Soybean, soybean cultured
(Glycine max) is an annual plant of the legume family, leguminous and oilseed crop. Seeds (“beans”) are used for food or, after extraction, are processed into flour. Green mass, hay, cake and meal are fed to cattle.
In the first place among the producers are the USA, followed by Brazil, Argentina and China. The main importer of soybeans is Japan.
In the USA 88% of soybeans are processed for butter. Refined soybean oil is used for food directly, goes for margarine and mayonnaise, is used as vegetable shortening and as part of pharmaceutical preparations. It is also used in the production of resins and plastics, paints and varnishes, adhesives, sealing compounds, disinfectants, insecticides, impregnations for fabrics, soaps and other products.
Soy flour is used to obtain a variety of feeds, baby food, confectionery, diet food, soy sauce and textured vegetable protein, similar in appearance and taste to meat. In China and Japan, it is processed in large quantities into bean curd (tofu). Soy sprouts also go to food. The soy protein isolated from the seeds (the concentrate from which the non-protein fraction is removed) is used for the preparation of beverages, food additives and “vegetarian meat”.
Soybeans are very nutritious. Protein in them is usually 35-45% of dry weight, oil – 18-25%, and it does not contain cholesterol, carbohydrates – 10-25%. Soy protein is well balanced for essential amino acids, except methionine and cysteine, which are too few. In oil a lot of both saturated (palmitic and stearic), and unsaturated (oleic, linoleic and linolenic) fatty acids.
Unlike its liano-like wild-growing ancestors, soybean is an upright plant 30-200 cm high. The root system is pivotal, the bulk of the feeding roots is concentrated in the upper 10-20 cm of soil. On the second node, on the stem, entire oval leaves develop on the stem, but all the other leaves are triple – with three plates. In their sinuses, small white or purple flowers are formed, usually self-pollinating. After fertilization, the plant ripens up to 400 hanging beans of yellowish, gray, brown or black color, usually containing two or three globular seeds. Their diameter is about 0.6 cm, and the weight of most cultivars is 120-200 mg. Coloring the seed coat varies greatly, but consumers are especially popular yellowish-brown. Soybean, like other legumes, is capable of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, provided by nodule bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, which convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonium and nitrate compounds necessary for green plants.
The origin and history of introduction to the culture of soybean common are unknown. It is assumed that it was started in the 11th century. BC. e. in the northwest of China. The ancestor of soya sylvestris is considered a wild species – soybean Ussuri. In Europe, soybeans came in the 18th century, and in America – in the early 19th century. from France.
Soybeans have been used for thousands of years.
For the first time, soybeans were used during the reign of the Fu Dynasty (1134-236 BC), after the Chinese learned to obtain from the soybeans tempe, natto and soy sauce by fermentation.
Asians use soy in large quantities.
The average amount of soybean used in China is 10 grams per day per person (about 2 tablespoons). In some areas of Japan, this figure reaches 60 grams per day. Asians use soy in small amounts and only as a seasoning, and not as a substitute for animal protein.
Foods produced from soybeans produce the same health benefits as products derived from soy by traditional fermentation.
Modern food products made from soy are not fermented, and fermentation can neutralize the toxins found in soy beans.The method of production of such products reduces the number of proteins and increases the number of carcinogens.
Food from soybeans contain proteins that include all essential amino acids.
Like all beans, soy products have a deficiency of sulfuric amino acids: methionine and cysteine. Moreover, modern manufacturing techniques also deprive these products of lysine and weak amino acids.
Foods derived from soy by fermentation are a source of vitamin B12, essential for vegetarians.
The substance in soy, likened to vitamin B12 (its analog), is practically not assimilated by the human body. In fact, the use of soy increases the body’s need for vitamin B12.
Dry milk from soy is safe for infants.
Soya contains trypsin inhibitors that inhibit protein breakdown and overload the pancreas. When carrying out animal tests, it was found that nutrition with an increased content of trypsin inhibitors provokes pancreatic insufficiency and growth defects. Soy consumption increases the physiological need for vitamin D, which is necessary for healthy bones and growth. Phytic acid in soy reduces the biological effectiveness of iron and zinc, which are beneficial to the health of the brain and nervous system. There is a suspicion that the megadoses of plant estrogens that enter the body of a newborn when fed with soy milk affect the earlier puberty of girls in the US and the late puberty of boys. Soy products can prevent osteoporosis.
Soy can cause deficiency of calcium and vitamin D, two guarantors of bone strength. In Asia, osteoporosis is prevented by the ancient custom of eating broths (calcium), seafood, fat and offal (vitamin D).
“Modern” soy can protect against many cancers.
A study commissioned by the UK government found that soy can not protect against breast cancer and other types of it. In fact, soy can even increase the risk of cancer incidence.
Vegetable estrogens found in soy can improve mental capacity.
A recent study showed that women with high levels of estrogen in the blood showed lower cognitive abilities. And for Japanese living in America, the use of tofu in middle age is associated with the onset of Alzheimer’s disease at a later age.
Soy estrogens (isoflavones) are good for health.
Soy isoflavones block phyto endocrine streams. With the daily use of soy, isoflavones can cause a delay in ovulation and stimulate the growth of cancer cells. This dose, like 4 tablespoons of soybeans a day, is associated with hypothyroidism (lethargic symptom, constipation, weight gain and fatigue).
Soya protects against cardiovascular diseases.
In some people, soy consumption reduces cholesterol, but there is no evidence that lowering cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Soy is a safe food and can help women during the menopause.
Soy can stimulate the growth of estrogen-dependent tumors and cause dysfunction of the thyroid gland. The decrease in the activity of the thyroid gland is associated with impaired menopause.
Soy isoflavones and soy protein isolates have been officially GRAS status in the US (officially recognized as safe).
The International Agro-Industrial Corporation Archer Daniels Mclassland Company (ADM) recently withdrew its request to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the US government agency for the control of medicines, medical equipment and medical research) to give soy isoflavones a safe status. This was caused by multiple protests of scientists. The FDA has never recognized the isolates of soy protein as safe because of the possible presence of toxins and carcinogens in soy.
Soy will provide us with a joyful sex life.
Numerous animal studies have shown that soy products cause infertility. The use of soybean stimulates hair growth in young guys, and this indicates a decrease in their testosterone levels. Even Buddhists use tofu to moderate their libido.
Growing soybeans is safe for the environment.
Most soybean grown in the US is genetically modified so that farmers can use large doses of pesticides. Growing soybeans is beneficial for developing countries.
In the “third world” countries, soybean replaces traditional plants and deprives the local population of the profits that can result from the processing of products for their delivery to corporations of many countries.