The mosque is a Muslim architectural structure for prayer. Usually it is a detached building with a dome, sometimes with a courtyard. In the form of wings to the mosque tower-minarets are attached. In the hall for prayer there are no images, on the walls there are lines from the Koran.
The word mosque literally means “place of worship.” Such facilities are everywhere where Muslims live. On Earth, mosques are present in more than 100 countries, not only in Arab countries. The most famous buildings can accommodate thousands of believers. The largest mosques in the world will be discussed below. Forbidden Mosque, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
This structure is the largest mosque in the world. It is also called the Al-Haram Mosque, the Reserve Mosque. In the inner courtyard of this building is located Kaaba, the main Muslim shrine. The first mosque in this place was built in 638. The building in modern form stands here since 1570. The mosque is constantly being rebuilt. Now its area is 357,000 m², 9 minarets have been built here, up to 95 meters high. In addition to the 4 gates there are 44 more entrances to the building. The last reconstruction was carried out in 2007-2012 by the decision of the King of Saudi Arabia, Ibn Abdul-Aziz Al-Saud. Now more than 1.1 million people can be accommodated on the territory of the mosque. And during the Hajj – up to 4 million! New premises have appeared, air conditioners are put everywhere. The cost of all works was $ 10.6 billion. In 1979, the mosque was captured by terrorists, it was possible to free it only with the help of French special services. Mosque of the Prophet, Medina, Saudi Arabia.
The second largest mosque is also located in Saudi Arabia. This is also a sacred place. They built it during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, and Islamic rulers gradually expanded and embellished it. It is here, under the Green Dome, is the grave of the Prophet. When the mosque was built, it is not known exactly, but it is reported in documents dating back to the 12th century. It is considered such a date 622 year. The first two Muslim caliphs – Abu Bakr and Umar – are buried on the territory of the complex. It is believed that when Muhammad lived in Medina he took part in the construction of the mosque. The principle of planning that building became the basis for other mosques throughout the world. Today, a mosque with an area of 400.5 thousand square meters, can accommodate up to 600,000 people, and during the Hajj – up to a million believers.
Mazar of Imam Reza, Mashhad, Iran.
Under this name is known the whole architectural mausoleum complex. In 818, Imam Reza was killed by the son of Harun al-Rashid and buried next to the tomb of Garun. This place was nicknamed Mashhad Al-Riza (The Place of Martyrdom of Reza), it was venerated both by Sunnis and Shiites. At this place temples were built and destroyed. In the modern form the mosque appeared here in the beginning of the XIV century. In addition to the tomb of Imam Reza himself, there are places of burial of others by the imam, a museum, a library, a mosque. The main part of the complex was built in the era of the Timurids and Safavids. Today it is a center of pilgrimage and tourism in Iran, every year up to 20 million people come here. The total area of the mausoleum is 331 thousand square meters, up to 100 thousand people can be accommodated at the same time. Mosque Taj-ul, Bhopal, India.
The name of this mosque is translated as “The Crown of Mosques.” The name is rather eloquent. Indeed, Taj-ul is the largest in the country. To build it began in the XVII century, the ruler of Bhopal, Sultan Jagan Begum. His daughter continued the work, but she did not have time. The mosque for a long time stood unfinished, until in 1971 the work was not resumed. In 1985, the “Crown of the Mosques” would be finalized. The building received a pink facade, there are two 18-storey and eight-cornered minarets. Above the mosque there are three onion domes, a corridor with columns and a marble floor – here one can feel the influence of Mughal architecture. The covered area is 400 thousand square meters, and 175 thousand believers can immediately accommodate this mosque.Independence Mosque (Istiklal), Jakarta, Indonesia.
After Indonesia gained sovereignty and separation from Holland in 1949, the idea arose to build its own national mosque for the new state. It is in Indonesia that Muslims live more than in any other country in the world. In 1953, the Committee for the Construction of a Mosque began its work. The authorities took the whole project under special control. In 1961, the foundation stone for the new mosque was laid, the construction was completed in 1978 and cost $ 12 million. The mosque has become the largest in the region, it can accommodate up to 120 thousand people at the same time. The dome has a diameter of 45 meters, the height of the only minaret is 96 meters. Mosque of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco.
This mosque is the largest in the country. The building is located on the very shore of the Atlantic Ocean, which is visible from the main hall. It can hold up to 25,000 believers at the same time, another 80,000 can pray on the square adjacent to the mosque. The minaret is alone, its height is 210 meters. The designer of this project was the French architect Michelle Pinzo, the construction was conducted from 1986 to 1993. The minaret built 2,500 builders and 10,000 decorators. The complex cost 800 million dollars, the money was collected through donations. During the construction of the building, technical innovations were applied. So, the floor has heating, the roof can move apart, the complex has seismic stability. The mosque is one of the few such places where non-Muslims are allowed. The Faisal Mosque, Islamabad, Pakistan.
This mosque is also known for its size. Here, an area of 5000 m² can accommodate up to 300 thousand people. In 1966, the King of Saudi Arabia, on a visit to Pakistan, proposed the construction of a large mosque. An international competition was announced, in which the Turkish architect Vedat Dalokoy won. In 1976, construction began directly sponsored by the government of Saudi Arabia. In total, the project cost $ 120 million at modern prices. As a result, the structure, like the road to it, was named in honor of King Faisal ibn Aziz al-Saud, who realized the project and was killed in 1975. In 1986 the mosque was finished. Its area was used by the International Islamic University. In 1988, a nearby mausoleum was built for General Mohammed Ziya-ul-Khak, whose funeral became one of the most magnificent in the country’s history.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan.
This mosque is the second largest in the country. It was built in 1673 during the time of the Mughal empire. There may be up to 55 thousand believers at the same time. The mosque was built for two years, it is located opposite the fort of Lahore on a platform, the path to which leads along the stairs. The building is completely built of red sandstone. Four minarets were built on four corners, each height of 54 meters. Inside there is a place for the storage of religious relics. Legends say that these subjects were brought by Emir Taimer after one of the campaigns to Asia. Visitors feel the simplicity and monumentality of this place. For a long time, Lahore was under Sikh rule, and the building was used for military purposes. Only since 1856 the sacred place became possible to use for religious purposes. Serious restoration work was carried out, the money for which was collected from the donations of citizens. The Shaykh Zayd Mosque, Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates.
This mosque is the largest in the Arab Emirates. It is named after Sheikh Zayed ibn Sultan al-Nahyan, who is the founder and the first president of the country. Nearby, he was buried. The mosque was built from 2004 to 2007. It is able to accommodate up to 40,000 believers simultaneously, 7,000 of whom can enter the main prayer hall. Next to it are two rooms, which can accommodate another fifteen hundred people.Both are exclusively for women. Near the corners of the mosque minarets up to 107 meters in height are built. The outer row of the main building is decorated with 82 domes. They are made of white marble, they are also trimmed inside them. The courtyard is 17400 m² in color marble. The mosque took part in several world records – here they spread the world’s largest carpet with an area of 5627 m², and the main chandelier of the mosque weighing 12 tons and 10 meters in diameter was at one time the largest in the world. Now it is the largest of those that are present in mosques. Cathedral mosque, Delhi, India.
This building was laid under Shah Jahan, the builder of the Taj Mahal. The construction of the mosque was completed in 1656. The building was built by 5 thousand workers for six years. For those times the mosque cost one million rupees. Shah Jahan generally built several important mosques in Agra, Delhi, Lahore and Ajmer. The original name of the building is “a mosque commanding the representation of the world”. Inside the complex can accommodate up to 25 thousand people. Many relics are kept here, the most famous of them is a copy of the Koran written on the skin of a deer. On April 14, 2006, a terrorist attack occurred in the Cathedral Mosque – two explosions occurred. Thirteen people were wounded, the building itself was not damaged. The Holy House Mosque, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The Baitul Mukarram National Mosque was built in the 1960s. The complex was designed by the architect Abdul Hussain Tariani. This building is interesting for its architectural features. However, despite innovations, here there were traditional for such complexes features. It is interesting that there are similarities with the main Mosque of Muslims in the Kaaba. Only the architect still used a more modern style. The mosque is built of light stone with black accents. Thanks to this, it looks especially impressive. Traditionally for Indian architecture, the approach to the building runs through an artificial pond.
Muscat Cathedral Mosque (Sultan Qaboos Mosque), Oman.
In 1992, the ruler of the country, Sultan Qaboos, decided that the state should have its own Great Mosque. In 1993, a competition was announced, and two years later construction began on the means of Kabus. It lasted six years and four months. As a result, there was a beautiful cathedral mosque, which received the name of its creator. 300 thousand tons of Indian sandstone were used for its production. The main prayer hall is made in the form of a square with sides of 74.4 meters. The central dome here rises to 50 meters. The mosque stands out not only as a dome, but as the main minaret with a height of 90 meters. There are four lateral minarets of 45.5 meters. In the main prayer hall can accommodate up to 6,500 people, there is also a special prayer hall for women. It can accommodate up to 750 people. Outside, up to 8,000 people can pray. In total, the mosque can accommodate up to 20 thousand believers. Tourists can get inside on weekdays. Just before the entrance to the mosque is a beautiful garden. Along the north and south sides of the complex there are galleries with a length of 220 meters. Each niche here is decorated with an ornament of some people or region. If the area in front of the mosque is made of marble, then inside it lies the Persian carpet. It weighs 21 tons and consists of 58 parts. He wove 600 craftsmen for 2.5 years.
Festive mosque “Id Kah” (Etigart), Kashgar, China.
And in China there was a place for the mosque. The festive mosque is the largest in the country. It is located in the center of Kashgar, inhabited by Muslim Uighurs. The area of the mosque is 16.8 thousand square meters. There can be up to 20 thousand people at the same time. And they built the complex back in 1442, although the oldest sites date back to the 9th-10th centuries. During its history, the mosque has been repeatedly rebuilt and expanded. The order to build a mosque in place of the old Muslim cemetery was given by the local ruler Shakesimiridza.Believers were able to communicate here with the souls of deceased relatives. From the side of the main square one can see a large gate with a height of 12 meters and a pair of minarets. The mosque is decorated with yellow tiles, which makes it friendly. Surprisingly, Etigart is one of the few Chinese mosques on which local architecture has had no influence. Just outside the gate is a huge cool and shady courtyard, here you can wash before prayer. From the courtyard you can go to 36 rooms, special attention is drawn to the prayer hall. The ceiling is decorated with 140 wooden carved columns, it is painted with bright colors. Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
This national mosque was built in 1965. In the main hall is placed up to 8 thousand people, a special occupancy here on Fridays. The complex consists of a star-shaped ribbed dome and a minaret with a height of 73 meters. At the dome of the 18th corner, which symbolizes the five pillars of Islam and 13 states of the country. After receiving the country’s independence from Britain, reforms were envisaged not only in the field of economy, but also in social policy and architecture. That is why it was decided to build a national mosque, which would become a symbol of the country’s independence. The mosque received its name in gratitude for the peaceful acquisition of the country’s sovereignty, without bloodshed. In 1987 the building underwent a large reconstruction. The roof, formerly pink, became green and blue thanks to the new slabs. Today the mosque rises on the horizon of the city, it embodies the modern Islamic style. Near it is the Mausoleum of Heroes, where some prominent politicians are buried.