Throughout history, mankind has been at war. After all, with the help of weapons, it’s so easy to take something from a neighbor. However, he also hastens to defend himself. Armed conflicts are taking the lives of people. In trying to radically change the world or capture vast territories, people are ready to kill millions of their own kind.
One Swiss researcher, Jean-Jacques Babel, came to the conclusion that for the whole of the known history of mankind, for the last 5500 years, in the world we have lived only 292 years. And there were different wars – some local and bloodless, and others – global world, which carried away a significant part of the world’s population. The most bloody wars in history will be our story.
Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815).
Thanks to the genius of Napoleon, France’s history turned sharply. Until recently, a country devastated by the revolution, barely repulsed the attacks of the interventionists. But suddenly the army of France itself began to actively participate in the redistribution of the European political map. The wars that Napoleon led from 1799 to 1815, were called the Napoleonic Wars. The commander cherished plans for large-scale conquests even before he became First Consul. And having received power, he began to realize the dream. The Napoleonic Wars included the Hanoverian campaign, the Third Coalition war involving Russia, Austria and France in 1805, the war of the Fourth Coalition, where Austria took Prussia in 1806-1807. This period ended in the Tilsit world. But in 1809 the war of the Fifth Coalition with Austria took place, in 1812 – the Patriotic War. After it, the war of the Sixth Coalition of European countries, which opposed Bonaparte, was also held. And the war ended, shaking the continent with the period of “hundred days” and Waterloo. A series of wars for the redistribution of influence in Europe cost 3.5 million people. However, some historians believe this figure is understated by half.
Civil War in Russia (1917-1923).
The revolution of 1917 in Russia turned into a devastating Civil War. Some fought for new power and imaginary freedoms, others tried to regain the former regime, while others tried to simply seize territory or gain sovereignty. In this bloody mess, everything was mixed-my brother went to his brother, his father fought with his son. As a result, in Russia, the Civil War claimed the lives of at least 5.5 million people, although they even say 9 million. For the entire population of the planet, losses were only about half a percent. It seems to be a bit, but for our country the opposition of the Reds and Whites turned out to be grave consequences. It is no accident that General Denikin in his army abolished all awards. How can you celebrate people killing their fellow citizens? And the Civil War ended not in 1920 with the evacuation of the last White Guards from the Crimea. The Bolsheviks suppressed the last centers of resistance in Primorye until 1923, and the Basmachi in Central Asia did not give rest to the new government until the early 1940s.
Dungan uprising (1862-1869).
These events began in 1862 in Northwest China. Against the Qing Empire, national minorities emerged, tired of the oppression of Chinese and Manchu feudal lords. But English-speaking historians see the reasons for the uprising at all in religious contradictions, but in class and racial contradictions, which are also due to economic reasons. Chinese Muslims and before it opposed the imperial regime, but in 1862 a favorable situation developed – the army was engaged in suppressing other uprisings. So in May 1862, a mutiny broke out in the provinces of Shanxi and Gansu. There was no unified management among the insurgents, the clergy tried to direct the movement in the right direction, declaring war on the wrong. The mosques became the center of the mutiny, warehouses and hospitals were deployed there. The explosion of religious fanaticism led to a bloody massacre. Over time, the authorities gathered a powerful army and brutally suppressed the uprising. In total in that war, according to various estimates, from 8 to 12 million people died. And the remaining Dungans fled so far that they reached the Russian Empire.Today, the descendants of Chinese rebels are still living on the territory of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan.
Mutiny Ai Lushan (755-763 years).
Historians believe that it was during the Tang Dynasty that China reached its maximum grandeur, outstripping the development of other world countries. And the civil war that erupted in this era became no less grandiose. Historians call those events the Ai Lushan revolt. Emperor Xuanzong, together with his beloved concubine, Jan-Guifei, especially singled out the Turk who served them Ai Lushan. The advisors singled it out, considering it harmless relative to other Chinese dignitaries. The mercenary concentrated in his hands a huge power and army, controlling 3 of the 10 border provinces of the empire. In 755, Ai Lushan raised a rebellion and marched on the capital, under the pretext of overthrowing the courtiers hated by his soldiers. On the side of the army of nomads passed a lot of imperial officials, who were promised inviolability. So Ai Lushan ceased to hide his true goals and declared himself emperor and founder of the new dynasty. During the crisis, the Emperor abdicated, and his heirs called on foreigners to help. In 757, the sleeping chief of the rebels was killed by his own eunuch, but Ai Lushan’s death managed to hide for a long time. Finally, the mutiny was suppressed only in February 763. The number of victims was unthinkable for that time – no less than 13 million people. According to official data, the number of taxpayers decreased by 36 million people. In this case, it reduced the entire human population by 15 percent. In this case, this conflict in general became the largest in history until the Second World War.
World War I (1914-1918).
In his novel The Great Gatsby, Scott Fitzgerald, with the mouth of the character, called those events “the belated migration of the Teutonic tribes.” As soon as they did not call the First World War: a great, European, war against war. But in history it came in thanks to the name invented by the Times columnist Colonel Charles Repington, and even after 1939. And the foundations of the global conflict began to be laid back at the end of the XIX century. Germany began to claim leading roles, acquired colonies. In the Middle East, the interests of all the leading countries collided, which were trying to seize pieces from the collapsing Ottoman Empire. A hot cauldron was the multinational Austro-Hungary. The signal for the outbreak of the war was the shooting in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, when the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand was killed. The truce came only on November 11, 1918. During that war, disappeared as many as four empires: the German, Austria-Hungary, the Russian and the Ottoman. But the worst is the number of victims. Soldiers alone killed about 10 million, another 12 million peaceful victims lost their lives. In some sources there is also a figure of 65 million people. It includes also the victims of the most massive epidemic of influenza in history, the Spanish. Conquest of Tamerlane (XIV century).
About those events the picture Vereshchagin “Apotheosis of war” eloquently testifies. Initially, it was called “Tamerlan’s Triumph”. The fact is that the great conqueror just loved to build pyramids from human skulls. This involved massacres. The great conqueror was extremely cruel, repressing without mercy any disobedience. Timur or Tamerlane for 45 years of his campaigns created an empire that rested on blood 15, and even 20 million people. At that time, the victims of Timur’s aggressive policy were 3.5 percent of the world’s population. At the same time, the Great Lame did not have any directed vectors for conquest. He visited Iran and Transcaucasia, the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Empire. The name of the conqueror from the Turkic language is translated as “iron”. Probably, his fortress allowed him to create his own history and great empire. By the end of its life, the state of Tamerlane stretched from the Transcaucasus to the Punjab in India.The commander intended to conquer and China, but at the beginning of the campaign died.
The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864).
And again, China is struck by the number of lives that the internal war took away. However, taking into account the population of the country, it should not be surprising. And this uprising happened again during the time of the Qing Empire. The country was then torn apart by opium wars, the Xinhai revolution, the movement of their étetuanians, the Dungan uprising and the Taiping uprising were added to them. It was pretty bloody. About 20 million people have become his victims according to modest estimates. The most bold figures in general speak about one hundred million, or 8 percent of the total population of the Earth at that time. The insurrection began in 1850, it was essentially a peasant war. Then the disenfranchised Chinese peasants rose to fight the Manchu dynasty of Qing. Initially, the rebels set the most good goals: to overthrow foreign rulers, drive foreign colonialists and create a kingdom of equality and freedom, the Taiping Kingdom of Heaven. The very word “taiping” is translated as “Great tranquility”. And led the rebellion Hong Xiuquan, who declared that he is neither much nor little, the younger brother of Jesus Christ himself. But it was not possible to live mercifully and to solve good questions. In South China, there really appeared the Taiping Kingdom with a population of 30 million people. Its inhabitants, the rest of the Chinese nicknamed “hairy bandits” for refusing to wear braids, imposed on residents Manchus. After the Taiping began to occupy large cities, the authorities gave them a decisive rebuff, besides, other countries intervened in the struggle for power, rebellions broke out in other parts of China. The uprising was completely suppressed only in 1864, not without the help of the French and the British.
The capture of China by the Manchu dynasty (1616-1662).
Again, the massive bloodshed in Chinese history is associated with the Qing dynasty. This time we will talk about the time of her coming to power in the country. In 1616 on the territory of Manchuria appeared the foundation of the future empire, created by the local clan Aisin Gero. From the northeast of China, a new force spread its influence throughout the country, as well as Mongolia and part of Central Asia. The previous Ming empire fell under the blows of the Great Pure State, Da Qing-Guo. But large-scale gains cost a living to 25 million people, every twentieth-century inhabitants of the planet at that time. But the empire lasted almost 300 years, being destroyed by the Xinhai Revolution of 1911-1912 and the abdication of the six-year-old emperor Pu I. Surprisingly, he managed to return to power, having headed the puppet country of Manchukuo, created in Manchuria by Japanese invaders and existed until 1945 .
Wars of the Mongol Empire (XIII-XV century).
Conquest of Genghis Khan and his successors created a state called modern Mongolian empire historians. The territory of this country was the largest in world history. The Mongols ruled the lands from the Sea of Japan and to the Danube, from Novgorod to Southeast Asia. That country stretched an impressive 24 million square kilometers, which exceeded even the area of the Soviet Union. But such a global conquest was impossible without a huge number of victims of warriors, civilians. It is believed that the Mongol conquests cost humanity at least 30 million human lives. There are also cautious estimates of 60 million victims. Yet it is worth saying that this war was extended for a long time. Counting can be taken from the beginning of the XIII century, when Khan Temuchin unites the hostile tribes of nomads and created a unified state. He took the name Genghis Khan. And the era ended in fact in 1480, standing on the Ugra. Then the Moscow state of the Grand Duke Ivan III was completely freed from the Mongol-Tatar yoke. For two hundred years of great conquests from them, from 7.5 to 17 percent of all people living on the planet died.
World War II (1939-1945).
This war has become a record among all in terms of the number of victims and in its devastation. According to the most conservative estimates, about 40 million people died, although according to some reports, the losses amounted to 72 million people. Material damage, however, has nothing to compare with, it amounted to one and a half to two trillion dollars. And this war can really be considered a World War. Indeed, in it in one form or another participated 62 countries out of 73 that existed at that time. In the Second World War, 80 percent of the world’s population became involved. The fighting was conducted not only on land and at sea, but actively already in the sky, on three continents and in the waters of the four oceans. The Second World War was the only conflict during which nuclear weapons were used.