Do not think that nature is good and defenseless. Around us is a lot of dangerous animals that eat our food and drink our water. And it is they who are usually dumped by people all their troubles. Since the man began to conquer the sea, the ecological pyramids of different continents were threatened with new living beings.
These animals and plants were more active and aggressive, winning new habitats for themselves. Local species lose the battle for a place, food, life. On the Colorado beetle in Russia, nature adequately responded with the Black Sea bull-calf, which took the usual spawning grounds from the Great Lakes trout.
The most important environmental terrorist, of course, is a person. It is he who is the invader number zero. But about the next ten most aggressive living beings-invaders, we’ll tell below.
The first plant on our list is the plant. In our cemeteries you can often see tablets calling for the destruction of ivy, as it kills trees. But even aggressive ivy is nothing compared to the Japanese kudzu. There is even a conspiracy theory stating that the attack of this plant on the United States was one of the stages of Japanese revenge for the defeat in the Second World War and nuclear bombings. In the middle of the 20th century, kudzu was widely advertised in the east of America, as a means of soil erosion. Americans, having relaxed after the recent victory in the war, could not provide regular care for the Japanese liana. As a result, kudzu conquered 11 thousand square miles of the east of the country. If the house left for a year, then in its place a green hill was formed. Not long ago, kudzu were seen in Oregon, far to the west. Here and to the native Japan is not far. If the invasion took place a couple of centuries ago, we would not have seen America today. Today, farmers have in their arsenal of funds to deter the attack of an aggressive plant. On the full victory it does not go.
In our country, rabbit meat is a delicacy, you have to spend to try it. And in some countries, even pay for the opportunity to get rid of such a terrible beast. Yes, yes, terrible, but not harmless. Australia in bad words remembers its farmer Thomas Austin. After all, it was in 1859 that he released 24 gray rabbits. At will, rabbits engaged in the fact that they know best – multiply. Only 40 years have passed, long-eared animals have bred so much that not only the animal world of the continent, but also its soils, has become threatened. In the 1930s, the situation became so critical that the authorities were forced to even use biological weapons – the virus of myxomatosis was launched into nature. There was a famous photo, on which rabbits drink the contaminated water of an artificial reservoir. The effectiveness of the virus was 90%, but by 1950, rabbits were able to work out against it immunity. During the epidemic, the number of animals decreased “only” by half a billion individuals. Only recently the population of fluffy terrorists was managed to be reduced to a minimum. For this, the world’s largest mesh fence was built in the country.
There are birds that cause irritation. This is the cheeky seagulls, which are driven away from food, sinister crows, for which they shoot from slingshots and pneumatics, and some are prevented by starlings. And they are not such lovely singing birds at all. In 1890, the rich pharmacist Eugene Schiffelin solemnly released 60 European starlings in the Central pair of New York. A year later 40 more birds rose to the American sky. Nature lovers believed that now there will be melodic trills everywhere. Could they foresee that such a “gift” would cause annual damage to agriculture alone of 800 million dollars. Do not forget about the numerous air crashes, the culprits were starlings. Starlings gather in packs of up to a million individuals. From the outside it can look beautiful, but how great is the destructive power of such a horde.Our flocks of pigeons and rooks can not compete with them.
Pythons of Burma.
Florida’s warm climate attracts many animals. A particularly favorable place is the Everglades Reserve, which is in the swampy south of the state. Local residents, scientists and not so, adore here to release various exotic animals brought from Asia and Africa. The number of such guests until recently was successfully regulated by the Aboriginal Alligators. But one day someone came up with a “bright” idea to settle in the reserve of Burmese pythons. Six-meter gluttonous snakes quickly put their order here. Since 2002, dozens of cases of battles between crocodiles and snakes have been recorded. Once the boa constrictor even swallowed the young alligator, but he, without giving up, gnashed the python from inside the belly. Today, scientists believe that there are already about 30,000 such dangerous snakes in Florida. Local cats, for example, here already and did not remain. Global warming threatens the spread of pythons in the southern states, as a result of which ferocious snakes can conquer a third of the US territory in just a century. Perhaps, it is necessary to rely on the “god of the machine”, as in Bulgakov’s “Fatal eggs”.
Wild rabbits did not learn anything from Australians. Just in those same years, when the wild rabbits began to poison with viruses, huge toxic reed toads were brought to the mainland. Since 1935, ags have been used to combat agricultural pests. However, in a new place, 60,000 emigrant animals suddenly changed their habits, refusing to eat the proposed food. The frogs liked the local frogs, lizards, bees and even beasts. It turned out that the ags know how to poison their prey with excreta from the skin. Frog enough couple of days to eat kangaroos! Every year hordes of toads move south, destroying everything in their path. The Australian authorities are puzzling how to stop the new invaders. Maybe you should bring someone else?
This fish with an evil grin is unusual in that it can breathe air and crawl out of the pond into the pond. You only need to get there in 5 days. Snakehead is so adapted to a different habitat, which can well live in a garbage can, and in a salted lake. Amphibian fish thanks to its size (in length reaches a meter) is not afraid of anyone. Pikes, snakes and pike-perches are killed by one bite. Zmeegolov likes to hide in ambushes, hunting for everything alive near the pond. Amphibia was discovered in the Far East, but its meat seemed so delicious to people that they began settling the snakehead over the ponds of other countries. So the fish began its ascent to world domination. As a result, in America and Europe there have been cases when whole lakes were poisoned to get rid of a toothy predator.
In England, an ecological story is popular about how red squirrels retreated under the onslaught of their gray brethren. A sweet fluffy guest from Carolina turned into a ruthless invader, demonstrating his stubborn character. It turned out that when gray squirrels lack food, they are ready to swim the sea for food. In England, the animals were, most likely, on some ship. The gray squirrel is larger than its red brethren, besides carrying a virus to which European brethren do not have immunity. As a result of the invasion, the number of red squirrels decreased noticeably. In Britain, even passed a law that equated gray beasts to pests, encouraging the hunt for them. On television, success is enjoyed by culinary shows, which are divided into recipes for dishes made from low-fat meat protein.
It is the person who is to blame for the appearance in nature of these terrible insects. In the mid-1950s, the Brazilians decided to become famous not only for their coffee and beef, but also for honey. For this, it was decided to cross a European bee, a lover of cold, and a hard-working African, observing the behavior of the offspring.26 queens were brought from Tanzania, but, by carelessness of the laboratory assistants, the bees were free. Here they quickly blended with local species, giving birth to a hybrid very honey-bearing, but also extremely aggressive. Sensing the slightest alarm, the killer bees attack their target with a whole swarm. For a person or even a cow, such aggression turns tragically. As a result, since 1969, in Brazil alone, more than 200 people and thousands of domestic animals, including ordinary bees, have died from the bite of these bees. Bee-bees were few in number only in Brazil – they spread to South and Central America, tourists met them in Mexico. Scientists can only reassure that in the north mestizos will become more sluggish and they can even be tamed.
The usual bony inhabitant of our ponds and fish shops in the west is called Asian carp. Completely emptying the ecosystem, carnivore can grow huge. Once this fish was brought to the US to weed ponds on fish farms. But because of the flood, the carnivore got into the Mississippi basin, getting to the Great Lakes. Fish not only leaves its competitors without water in the water, but it is dangerous even for fishermen. After all, the carver is so scared that, hearing the sound of the boat’s engine, it can jump out high from the water, literally attacking the passengers. In the Midwest today, there is no fisherman, whose boat at least would not be overturned by flying carp. Although in the historical homeland the carnivores are considered a delicacy and a deficit, in America this fish is not eaten, giving it to feed penguins in zoos.
Uninhabited islands of the World Ocean are not so uninhabitable. 90% of them are captured by rats. Biologists believe that it is these rodents that are to blame for the disappearance of many species of seabirds and endemic reptiles. Suffice it to recall one of the Aleutian Islands, called Rat. In 1780, a Japanese ship sank near it. The ship-rats that have escaped from it for 200 years on a treeless island have destroyed all birds. In life there were only large species capable of repelling the invaders. The terrible thing is that after killing a bird, the rodent eats only the brain and eyes. In 2008, Alaska authorities scattered a lot of poisonous bait around the island, claiming a year later that there were no more rats left. It remains only to hope that new invaders will not come.