15 rescuers of the lighthouse rescued. The Cruces Bay is located on the border of two national parks – Ben Boyda and Crowdelingolong. The lighthouse rises on a hill above a typical Australian Bush – fine sand, rocky steep cliffs with tea trees, blue water and the smell of eucalyptus. The beauty of the place literally attracts the ships, but here it is very dangerous. Eddiston, Great Britain.
The history of this lighthouse is one of the most dramatic among other similar English buildings. The first version of the tower was built in 1698. But the Great Storm (raging for a week a hurricane) destroyed this lighthouse on the rocks of Addiston. The second variant was made of wood, built and consecrated in 1709. However, in 1755 the tower burned down. The third option on dangerous rocks was built by Yorkshireman John Smeaton in 1759. The lighthouse appeared 14 miles from Plymouth. The stone tower was built in the shape of an English oak tree, which was illuminated by 24 windows. However, 120 years later, because of the instability of the structure, the lighthouse was dismantled. In 1882, they erected a modern tower, not far from the squat remains of its predecessor.
, United States.
The appearance of this lighthouse is such that it is difficult to confuse it with another. And all thanks to a spiral wrapping the tower. The Hatteras Lighthouse is one of the highest in the United States, its height is 63 meters. Originally it was built here in 1803, but during the Civil War the building was damaged. In its present form, the lighthouse has existed since 1871. However, soil erosion caused him to move from the very edge of the ocean to a safer place. In 2000, the lighthouse was moved to 800 meters from the edge of the water. Today this structure not only fulfills its main functions, but also is also a museum.
Slengkop, South Africa.
The lighthouse appeared here in 1914, but it began its full-scale work on March 4, 1919. Then the building was serviced by a team of three employees. The reasons for the construction of the lighthouse are frequent shipwrecks near the Cape of Good Hope. The last straw was the 175-meter ship Maori, thrown onto the rocks in 1911. In 1979, the lighthouse was fully automated, which gave him a second life. Now only one caretaker is involved in the service. The height of the lighthouse “Slengkop” is 33 meters, this is one of the most striking similar structures in South Africa.
Although India has much evidence of the remnants of English colonialism, the influence of France is felt in the city of Pondicherry in the south of the country. Once there was a quiet village, which the East India Company turned into a big shopping center. In addition, a real lighthouse was built on the hill. It began operating in 1836 and was operated for 150 years. Currently, the lighthouse in Pondicherry serves as a monument, but the city authorities plan to open on its basis a museum of local French architecture.
Cape Palliser, New Zealand.
This cape is located on the southernmost point of the North Island. In this uninhabited locality, only an 18-meter lighthouse indicates the presence of a person. It stands at a height of 80 meters above the sea. And a lighthouse was opened on Cape Palliser in 1897. The building is painted white with wide red stripes. The lighthouse has become a real guiding star for ships passing by the tip of the island. Today tourists can lift to the building, breaking the path of 250 steps. From a bird’s-eye view, an unlimited ocean opens.
Only one night spent in this lighthouse will give an understanding of all the romanticism of the work of its guardian. Beyond the windows, the wind is always blowing, the ocean is thundering with storms. Pilot station here appeared in 1871, and now it has become a hotel. And the trip to the island of Hailuoto, where the lighthouse is located, turns into a real adventure for tourists. This place is worth visiting at least because in the near future tectonic shifts will turn the island into a mainland.
Gibbs Hill, Bermuda.
There are two lighthouses on these islands. Gibbs Hill began its work on May 1, 1846. The fact is that up to this point, at least 40 ships have crashed in the coastal waters. Now the lighthouse stands on a hill in Southampton and it has an excellent view of the whole island. From a height of 36 meters you can see the neighborhood in a radius of up to 60 kilometers, and in the beginning of the year even the migration of whales is visible. Previously, the lighthouse did not work on kerosene, but now it is converted to electricity and equipped with the most advanced technologies. Having gone downwards on 185 steps, tourists can visit shops of souvenirs and cafe. Romance is given also by the fact that the grandfather of the current owner of the lighthouse was his last keeper, after which the work was finally automated.