Many people think that there can not be anything interesting in the deserts. And what is there to look for – just sand? However, even among the vast expanses there are deserts that attract some of their features. We will tell below about the 10 most unusual deserts of the world.
– a desert covered with snow. In Central Asia is one of the largest sand deserts of the world, which is among the twenty largest non-polar deserts of the world. Takla-Makan Square is about 270 thousand square kilometers. From the Tarim Basin, it extends 1000 kilometers in length and 400 kilometers in width. It is through the borders of this desert that the Great Silk Road lies – the travelers sought to avoid arid lands. China’s largest desert in 2008 experienced heavy snowfalls, here for 11 days, record low temperatures were observed. Here even the snow fell, which covered almost the entire desert. Lencois Maranhenses
– a desert with lagoons. Brazil – a country that contains about 30%. Here are the largest tropical forests in the world. It seems amazing to be in such a damp and green country of deserts. In the north of Brazil, in the state of Maranhão, there is the Lencois Maranhenses national park with an area of 300 square kilometers. It is distinguished by dazzling white dunes and deep blue lagoons, which makes the place truly beautiful and unique. Dunes here stretch on the continent for 50 kilometers. This place of the desert traditionally has a lot of precipitation, as a result, droplets of water gather in the dunes, forming ponds with crystal clear water between the dunes. Although Lencois Maranhenses and is considered a desert, but the precipitation here is an average of about 1600 mm per year, which is 300 times more than in the Sahara! Naturally, when a drought comes, the lagoons evaporate and become completely dried. But after the rainy season, the lagoons again take on numerous inhabitants – turtles, mollusks and fish. Secretly is where the numerous living creatures go and where it comes from. On this account, there are different hypotheses, one of which says that the eggs of crabs and fish remain in the sand until the desired moisture returns.
Salar de Uyuni
– the largest salt desert. For Bolivia this area is a landmark – on the plateau stretched a huge salt desert. It is quite wide, and its surface is flat. That is why during the rains the water creates a very thin layer of water, which creates a kind of mirror – the largest in the world. In the desert there are several lakes of a strange color. The reason for this – local mineral deposits. About 40 thousand years ago there was a giant prehistoric lake Minchin, after its disappearance there are now two – Poopo and Uru-Uru, as well as two large saline deserts – Salar de Koipasa and Uyuni. The size of Uyuni is impressive – it is 25 times larger than the salt lake Bonneville in America. It is estimated that about 10 billion tons of salt are located here, but only about 25,000 tons are produced per year.
is a white desert. The Egyptian desert is called “El-Beida Sahara”, which means “meaning of the desert.” The white desert of Egypt is located 45 kilometers from the oasis of Farahr. From Cairo to these places – 500 kilometers. The desert has a white or cream color, which actually looks so in contrast to the yellow sand in its other place. There are also massive chalk cliffs, which are created by sandstorms. A white breed of karst formations – traces of the ocean that splashed here millions of years ago. The remains of marine organisms have turned into white dust over the ages under the influence of the sun and winds. Since 2002, this area has been declared the national park of Egypt.
– the desert that blooms. Atacama, located on the west coast of Chile between Arica and Antofagasta was included in the Guinness Book of Records, as the driest place in the world.The Peruvian current cools the lower layers of the atmosphere, thereby preventing precipitation. But its southern part is not so terrible for living things. To the south of Antofagasta there are coastal fogs, “camanchas”, which carry with them a high humidity, thus supporting coastal scenic vegetation. For plants, this is almost the only way to survive, besides the severe saving of moisture forces them to postpone such important functions as growth, in favor of reproduction and survival. Man also learned to get moisture in the desert. The height of the human growth here are cylinders – mist eliminators. On the walls of the nylon thread condensation of moisture droplets, in one day the device can give up to 18 liters of water. Besides, in the desert there are rich deposits of copper and sodium nitrate. It is no coincidence that between Chile and Bolivia territorial disputes over desert areas are still conducted.
is a desert with elephants. In southern Africa there is a grand Namib desert. It though and not such extensive, as Sahara on the area, but impresses not less. Namib is part of Namib-Naukluft National Park, which is located in the territory of neighboring Angola. It is here that the sand dunes are the highest in the world, rising to 300 meters. If the travelers are lucky, then here you can come across desert Namibian elephants. These animals live only in one desert. Namib is one of the oldest formations of its kind in the world, there are many animals and plants. Although the desert has long been the object of close attention of geologists, it still remains a mysterious and poorly studied place. Not far from the coast, the southern wind blows, it generates fogs and strong currents, which caused the loss of many sailors course. The north coast is called Skeleton Coast, since many ships sank here, some of which can be found at a distance of 50 meters deep into the mainland. The fact is that the desert is gradually conquering the ocean its meters.
– a desert of red sand. Australia is the mainland of four large deserts, which are popularized by the film “Mad Max”. The most notable of these is the Simpson desert. It is here that the world’s longest red sand dunes, which are also located in parallel. They stretch from the south to the north, reaching a height of 40 meters, being held in place by vegetation. In all, the dunes in the desert are about 1100. The length of the desert itself is about 170 kilometers, but here in the middle of the sand there are also stone islets. There are no special roads through Simpson, their role is played by the transport routes laid here by the aspirants of gas and oil in past years. On the western outskirts of the desert is an old railway branch. The desert is recognized as a national park, attracting hundreds of tourists annually. They are not afraid of exhausting heat, sandstorms and impassable roads. In summer the temperature here reaches 50 ° C, which even caused the death of several people here. That’s why the Australian government decided to close Simpson for a visit in a particularly hot period.
– a desert with black stones. A distance of 100 kilometers from the White Desert is the Black Desert. Here the mountains have a volcanic formation, which led to the appearance of a large number of black stones. They lie on the orange-brown earth, so that the desert can hardly be called completely black. Although the contrast after visiting the neighboring White Desert is really great, besides, the Black Desert is uninhabited.
Antarctica is a damp and dry desert. This continent is a land of extremes. It is no coincidence that people do not always live here – it’s too cold. In 1983, it was here that the lowest temperature on the Earth -89 ° C was recorded. Wet this cold desert can be considered not because of the precipitation, but because of the ice, which covers 98% of Antarctica.But since it is very cold there, there is very little precipitation here – less than 2 inches per year. This makes Antarctica a cold desert.
is the largest desert. In North Africa is the largest desert on Earth. It stretches for 4,800 kilometers from west to east and 1000 kilometers from north to south. As a result, Sahara occupies almost a third of the area of the whole of Africa! The desert partially covers the territory of more than a dozen states. It is impossible to determine this area by the borders of one desert, there are many regions. Recent research scientists have found that the Sahara turned into a desert about 2700 years ago as a result of slow climate change. Another 6 thousand years ago, trees and lakes were everywhere here.