(taekwondo, taekwon-do, English taekwondo – from korean tae – “heel kick during the jump”, kwon – “punch”, before – “path”, “self-perfection”) – one of the types of martial arts, a characteristic feature of which is a large number of jumps and kicks and almost complete lack of techniques for capturing and retaining the enemy.
Taekwon-do is founded by Lieutenant-General of the South Korean Army Choi Hong Hi who created this martial art on the basis of Taekken (the old name – “gaksul”, “Taekgyon” – the art of fighting with the feet, known since ancient times in Korea) and karate . In addition, according to Choi Hong Hi, the art of fighting created by him gives a person the opportunity to self-knowledge and raise the spiritual level by practicing tagwon (martial art).
In the beginning, this direction was distributed only among the military, was of a purely applied nature and was called “O to the Quantum” (“School of the Enlightened Path”). Somewhat later appeared the so-called civilian direction – “Chon to Quant”. April 11, 1955 this technique of self-defense began to officially be called Taekwon-Do.
The International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF) was established on March 22, 1966 in Seoul. 19 countries joined this organization, and the unchanged president of ITF for 36 years was Choi Hong Hi. As he was forced to emigrate to Canada, the headquarters of the organization was moved to Toronto in 1972, and from 1985 to the present day is in Vienna.
Toronto’s remaining pupil of the general, former Chairman of the ITF Technical Committee Pak Jun Tae, in March 1990 founded the Global Taekwon-do Federation (GTF).
Since November 30, 1972, in Seoul, there is the World Taekwon-Do Center, located in the specially constructed Kukkiwon Palace – it is there that every athlete who has been given a dan must register to be recognized by the World Taekwon-do Federation Federation, WTF).
This organization, established on May 28, 1973, aimed to include this kind of martial arts in the Olympics program. For the first time, taekwon-do was demonstrated at the XXIV Olympic Games (Seoul, South Korea), and since 2000 (the XXVII Olympics, Sydney, Australia), this sport is listed as Olympic.
Nowadays, there are 188 WTF member countries that form continental federations:
• 41 countries – Taekwon-do Asia Alliance;
• 49 countries – Taekwon-Do Europe Alliance;
• 42 countries – the Pan-American Taekwon-Do Alliance;
• 43 countries – the African Taekwon-Do Alliance;
• 13 countries – Taekwon-Do Oceania Alliance.
• In 1981, the Taekwon-do Federation of the DPRK was formed.
The World Championships, European championships, international and national championships and championships, which include competitions in several disciplines, are carried out regularly on the Taekwon-Do: the formal complex (“pumse”), tests to determine the strength of the blow (on the ground – the “vertex” and in the jump – “takgi”), as well as competitive fights (“matsogi”) with the use of protective equipment. And in the version of ITF, athletes use only the means of protecting the groin and shins, and in the version of WTF are obliged to conduct a duel in a special plastic armor and helmet.
The taekwang-do matches take place at 12×12 or 14×14 meters, in the center of which is the place of the match – a square of 8×8 meters with an elastic mat on it, the color of which should be harmoniously combined with the colors of the equipment of the athletes, and the surface texture should provide the minimum degree reflection of light, so as not to dazzle the battles and spectators. The place of the match is marked along the perimeter by a dividing line, and sometimes it is arranged on a platform, whose height is 1 meter.
The referee who is in 1 is watching the match.5 meters from the center of the site, 4 judges, located at points located 0.5 meters from the corner formed by the restriction lines, as well as the leading account – its place is 2 meters from the limit line. The state of the equipment and the physical condition of the athletes is monitored by an inspection stationed at the table at the entrance to the place of the match.
Competitions between male athletes last 3 rounds for 3 minutes (or 2 minutes – if agreed with WTF) each, the duration of a women’s and junior match is 2 minutes. Breaks between rounds – 1 minute. There are several systems of fights:
• Circular system – each competitor competes with all other athletes of his weight category who take part in competitions;
• Individual fights (“Olympic” system) – 2 sportsmen participate in the fight, the loser is eliminated from the competition. Most often, competitions of this kind take place at the Olympic Games. Participants of the competitions are divided into weight categories, and if there are less than 4 participants in a category, the competitions in this weight category will not be officially recognized.
Team competitions are as follows: one team exposes the competitor, and the second – selects for him an opponent from his staff. Therefore, in duels of this kind, representatives of different weight categories can sometimes meet.
Olympic Taekwon-Do is very different from the original.
Yes, there are a lot of differences. In the Olympic Taekwondo do not use punches, there are no competitions that demonstrate the level of possession of technical techniques of this martial art. In addition, fighters are required to perform in special protective equipment (vests, helmets, protectors on fists and feet, protection of the groin and breastplate for women), resulting in the effectiveness of many techniques significantly reduced. Modernization of the Olympic Taekwon-do, although it is being conducted, has one goal – to increase the spectacle of the fight, as a result of which the applied value of this martial art is sometimes completely lost.
Young children can not be prepared for taekwon-do classes.
This is not true. For practicing taekwon-do, flexibility, stamina, memory, savvy, mobility of thinking, and the ability to fall properly to group to avoid injury – these are the qualities that should be developed in a baby. Even if your child does not show interest in any martial arts in the future, he will be able to use all of the above skills in everyday life.
The owners of the brown belt of Taekwon-Do know the techniques of this martial art well, because they help the coach in training beginners, and sometimes they replace him.
Indeed, instructors have brown belt holders obliged to conduct. However, the modern system of assigning colored belts (except black) according to the results of the competition leads to the fact that quite often the athletes have the skills of sparring (Gerugi) at a fairly high level, but the knowledge of technology (хосинсуль) is much less.
Taekwon-do is the invention of Lieutenant-General Choi Hong Hi.
Like many modern martial arts, taekwon-do is a synthesis of several ancient ways of fighting. In the middle of the last century in Korea, there were many schools of various martial arts (subak, tegon, yusul (soft art) tansudo (“the way of the Tang (Chinese) hand”), charkhok (“borrowed power”), etc.) acting without any control by the state structures. The government of the country decided to change this state of affairs and, if possible, to unite the various arts of combat, to gain control over the teaching of martial arts and put them at the service of the state and the ruling regime. Plans of this kind were most easily accomplished through the creation of single combat, which would be able to absorb all the best of the long-existing systems and thereby contribute to their merger.One of such directions was developed by Choi Hong Hi, who combined the skills of Taekken (the ancient art of fighting with feet, from ancient times known in Korea), acquired by him during the training with Khan Il Don – master of calligraphy and taekken, and experience gained in karate classes, which Lieutenant General mastered in Japan. Koi Hong Choi began to refine his skills during a seven-year detention in a Japanese prison, where he was imprisoned as an active fighter for Korea’s independence. After his release, he served in the army, where he was able to test, polish and apply in practice a new martial art, which on April 11, 1955 was officially named the Taekwon-Do. However, the perfection of this system did not end there. Grinding of the originally installed system of 20 complexes, some of which were kata karate, some of the innovations developed by Choi Hong Hi were not only the general himself, who had to leave his homeland for some time, but also the masters who remained in Korea – they developed “eight trigrams” (“palgve”) – a set consisting of eight complexes. In the 70s of the last century, ka karate was completely removed from the Taekwon-Do, and techniques and techniques were thoroughly studied using the latest techniques of modern science. Complexes “palgve” were replaced by another set, also consisting of 8 complexes, called “great limit” (“taguk”) and characterized by a greater speed of movement. In addition, a set of 9 complexes was developed, which are compulsory for everyone wishing to obtain the title of master. And only in the 80’s the grinding of this martial art was completed – now in the taekwon-to ITF 24 complexes – according to the number of hours in a day.
Only Choi Hong Hee tried to unite the existing martial arts directions in Korea.
Wrong opinion. Attempts of this kind in the last century were carried out repeatedly, the most famous being the creation of a unified martial art (Tong-Il Mo-Do) in 1979. Its founder, grand master Joon Ho Souk, sought through the scientific analysis to combine the techniques of various schools and achieve a harmonious combination of circular and rectilinear, soft and hard movements, and also to improve the technique of throws and strikes. In addition, this martial art is called upon to awaken the hidden idealism of the practitioner, harmoniously combine the values of the West and the East, spiritual and material, traditional and modern.
During the fight, each of the Taekwon-Do fighters equally uses both defensive and offensive techniques.
This is not true. Most often, athletes choose some one technique, thanks to which they win the maximum number of balls. In accordance with what technique (attack or defense) the athlete prefers, determine whether he belongs to the attacker or to the counterattacking type.
Taekwon-do is the art of defense, which means that attacks on the classes are not studied.
Wrong opinion. Sometimes in the quality of self-defense it is necessary to use the technical methods of attack, because training is carried out comprehensively, and is not limited only to the development of protective techniques.
In Taekwon-Do, do not use weapons and do not study throws and blows to the head.
This is not quite true. Blows to the head are prohibited in competitions, however, in real combat to protect their lives or the lives of their loved ones, these techniques are quite effective. And the work with various weapons in this martial art exists in a section called “хосинсуль”, and it depends only on the coach whether this section will be fully taught to the students, partially covered or not taught at all. In addition, it should be noted that techniques of this kind are rather complex in comprehension. It is compulsory to study shots, ways to defend against an armed adversary, influence vulnerable points, etc. is for athletes from 5 dan and up.
Mastering taekwon-do is best to begin with studying the history of this martial art.
It is best if the study of history and theory will be in harmony with the acquisition of practical skills (studying stances and movements, basic techniques, etc.). You need to train your body and spirit and mind, and it’s best to do it simultaneously to achieve harmony. After all, very often a fighter who perfectly mastered the technique, but did not pay proper attention to the psychological preparation, loses the battle to the weaker technically, but with a stronger fighting spirit athlete.
It is not necessary to take part in Taekwon-Do competitions, because the original meaning of martial arts is to learn the skills of defense, and not to strive for victory in a match.
Competitions in martial arts are needed, but not to win, but to test their own psychological readiness for battle and to test the consistency of their combat techniques, as well as their fighting spirit and the ability to apply all the knowledge gained during training. In some martial arts (for example, aikido), demonstration performances serve for the same purpose, which are at times no less serious psychological tests than competitions in taekwon-do.
Taekwon-do is a sport, and the knowledge gained in the class is not suitable for ordinary life.
This is not true. The main task of taekwon-do, as well as any other martial art – is to provide an opportunity to exit from difficult life situations with the least damage to physical and mental health and maximally effectively. In this case, there is no question of receiving any awards during the competition. The main task of taekwon-do is to teach a person how to protect themselves and protect their relatives and friends. In order to master this technique of self-defense, it will take a lot of time and labor, but the result is worth it.
Taekwon-do classes require specially equipped rooms.
No, no equipment, no specialized premises for mastering this type of martial arts are required.
If a person for 30 – taekwon-do, he can not deal.
Of course, there will be more difficulties for such a student, but the road to martial arts is not closed to him. Moreover – there are special complexes designed to teach the methods of self-defense not only for quite adult men, but also for women who crossed the 50-year boundary. An experienced coach is able to properly organize classes for people of different ages, complexions and skill levels.
Taekwon-do can be practiced independently, using books and educational films.
Self-study of this kind of martial arts is possible only if a person has exceptional experience in any other types of martial arts, hand-to-hand combat or wrestling. If there is no such experience, it is better to practice better under the guidance of an experienced trainer. After all, it is quite difficult for a beginner to master this or that technique without making mistakes. During the training, the instructor immediately points out the inaccuracies and explains the various nuances of this or that element, movement, rack. Studying martial arts on your own, you are deprived of the opportunity to get any advice, so you can learn a lot wrong. But it is much more difficult to correct movements learned from mistakes than to study them from scratch. Therefore, films and various kinds of literature on taekwon-do should be considered only as an aid to training under the guidance of an experienced instructor, and not as a basic learning factor.
Martial arts involve a lot of injuries.
Yes, most often it does not do without it. Especially often athletes, professionally and for a long time engaged in this type of martial art, suffer knee joints. However, to consider taekwon-do the most traumatic kind of sport would be a mistake.After all, in other seemingly safer disciplines (figure skating, rhythmic gymnastics, running, cycling), injuries are no less, and sometimes even more than during the lessons of martial arts.
Children of small stature are better than martial arts are not engaged – they still will not achieve great success.
Absolutely mistaken opinion! Firstly, in the martial arts rivals are selected approximately equal level of experience and one weight category. Secondly, the founding masters of many styles of martial arts (for example, Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan Karate-do, and Morihei Ueshiba, the a-sensei aikido, and the founder of the Taekwon-do Choi Hong Hee) did not differ either high or large physical strength, and in childhood often stood out among peers a fragile physique and morbidity. However, thanks to diligence and perseverance, they managed to achieve great results, and won even more much taller and physically stronger opponents in fights.
Girls who engage in taekwon-do become masculine.
Wrong opinion. Of course, the body will become stronger, but the femininity of a girl who engages in this kind of martial arts does not lose, moreover – retain a fragile physique.
Painful children in the section taekwon-do can not be engaged.
Yes, some sports really require perfect health. However, in the case of taekwon-do, there are no restrictions. Even if the child has heart disease, asthma or joint diseases – you can do it. The only condition – before the start of classes should warn the coach that the child has some health problems. The instructor will correct the load, taking into account the physical capabilities of the small athlete – and after a while your baby will be able to engage with everyone. After all, Taekwon-Do is not only the art of self-defense, but also an excellent means for developing attention, perception, improving coordination of movements, as well as oxygen exchange in the lungs and heart, etc.
It is rather difficult to select a section.
Indeed, the task is not easy. However, you should know what to look for first. When choosing a section, be sure to attend at least one lesson and determine what is most important for the coach – the victories and prizes or the mental and physical health of the pupils? And does he give equal attention to all children, or does he deal only with the most capable, other students, giving them complete freedom of action? Is discipline maintained during training? Brawls between students, clarifying relationships and rudeness or teasing and ridicule in class are unacceptable. In addition, keep in mind that to force a child to go to training is by no means impossible – only his desire should be fundamental when choosing a section.
During the Taekwon-Do competition for striking a competitor’s face, the athlete receives penalty points.
Much depends on how the blow was struck on the face: if the forehead or hand – the athlete receives a so-called warning – 0.5 penalty points. If a direct hit on the face was made by a foot in a jump – the fighter receives the maximum number of points (+3), if a kick from the standing position in the face caused the opponent to fall – 2 points, and in the event that the opponent only staggered – 1 point is awarded.
In taekwon-do, blows to the groin are prohibited.
Yes, such strikes entail the accrual of penalties to the athlete who brought them to the athlete. However, if the blow is the result of an exchange of technical techniques or the actions of the injured athlete resulted in its infliction, there will be no punishment.
If, after a duel in both athletes an equal number of points – a draw is declared.
No, in the case of an equal account, the winner is the one from the competing, who dealt more successful blows and more often used the attack tactics.
For misbehavior or a statement about an opponent, a Taekwon-Do fighter receives penalty points.
This is indeed so.Moreover – it can get penalty points even if his coach leaves the place assigned to him or behaves unworthily.
A fighter and his coach can challenge a judge’s decision.
Wrong opinion. An attempt to speak out against a judge’s decision is qualified as unworthy behavior and entails a warning – that is, accrual of 0.5 penalty points.
The first practical results of taekwon-do classes will be noticeable very soon.
It depends on what results are being discussed. The first successes often come after 3-4 months of classes. To get colored belts (“gup” or “gyp”), the student must spend a certain amount of time. For example, to get a white belt (10 gyps) it will take at least a month, and to find a yellow or in some schools white and yellow (9 gyps) will have to spend 2 months of hard training. It will take three months to get orange or yellow (8 gyps), green or yellow-green (7 gyps), purple or green (6 gyps) belts. Somewhat more time – from 4 to 6 months – is needed to get blue or blue-green (5 gyps), blue (4 gyps), red or blue-red (3 gypsy) belts. Another 6 months of regular classes will make the athlete a light brown or red (2 gyps) and a dark brown or brown (1 gyps) belt. And to get a black belt (the first dan) will have to spend at least 1 more years of hard training, and successfully participate in a lot of competitions. It should be taken into account that the success of mastering and applying this art of fighting in practice depends on many factors: from the desire of the student, the qualification of the instructor, the regularity and intensity of training, the physical data and morale of the practitioner, etc.
The person who received the black belt in taekwon-do (1 dan) achieved mastery in this fighting art.
Wrong opinion. Only from the 7th is given the person who comprehends the art of taekwon-do, acquires the title of master (in order to achieve this level, it is necessary to train at least 7-10 years and pass an oral and written examination). And given from 1 to 3 (assistant instructor) and from 4 to 6 (instructor) are considered only as steps of the ladder leading to mastery. The black belt (1 dan) serves only as an indicator that the person who received it has mastered the techniques of taekwon-do well, and to perfect the spiritual side, the harmony of which is the hallmark of a true martial artist, the trainee will have to spend a lot of time and energy.
Each belt in taekwon-do has a certain value.
This is indeed so. The lowest level of graduation – the absence of a belt – also has its meaning (emptiness, chastity). The white belt means readiness for perfection, orange and yellow – a sunrise, a desire to learn. Spring, the desire for growth and perfection mean purple and green belts. Blue and blue belts symbolize heaven, youth, creativity, red – strengthening of body and character, blood and warning of danger. The brown belt is a symbol of a strong base in military equipment, an unshakable character, this is the color of the earth, mountains. The black belt, which unites all the colors, symbolizes the depth and strength of the knowledge gained during the entire training period.
The tenth dan in taekwon-do is assigned only posthumously.
Yes, this dan was originally reserved for posthumous assignment. But in our days several fighters from Korea (for example, Jun Jong-re) managed to get it in life.
The Taekwon-Do complexes are composed in the same way as the ancient combinations of martial arts techniques.
Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. In antiquity, movements were combined into a complex on the basis of long-term practical research, which made it possible to develop a system of the most expedient combination of various elements of military equipment. Today, most often for the creation of the complex use certain ideological prerequisites.For example, the trajectory of moving sometimes repeats the writing of a character, the number of movements or compulsory for the study of complexes corresponds to either some time interval (24 hours a day – 24 complexes officially adopted by the ITF) or a legendary number of outstanding personalities (for example, ). There are also cases when a complex of movements is a symbolic illustration of the life of one of the national heroes (for example, Admiral Li Sun Cin).
To achieve mastery in taekwon-do, you should devote as much time as possible to reinforced physical body training.
Indeed, regular training is absolutely necessary. However, in addition, the followers of taekwon-do practice meditation, through which they receive “gi” – spiritual energy. It is thanks to the deepening of the athletes that they gain inner peace, which persists even in everyday life. This allows them to be more reasonable and balanced both in meeting with the rival and in the face of various life hardships. Meditation is an excellent means of relaxing and clearing the mind of emotions, and also allows, if necessary, instantly to concentrate on something and easily switch from one object to another. In addition, it should be remembered that the distinctive feature of this master of Taekwon-Do is a developed sense of justice, purposefulness, humanism and high spiritual culture, and not only perfectly developed fighting skills and skills – only the technical and applied aspects of martial arts are concentrated only by beginners.