Smoking

Smoking,

a kind of household addiction, the most common form of which is nicotinism – smoking tobacco; finds also therapeutic use – the form of taking some medications, for example, with bronchial asthma. Tobacco was imported by H. Columbus to Spain and Portugal from America at the end of the 15th century; First it was used as an ornamental plant and only later – for smoking.

In the 16th century, tobacco also spread in France, after the Queen was presented to the Queen as a remedy by the Portuguese ambassador, Jacques Nico (hence the “nicotine”). Leaves of tobacco were used not only for smoking; drained and crushed, they turned into snuff.

When smoking tobacco, it quickly develops attraction, which is facilitated by the conversion of the act of smoking into a kind of ritual. The harmful effect on the body of products formed during the smoking process due to the dry sublimation of tobacco has been established. When inhaling tobacco smoke, tooth enamel is damaged, which can lead to the development of caries; often there are stomatitis and gingivitis.

Under the influence of chronic effects of nicotine on the autonomic nervous system, general vegetative disorders occur, gastric secretion increases, acidity of gastric juice increases, gastritis, peptic ulcer develops, a tendency to constipation or diarrhea appears, salivation increases (as a result of which tartar deposition occurs) . The vasoconstrictive action of nicotine is associated with trophic changes in the walls of the vessels, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and systemic vascular diseases.

A special kind of “disease of smokers” – intermittent claudication, associated with the endarteritis of the obliterating arteries of the lower leg and foot. Constant irritation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi and bronchioles causes their chronic diseases, and sometimes leads to bronchial asthma. Tobacco smoke, in addition to nicotine bases, contains other harmful substances.

It is proved that the possibility of getting lung cancer from smokers more than two packs of cigarettes a day is 20 times more than for non-smokers. The connection between smoking tobacco and the occurrence of cancer not only of the lungs but also of the lips, oral cavity, and trachea has been established. The percentage of tuberculosis patients among smokers is almost twice as high as among non-smokers. 95% of tuberculosis, which began in adulthood, falls on smokers.

Like any narcotic, when smoking tobacco causes a short-term stage of euphoria. Short-term excitation of mental activity during smoking depends not only on nicotine, but also on the reflex influence on cerebral circulation of irritation of sensitive nerves of the oral cavity and respiratory tracts with tobacco smoke. The latter badly affects the health of not only the smokers themselves, but also those around them.

Particularly harmful smoking during pregnancy – nicotine, penetrating the blood of the mother, poisons the fetus. Acute nicotine poisoning (nausea, vomiting, frequent pulse, convulsions, rising blood pressure) is usually observed with the first attempts to smoke. In the treatment of nicotinism, psychotherapy and psycho-prophylaxis, as well as some medications (tabex, lobesil, etc.) are crucial.

Everyone smokes.

This is not true. Most of humanity does not smoke. In economically developed countries, the fashion for smoking is gradually passing. Now a civilized society cultivates a sporting style, a sports figure, regular physical exercises, daily gymnastics. Tobacco can interfere with a career. More and more entrepreneurs refuse to hire smokers. In the US, 35 million people quit smoking, in England – more than 8 million people. In our country, entire groups of young people – from “pop stars” to “green” refuse from smoking and cultivate a healthy lifestyle.

Smoking is a harmless occupation.

This is not true. Smoking is a major risk factor for lung, heart, and nervous system diseases. 9 out of 10 patients with lung cancer smoked. If a person began to smoke at 15 years, the duration of his life decreases by more than 8 years.Those who start smoking before the age of 15 are 5 times more likely to die from cancer than those who started smoking after 25 years. Scientists have determined that each cigarette reduces life by 12 minutes.

The most harmful thing in a cigarette is nicotine.

The fact that a drop of nicotine kills a horse and causes cancer is known to every child. But, smoking a cigarette, you swallow from 0.1 to 1.8 milligrams of nicotine and according to the “horse” scheme should be sent to the cemetery after the first pack. In fact, nicotine is not a carcinogen. This is primarily a drug that causes addiction and causes smoking. And now, along with the smoke in your body, really dangerous substances that are contained in cigarette pitches are getting into. Their ingredients, with smoke and blood falling on any of the organs (from the oral cavity to the bladder), initiate the development of tumors.

Cigars and smoking pipes are safer because they are not tightened.

These smoking accessories do not really cause lung cancer because their smoke is not inhaled. However, it is the smoking of cigars and tubes that contributes to the occurrence of cancer of the larynx and the lip. By the way, cigars are leaders in the content of resins.

Smoking is dangerous only for those who smoke.

This is not true. Physicians have long established that passive smokers are victims of tobacco. Being in a smoking company, a person risks not only to get used to tobacco smoke (from which one step to a cigarette), but also to get the whole “bouquet” of diseases associated with smoking.

Only a few cigarettes a day can not hurt.

Although the risk of lung cancer has a linear dose / response relationship with tobacco use, the risk of cardiovascular diseases, which constitute a significant part of tobacco-related illnesses and deaths, becomes apparent with only 3-5 cigarettes consumed per day. The association between the risk of acute myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease with exposure to tobacco smoke is non-linear at low doses and grows rapidly with a relatively small increase in dose, for example, from a surrounding tobacco smoke or only a few cigarettes a day. Even weak exposure to tobacco smoke increases the adhesion of platelets and causes changes in the condition of the arterial wall and hemodynamics. In pregnant women who smoke only 5 cigarettes a day, babies are more likely to have a reduced birth weight. Cancer is the leading cause of death among smokers, with lung cancer responding in almost 80% of tobacco-related deaths from malignant neoplasms. However, cardiovascular diseases (all their forms combined) are the leading cause of all tobacco-related deaths, including both smokers and those exposed to tobacco smoke. Cardiovascular disease is second only to respiratory diseases (ie, chronic bronchitis and emphysema) for tobacco-related morbidity. Cardiovascular diseases appear to be caused by exposure to carbon monoxide and other combustion products, and this suggests that any tobacco product of “reduced risk” that burns and whose smoke is inhaled is unlikely to significantly reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes.

Smoking calms nerves and saves from stress.

Actually, the components of tobacco (tar, nicotine, smoke, etc.) do not relax, but simply “brake” the most important parts of the central nervous system. But, having got used to a cigarette, without it the person already to relax actually can not. It turns out a vicious circle: both the occurrence and the cessation of stress become dependent on smoking.

Smoking people last longer keep a slim figure.

First, the circle is full of smoking fats. Secondly, dulling the cigarette with a feeling of hunger, you provoke the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer. Third, losing weight with the help of smoking is like indulging in an infectious disease and “melt before your eyes” from it.

Light Cigarettes are not as harmful as usual.

Alas, this is not so. Constantly using light cigarettes, smokers are tightened more often and deeper, which in the future can lead to cancer not of the lungs themselves, but of the so-called pulmonary “periphery” – the alveoli and small bronchi.

Smoking promotes concentration of attention.

As it were not so! Stimulation of the nervous system with nicotine leads to depletion of the brain’s energy capabilities. Tobacco becomes a kind of stimulant: when performing complex mental work, a person begins to smoke one cigarette after another, only in order to not lose this concentration of attention.

Quitting smoking is easy.

This is not true. Most smokers tried to quit smoking at least once in their life, and they could not do it. According to the World Health Organization, on the first attempt, only 100 smokers with experience are able to do this.

Quit smoking, gradually reducing the dose of nicotine, it is impossible.

Difficult, but possible. Nevertheless, instead of smoking not 10, but 5 cigarettes a day, it is better to undergo replacement nicotine therapy. It consists in the fact that, at first after quitting smoking, a certain dose of nicotine is administered into the body, reducing the severity of the withdrawal syndrome. Nicotine-containing chewing gums, patches, lozenges and aerosols are produced.

Smoking cessation preparations do not work.

Smoking cessation products, including nicotine replacement therapy (NZT – patches, chewing gum, aerosol and tablets), and bupropion, can double the likelihood of a successful cessation of smoking. For some smokers, a combination of these drugs, for example, several types of NRT, NZT with bupropion, NRT with counseling, and NRT with bupropion and counseling – can be even more effective than using one method of smoking cessation. Repeated treatment after the initial failure rate of smoking cessation also increases success rates, and combinations of funds are especially useful for quitters, but failed smokers.

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