Skyscraper – a very tall building. A skyscraper is a freestanding structure, evenly distributed vertically into floors intended for the life and work of people. In Russian, the term “high-rise building” or simply “skyscraper” is also used.
Skyscrapers above 300 m are called ultra-high. The minimum height of the skyscraper building is controversial. In the US and Europe, skyscrapers are considered to be buildings of a height of at least 150 m. The first famous skyscraper was the Tower of Babel, destroyed according to the biblical tradition. At different times, the title of the highest building in the world belonged to the pyramid of Cheops, the Eiffel Tower, the Washington Monument.
The buildings that are being erected now vary considerably in form and in execution. Among them there is a race for records, on many skyscrapers there is a spire, the only meaning of which is to push the highest point farther from the ground and make the building even higher.
Below we will talk about the twelve largest modern buildings, in the ranking for obvious reasons did not take into account towers and TV towers, not intended for the constant presence of a large number of people there.
The building resembles a stalagmite. The opening ceremony took place later than other members of this list – on January 4, 2010 in Dubai. If in July 2007 the building under construction became the tallest building in the world, then in May 2008 it was the tallest building in the world ever built by a man. The exact height of the tower is 828 meters, it has 162 floors. The tower was originally known as Burj Dubai (Dubai Tower), but at its opening the ruler Dubayev renamed it, calling it the name of the president of the UAE. The Dubai Tower was designed not as an office center, but as a real city in the city, it has its own parks, boulevards and lawns. The cost of the construction was 1.5 billion dollars, the author was the American Adrian Smith. The contractor was the construction division of the company “Samsung”, previously noted the construction of the towers Petronas. The skyscraper has become a key element of the new Dubai business center. 37 lower floors are given to the hotel, from 45 to 108 floor are 700 luxury apartments. Most of the areas are given to offices, while on the 123 and 124 floors are the lobby and observation deck. Especially for the construction of a skyscraper, special concrete was developed that can withstand high temperatures, it was poured exclusively at night, ice was added to the solution. The building is equipped with 65 two-story lifts, the total cost of 36 million dollars. From the first to the last floor it will be possible to climb exclusively in the service elevator. Residents and visitors will have to take advantage of the increase in transplants. The skyscraper was built in 6 years, during the week 1-2 floors were erected. The fire system of the building implies the evacuation of all inhabitants in 32 minutes. The skyscraper is completely non-volatile, to generate electricity there is a 61-meter turbine rotated by the wind, as well as a 15,000-square-meter solar system. For overheating from the sun, the building is equipped with reflective glass panels – this reduces the need for air conditioning. The declared temperature of the air in the rooms is 18 degrees, for this, a convection system will also be used, driving the air along the entire height of the tower.
The skyscraper is located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. But this project belongs not only to the height record, it became a landmark in the investment practice of the state. For the first time in Taiwan’s history, a tender for the implementation of the project, its operation and management, was won by a consortium of investors. The building is officially called the Financial Center of Taipei, it has 101 floors, and the height with the spire is 508 meters. The lower floors with an area of 74711 m2 are allocated for shopping centers, and the upper areas of 198,348 m2 are offices.The construction of the skyscraper started in 1999, the building was officially opened on November 17, 2003. In operation it was introduced only on December 31 of the same year. The project cost investors 1.7 billion dollars. The building is distinguished by its elevators – the fastest in the world. Their speed is 63 km / h, so from the ground floor to the 89th, where the observation deck is located, you can get in just 39 seconds. The building rests on 380 concrete pillars, each of which extends deep into 80 meters. Skyscraper skeleton is made of steel, aluminum and glass. Since the leader among the skyscrapers in height was built in the zone of increased seismic activity, the best methods for protecting buildings from earthquakes were taken into account when erecting. To reduce the likelihood of collapse from a hurricane or an earthquake between 87 and 91 floors was placed a huge ball-pendulum weighing 728 tons. Engineers ensure that the tower is capable of withstanding severe shocks for 2,500 years. Naturally, the unusual tower attracts unusual people. So, on December 25, 2004, she was conquered by “Spider-Man” Alain Robert, who managed to climb to the top in 4 hours, although initially he planned to spend half as much. June 15, 2008 during the race on the stairs of the skyscraper was defeated by the German Thomas Dold, who managed to climb for 10 minutes 53 seconds to 91 floors. To do this, he had to overcome 2,046 steps, the prize to the athlete was 6600 US dollars.
World Shanghai Financial Center.
This skyscraper was commissioned in the summer of 2008, and its height was 492 meters. The construction was carried out by the Japanese company Mori Building Corporation, and the main designer of the project was a representative of the New York-based Kohn Pedersen Fox David Malott. Construction of the building began in 1997, but the financial crisis of 1998 stretched the construction for a long 10 years. Themselves directly work lasted only 4 years, after the beginning of active financing in 2003. At the same time, the developers made changes to the project, so the building from the original 460 meters and 94 floors increased to 492 meters and 101 floors. 2005 brought a change in the shape of the window on the top of the building. Initially, it was planned to create a circular hole 46 meters in diameter to reduce air resistance. However, the public at the head of the mayor of the city opposed this decision, as it was believed that this would be similar to the rising sun on the flag of Japan. As a result, the hole became a trapezoidal shape, and it also simplified, and made the project cheaper. Investors planned to increase the height of the building with a spire, thus breaking the record of Taipei, but the architects refused such a design, considering that the building is already so grand in its dimensions. The cost of the project amounted to a billion dollars, however these costs should be paid off in just two years. The skyscraper was erected in the business center of Shanghai, the first level of the building, up to the seventh floor is given to retail areas, offices 7 to 77 are located, and above are hotel rooms. At an altitude of 472 meters is a walking gallery with a sliding glass roof and exhibition hall. The observation deck of this skyscraper is the highest in the world. Architects designed the building so that it can withstand an earthquake of 10 points, there is practically no risk of a sudden collapse of the facade. The whole skyscraper, including a pedestal, glass. The facade is made of laminated glass with PVB-films, which improve the optical, acoustic and energy-saving characteristics. The glass has a pearl-silver tint, from the inside it is completely transparent. On each 12th floor of the building there is a sheltered floor to protect people from fire in case of fire.
The height of the building is 452 meters, there are 88 floors in it. The building is located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia. The Prime Minister of Malaysia proposed the shape of two intersecting squares, while the architect added semicircular projections for stability.Twin Towers are made in Islamic style, since there is no own Malaysian style in the state. Construction lasted 6 years – from 1992 to 1998. To increase the productivity of work on the project, two different companies worked simultaneously. Originally, the building was intended to be built on fragile stone and limestone, as a result, the foundation was moved 60 meters to soft ground, becoming the largest foundation in the world. The skyscraper is also characterized by the complexity of its construction, the area of all premises of the building was 213750 m2, which is equal to the area of 48 football fields. In the city towers occupy 40 hectares, in which are located offices, conference rooms, exhibitions and even an art gallery. The main customer of the skyscraper construction was Petronas Petroleum Corporation, which belongs to the state, the project cost was 800 million dollars. Part of the amount was compensated by Malaysian firms that bought office space. A striking difference between a skyscraper is the transition between towers in the form of a bridge. In the towers 10,000 people live and work, washing all 16,000 windows of only one tower takes a month. The construction was based on flexible concrete, which is comparable in strength to light steel, which is quite expensive for Malaysia. Thanks to the addition of quartz, the strength of concrete has also increased, it can withstand pressures of up to 9 tons per square inch. During the construction, one of the floors was even deliberately destroyed, since poor quality concrete was used in it. Visitors can get inside at a certain time, with a ticket on their hands and in a certain amount. The towers are devoid of a central rod and an extra space to install in a limited space elevators had to use an excess of height in the towers. As a result, the elevators were two-story, two in each mine. In the construction of the skyscraper was provided protection from terrorists, so, with the loss of 3 of the 16 carrying columns, the building will still stand. And the air bridge is not fixed rigidly, but is put on giant ball bearings. This gives the structure additional strength, as the towers swing. It is curious that the original construction of the building attracts filmmakers, as well as the well-known films “Zapadnya” and “Apocalypse Code” were shot, and in several computer games the action takes place in these twin towers.
Since July 2009, the building by the name of the tenant has changed its name to the Willis Tower. Its height is 443.2 meters and it has 110 floors. The construction was started in August 1970, and on May 4, 1973 it was completed. The main architect of the project was Bruce Graham, and the chief engineer-designer was Fazlur Khan. At the base of the building is a large square formed by 9 square pipes. The base rests on concrete piles with a stone embankment, they are driven into a solid rock. These 9 steel pipes rise 50 floors up, after which the building begins to narrow, up to 66 floors there are only 7 pipes, five – up to the 90th floor, the remaining 20 floors are formed by two pipes. The area of the building is more than 418,000 m2, which is comparable to 57 football fields. The skyscraper is equipped with 104 high-speed elevators, and its refractory skeleton has a black aluminum lining, in the building there are more than 16 thousand windows made of dark glass. The building is washed by automatic machines once a month and a half. Sears Tower is the tallest building in the US and, thanks to its spire, held the record for a long time from ground level to the top of the antenna until it was taken away by the Dubai Tower.
Tower of Jin Mao.
Translated from Chinese means “Golden building success”. This skyscraper has 88 floors and it is located in Shanghai, China. There are offices here, as well as the Grand Hyatt hotel. Until 2007, it was the tallest building in China. In the silhouette of the urban district of Pudong, the tower, along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, a 468-meter-tall television tower, occupies a central position. The plot of land under the skyscraper occupies 24 000 m2, nearby is the metro station Lujiazui.The skyscraper was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, and it was introduced in 1999. Interestingly, the date of the official opening of the building. 08/28/1998 was chosen taking into account the number “8”, which is a symbol of well-being, hence the number of storeys. At the same time, they are divided into 16 segments, each of which is eighth shorter than the sixteen-story base. The central concrete frame has 8 corners, it is surrounded by 8 composite columns and 8 external steel columns. The skyscraper belongs to China Jin Mao Group Co. Ltd. The building has a postmodern form, on the upper levels it becomes more complicated and slightly narrower, thereby creating a rhythmic pattern, characteristic of Chinese architecture, in particular, the pagodas. The outer wall of the tower is made of stainless steel, glass, granite and aluminum, it is covered with a lattice construction of aluminum pipes. The base of the building rests on 1062 strong steel piles that go deep by 83.5 meters, thus compensating for poor soil quality. The foundation is surrounded by a wall in the ground 1 m thick and 36 m high. Its total length was 558 meters. In order for the building to withstand the hurricane wind, it has a high-tech structural system capable of withstanding gusts up to 200 km / h, with a maximum amplitude of swinging the building of 75 cm. The skyscraper is also capable of withstanding earthquakes of up to 7 points, this is achieved thanks to mobile connections steel columns. They absorb force by push and soften the action of earthquakes and wind.
International Financial Center
, located on the shoreline of the center of Hong Kong. This commercial building is now the tallest building in the city. The skyscraper was built with the support of “Sun Hung Kai Properties” and “MTR Corp” by 2003. The center is 420 meters high. In the building are the same 88 floors, of which 22 are given to shopping centers. However, not all floors are in reality, so the 14th and 24th floors are missed, since they are consonant with the phrases “exactly dead” and “easy to die”. The main part of the offices is given to financial organizations. The skyscraper practically does not contain columns, but is equipped with telecommunications with the latest technology. It is believed that the building can accommodate up to 15 thousand people. Several floors at the top of the building were bought by Hong Kong’s financial management for almost half a billion dollars. In 2003, on the facade of the building was advertised an area of 19,000 m2 and a length of 230 meters. Stretched on 50 floors, advertising has become the largest of those that have ever been placed on skyscrapers. The tower is also notable for the fact that she took part in the shooting of the film about Lara Croft.
This is the building of the International Chinese Trade and Investment Company. The skyscraper has 80 floors and is located in the Chinese city of Guangzhou. Together with two spiers the height of the building is 391 meters. The skyscraper was built in 1997, at that time it was the third tallest building in the world, and the highest in Asia. The CITIC tower is part of the complex, bearing the same name. It also includes two residential 38-storey buildings. Not far from the tower there is a new railway station, also a new metro and a sports center. Like other skyscrapers, this one is often criticized by the public. The fact is that they are the property of the state, and studies have shown that for buildings above 300 meters operating costs for maintenance will always be more than the profit. As a result, the government did not provide a full report on revenues and expenditures in the maintenance of the tower, nor will we provide any information on the protection of the building in the event of an earthquake. Shun Hing Square in Shenzhen, China.
The height of this 69-story skyscraper was 384 meters. The 1990s became at times the economic recovery of the city, which in just 20 years grew from a small fishing village not far from Hong Kong to a 4 million megapolis.The reason was the city’s announcement of a free trade zone, and in 1996 the Shun Hing tower appeared. For a short time it was the tallest building in China. The skyscraper is built of steel, and most of its areas are occupied by offices. Shun Hing has a 35-storey annexe, which houses shops and apartments. At the top of the tower there is a viewing platform.
Empire State Building.
The building is located in New York, on Manhattan on Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets. For more than 40 years, from 1931 to 1972 it was the tallest building in the world. In 2001, with the fall of the World Trade Center, the Empire State Building regained the title of the tallest building in New York. The skyscraper has a height of 381.3 meters, it has 102 floors. The total height of the building together with the tower, built in the 50s, was 443 meters. Curiously, the skyscraper is one of the prototypes of Stalin’s skyscrapers. The name of the tower came from the usual name of the state of New York, which is also called the “imperial” state. The skyscraper project is executed by the architectural company “Shreve, Lam and Harmon”. The pace of its erection was unheard of – for a week about 4.5 floors were erected. In the most intensive period of construction, 14 floors were erected in 10 days. The official opening of the building occurred on May 1, 1931, when the United States was in the Great Depression. Therefore, not all the premises were commissioned, but the building received the nickname “Empty State Building”. Only after 10 years all the premises were finally put into operation. The weight of the building is 331 thousand tons, the foundation occupies two floors. During the construction of the building, ten million bricks and 700 kilometers of cable were used, and the total area of the windows is two hectares. The ladder to the top consists of 1860 steps, there are annual competitions for the fastest climb, and also among policemen and firemen, running at full load. The office premises of the building can accommodate 15 thousand people, the elevators are able to transport 10 thousand people per hour. The Empire State Building from the bottom will not be fully considered, since it is surrounded by different office buildings. The skyscraper is made in a modest, but elegant art-deco style. Its facade is made of stone and has a gray color, along it stretches the strip of stainless steel, the upper floors are 3 steps. The inner 30 meter high hall is three stories high, with a panel depicting eight wonders of the world. The eighth, according to the author of the composition, is the building itself of the skyscraper. The Empire State Building has observation platforms on the 86th and 102nd floors, they are very popular among tourists – after all there are beautiful views of the city, especially at night. The site on the 86th floor has a viewing angle of 360 degrees, just for the whole time of the building’s existence the viewing areas were visited by 110 million people! The official website of the building can tell about all the films shot here, the most famous of course is “King Kong” in 1933.
Central Plaza in Hong Kong.
Its height with a spire is 374 meters, it has 78 floors. The building was built in 1992 on polders reclaimed from the sea. The skyscraper is clad in terracotta, gold and silver colors – this produces vivid impressions. From the observation deck on the 46th floor, you can see the port of Kowloon and the port of Victoria. It is on Central Plaza that the world’s largest watches are located, and in the evening the pyramid is illuminated at the top with different colors, creating an unforgettable sight. In the same building there are office premises.
Tantex Sai Tower.
This skyscraper has 85 floors, its height along with the antenna is 378 meters. The building is located in Taiwan, in Kaohsiung City. The building has an unconventional design – two 39-storey buildings are connected together by a central tower, below which there is a void. This is an original image of the hieroglyph “gao” (“high”), present in the name of the city.The main part of the building is given to offices, however, there are residential apartments and a shopping center in the skyscraper, and from the 37th to the 70th floors the place is given to the Hotel Splendor Kaohsiung. On the 75th floor there is a traditional observation deck, which gives a view of the pier, the river and the city, the building is equipped with high-speed elevators moving at a speed of 10 meters per second.