Sound illusions



Sound illusions can occur in absolutely healthy people under the influence of stress, excitement, unusual conditions. In each case, psychologists find an appropriate explanation.

These can be sound barriers, or, as they are called by scientists, sound “mirrors”, a distortion associated with different wavelengths of sound waves. There are several known sound illusions that every healthy person can experience on his own.


Hidden steps.

The sound illusion, called “hidden steps”, was discovered by Diana Deutsch’s, a professor of psychology, which obviously proves that the human brain can group together the nearby notes.

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Two melodies, increasing and decreasing in tone, play to demonstrate this effect, while notes are different for the ears of the person. For example, one ear can hear, as it were mixed – first the first note of the first melody, then the second note of the second melody.

The brain of the majority of listeners groups high and low notes together, so with different ears a person hears a decreasing, increasing sequence of sounds (one ear) and vice versa, increasing, decreasing – another ear.

The right-hander hears the right ear first – the rising tone, the left-handed – all the way around. From all this confused set of notes and tones, the brain chooses a suitable melody, which our consciousness (sound perception) perceives with it.

An increasing sequence.

The discovery of the “increasing sequence” or the paradox of Shepard belongs to the French composer Jean-Claude Risset, and is expressed in the fact that pairs of notes, following a succession, create an increasing sound illusion (like pressing the piano keys from left to right) .

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In reality, there is no increase in tone, and if you start this melody an infinite number of times in a row, then the person will perceive a constant increase in tone, although this can not be, it is a sound illusion created by the brain “independently”.

The falling bells.

The sound illusion, called the “falling” bells, consists in the fact that the sounds of the bells heard in the recording “fall” with a drop in pitch.

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However, listening attentively, a person understands that the tone, on the contrary, increases. That is, the initial pitch of the tone is lower than at the end.

Accelerating drums.

The meaning of the illusion of “accelerating” reels is expressed in the fact that they actually sound the same, although it seems that the pace is constantly increasing.Listen carefully!

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Virtual hairdresser.

The illusion, called the “virtual hairdresser” specialists, is a phenomenon of a binaural effect, and consists in the ability of a person and an animal to determine from which side the source of sound is located due to having two ears performing the function of sound receivers (source located ahead or behind, is determined badly and inaccurately).

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Due to the fact that the sound travels to the ear closer to its source, the shorter path, the sound waves in the ear canals have different phases (the time of passage of this phase) and the amplitude (strength) of the sound oscillations. Therefore, the perception of sound of different heights will be different. The direction to the sound source for low sounds (up to 1500 oscillations / second) is determined by the human consciousness most accurately and almost completely by the difference in the time of passage of this phase of sound waves.

And for high sounds, due to the fact that the difference in the sound power of the right and left ear is of primary importance, the direction will be less precise. The ability to determine the direction of sound arises due to the fact that the difference in the phases and intensity of sounds perceived by the ear leads to a difference in impulses that enter the central nervous system from the right and left ear.

Matchbox.

No less known to specialists is the stereo effect, a kind of sound illusion – a “matchbox”. To achieve the result of its occurrence, it is necessary to close your eyes.


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Three notes.

A paradox called “three notes” was also explored by Diana Deutsch’s, in the sound recording you can listen to several grouped notes that each of the listeners perceive in different ways.

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The difference is that some perceive them as falling tones, while others – as rising. Known this phenomenon since ancient times, then it was considered the tricks of the devil.

Phantom tunes.

Phantom melodies are a sound illusion, which can be created with the help of some melodies consisting of quick losers, and very slightly different from each other.With the rapid loss of melodies, the brain is able to “highlight” certain individual notes at speed and “compose” them into their own melody.

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With a slow loss of the same composition, such a sound illusion does not arise, which is explained by the possibility of the consciousness to have time to perceive all the correct parts of the losses.

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The Rustle of Spring composition can be used as an illustration of this phenomenon, it can be performed quickly, in this case a false melody will arise in the consciousness, with a slow performance the sound illusion disappears.

Phantom words.

This illusion was first demonstrated by Diana Doich from the University of California at San Diego. The entry is similar to overlapping sequences of repeating words or phrases located at different points in space. var flashvars = {“comment”: “Phantom words”, “st”: “01AchBGDR7jaoeajaT423MipsNrnasQXA6BGJR3k066s7NXHm5rt”, ” file “:” 42AEau0oLCQtfRWGyIWwcL2NstHm5n6dQIFW5rS “}; var params = {bgcolor:” # ffffff “, allowScriptAccess:” always “, id:” audioplayer10 “}; new swfobject.embedSWF (“/ player / uppod.swf”, “audioplayer10”, “400”, “35”, “9.0.115.0”, false, flashvars, params); undefined

Listening to them, you begin to distinguish certain phrases. Although in fact, there are no phrases. Your brain makes them yourself, in order to give meaning to meaningless noise.

How young we were …

With age, people lose the ability to hear high frequencies. This sound can be heard only by those who have not yet celebrated their own adulthood (although there are exceptions among older people, but they are quite rare) – its frequency is 18000 Hz (by the way, your dog will absolutely hear this sound).

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Some teenagers set this sound as a mobile phone call, only they themselves (and, of course, their peers) can hear the call. In some countries, this sound is very loudly included in places where the appearance of youth is undesirable.

Stonehenge.

The history of giant stones in Stonehenge (England) is very interesting, they have an amazing ability to create sound illusions that are not mirages of an acoustic nature. The discovery and substantiation of this phenomenon belongs to the American researcher Stephen Waller – the scientist archeoacoustics, who conducted research on the acoustics of the famous architectural ensemble, erected in South England more than 5000 years ago.

Sound illusions

If two musicians play on the pipe while standing in the center of this structure, then an amazing sound effect arises – in some places around the musicians the sounds of their playing are not audible, observers “hear” silence.Waller explains this by the fact that sound waves reflect from the stones and absorb each other, resulting in a “magic circle” of complete silence around the musicians.

Sound illusions

People invited by the researcher to conduct the experiment, blindfolded in the center of this circle, and listened to the play of two trumpeters. Getting into the “dead” sound zone, they ceased to hear sounds, and then they told that they imagined an obstacle (in reality it was missing) between them and the trumpeters.

Sound illusions for mentally ill people.

Absolutely other sources and explanations have sound illusions for mentally ill people. As a rule, sound illusions take the form of screams, voices and abuse, suspicious (for the sick) whispering, shots and whole canons, singing, orchestral music. Sometimes a patient in an obscure extraneous noise can “hear” individual conversations in which various people take part, sometimes he “recognizes” these voices, sometimes he hears a speech from strangers to him. These sound illusions “invent” the sick consciousness, giving out completely extraneous sound stimuli for a distinct speech.

As in other cases of illusions of various types, doctors try to separate sound illusions from auditory hallucinations. In the first case, there is an imaginary erroneous perception of extraneous noise to patients, and in the second – imaginary sounding sounds. And in one, and in another case there is a unifying phenomenon – all “conversations” are, as a rule, accusatory and condemning the sick person character.

Rarely, there is a phenomenon in which sound illusions soothe the patient and persuade him to calm down. Usually, sound illusions are amplified in a noisy environment when a large number of sounds and noises provoke the consciousness of a sick person to “hear” conversations. In cases of improper perception of sounds, the effect of sound illusion arises.



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