(from “note,” where the root “met” means “a note made for the memory of something”) – events or phenomena that are considered to be harbingers of something. Since ancient times people have been looking at the surrounding nature, trying to find a link between the behavior of animals, insects and plants, as well as changing the appearance of certain objects of the environment (for example, clouds in the sky) and subsequent natural events (changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation , cataclysms (tornadoes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions), etc. Thus appeared the natural signs and signs of the seasons.Somewhat later, there appeared everyday signs reflecting the observation of people behind the interconnection of events in and
Often, signs are associated with superstitions-the notion of the interaction of phenomena and objects, the existence of an objective connection between which is not traced (for example, the connection between the number 13 and certain unpleasant events in the life of a person.) Most often, superstitions are echoes of a pagan perception of the world and religious beliefs, allowing to perceive the world as an integral system, all parts of which are in indissoluble cause-effect relations.
It was with the goal of maximum harmonization of human-world relations that signs were created that helped people to neutralize the consequences of wrong acts, to console them in a difficult situation, to suggest correct behavior in certain circumstances, etc.
If a black cat crosses the road – expect trouble.
This sign came about because many nations counted a black cat (dog, crow, daw) for creatures that are the embodiment of evil forces (dark spirits, wizards and witches who want to harm people). Moreover, the cat’s breed was not taken into account – only its color mattered. This superstition sometimes led to the fact that in some periods of the history of human society (for example, in the Middle Ages) in many countries of Europe the mass extermination of black cats and cats began (from death the animal could save one white hair found in their fur). Unfortunately, acts of this kind did not contribute to reducing the number of misfortunes and misfortunes in people’s lives. A sharp decrease in the number of cats led to an increase in the population of rats and other rodents, the harm from which was much greater (in fact, rats and mice not only spoil the food, but also transmit various infectious diseases, in particular, bubonic plague).
However, it should be noted that in some countries the attitude towards the black cat is exactly the opposite. For example, in ancient Egypt, Bast (portrayed as a cat or a woman with a cat’s head) is the goddess of fertility, joy, beauty, femininity and a home. The veneration of this goddess was not limited to worshiping her statue in the temple and erecting in her honor of the whole city of Bubastis. Any domestic cat was deified, and after death – mummified (and, according to Herodotus, the entire family of the owners of the deceased cat was in mourning, as a sign of which she shaved her eyebrows). A man, under the wheels of a cart accidentally hit a cat, the crowd could have stoned to death to the ground.
Respectfully respected the representatives of the cat breed and in some European countries. For example, the inhabitants of the United Kingdom believed that a black cat is a symbol of luck, and in Scotland a black cat accidentally entered the house promised prosperity, wealth and prosperity to the owners, and a lucky owner of the beast of that suit is an invariable success in love affairs. Seamen of many countries consider black ship cats an excellent talisman, bringing good luck. Wives of fishermen and seafarers, in order to protect their husbands from all sorts of troubles, going out to sea, also sometimes make houses of cats exactly black.
Black cat catches the house from thieves.
Ancient Slavs believed that a black cat benefits only its owners, the rest brings misfortune and disaster.Because it was believed that a thief who climbed into the courtyard, may well abandon his criminal intentions if the road crosses him black cat.
A cat in the way is hurting horses.
Indeed, horses react negatively to the close presence of a cat – they become restless and fearful, which can subsequently negatively affect their well-being. The reason is that they smell the representative of the cat breed (predators, from time immemorial enemies of herbivores) – it is the cause of the anxiety of horses.
If any animal runs across the road – this does not bode well for the traveler.
Our ancestors believed that any living creature (cat, squirrel, fox, etc.) that crossed the road violates the mystical integrity of the path, thereby condemning the traveler to failure. However, there were exceptions to this rule. For example, a wolf running across the road promised happiness.
Rabbit brings misfortune to fishermen.
This sign, spread on the coasts of Scotland and England, is most likely due to the fact that in ancient times in many religions rabbits and hares were messengers or personages of the Moon, influencing tides and, as a consequence, very significant in the life of fishermen. Therefore, even the mention of a rabbit before going out to sea is avoided. However, in some parts of Britain on a new moon, “call a rabbit”, three times pronouncing the name of the mentioned animal – it is believed that in this case, luck will not leave you for a month.
If the egg shell is left in the yard – a person can develop a fever. From the eggshell thrown into the water, mermaids make themselves boats, which does not promise the mortal anything good.
The aforementioned signs are based on purely practical considerations: eggshells left in the courtyard can be chained with chickens, and ducks thrown into the water. Addicted to this delicacy, domestic birds subsequently begin to peck whole eggs, which leads to considerable losses in the farm.
Meat of a calf is sinful.
The restriction, reflected in the note, appeared, most likely, in the countryside. The fact is that cows are better milked when calves are next to them. Therefore, if the owners want to receive more milk – calves, they should be protected.
If the mistress of the cow comes out to pasture to her favorite – the nada will be more.
Indeed, the appearance of a loving mistress on the pasture has a positive effect on the physical condition of the animal, as a result of which the amount of milk can increase.
A bird knocking at the window – either to good news, or to misfortune.
In ancient times people believed that the souls of the dead were introduced into birds (except for crows and jackdaws), and if they fought in the window (in some cases positioned as a kind of communication channel between the world of the living and the world of the dead, who died unbaptized, etc.) – it was believed that the deceased wanted to notify living relatives about something. More often than not, the news was expected to be good, but the bird that flew into the house warned of misfortune.
Swallow kill – to failure in business affairs.
People have long noticed that swallows live only in a healthy, dry place. Therefore, careful owners, seeing the nest of this bird, rejoiced that the swallow settled under the roof of their house, thereby confirming its integrity and purity. If the bird for some reason left the nest – this meant that something is wrong with the house. We can say that the swallow served as a kind of indicator of the state of the home, because its killing and destruction of the nest was considered a sin, and promised the host a lot of trouble.
The stork left the nest on the roof, mice (cockroaches) escape from the house – to a fast fire.
Birds, animals (especially mice) and insects have a fairly strong intuition, are able to anticipate a disaster that threatens the home, and to leave the dangerous place in advance.
Ants bring good things to the house.
This sign was formed under the influence of many factors: the number of ants was associated with the amount of good that they were supposed to bring to the house; The positive qualities that these insects possessed (diligence, solidarity, mutual respect and mutual assistance), according to our ancestors, were passed on to people in whose house these insects settled. From the domestic point of view, this explanation is simple: firstly, the ants were a reflection of the welfare of the house (where there are few products, these insects are unlikely to appear); secondly, they helped to restore order by picking up crumbs that fell on the floor.
The horse stumbles – to failure.
First, the horse, which our ancestors considered to be a sacred animal, reflected its state of well-being of the owner and his affairs (both on the mystical and on the purely domestic level). It was believed that this sensitive and cautious animal is fully capable of anticipating the troubles and failures threatening its owner, and reflect them in their behavior. Secondly, weakened or sick horses stumble more often, which, most likely, are not able to fully perform their functions, thereby generating considerable losses in the peasant economy.
Whom the mouse will bite – that troubles and misfortunes can not be avoided.
It’s no secret that rodents (in particular mice and rats) carry many serious infectious diseases (for example, plague), so the consequences of their bite can have a very negative impact on human health and the welfare of the whole family if it is necessary to treat a bitten person.
In the soup of a fly – to a gift. Eating what the mouse gnawed – strong teeth to have.
Both signs have one explanation at the household level: our economical ancestors could not afford to simply throw out food slightly damaged by rodents or pour soup on the fly that got into it. That’s why there were created soothing explanations-promises that allow people to overcome disgust for the sake of a gift promised or a strengthening of teeth.
Fly a bug – there are no flies in the house.
Our ancestors believed that before the beginning of Indian summer (late August – early September), flies can not be killed, since this action will only increase the number of these insects. But during the off-season it was customary to hold a symbolic rite of the funeral of flies, after which they had to rise. In fact, it is during this period that flies fall asleep for the winter, because their numbers are gradually decreasing and coming to naught. Rite on this process does not affect.
To kill the ladybird – to bring trouble.
According to the researchers, the origin of this superstition can be explained quite simply: the above-mentioned insect brings considerable benefits in the economy, as it destroys the aphids (which at all times was a real calamity for the peasants).
To kill the butterfly that has flown into the house – unfortunately.
Our ancestors believed that the souls of deceased people enter into the butterflies, therefore to treat these insects followed with reverence, in no case to kill (in order not to do it again for suffering), but to accurately catch and release to freedom.
Touch the frog – you will be all in the warts.
According to the results of the research, the skin of some frogs, defending themselves against enemies, really emits substances that cause the appearance of warts. Because of close contacts with frogs it is really better to abstain.
In order to avoid trouble, it is necessary to knock on wood.
This sign appeared during pagan times, when people believed that deities live in tree trunks (for example, the oak tree was reputed to be the abode of Perun the Thunderer), and in order to enlist their help and support, our ancestors repented of their sins and then touched the trunk of the tree. Later, when the sense of the ritual was partially lost, a tapping on the tree was simply muffled by the voice of a person who boasted or praised someone.
It should be noted that this way to get rid of the evil eye, in some countries it is not so easy to use. For example, in England, knocking on a tree covered with varnish or paint is considered useless. And not every tree is suitable for this purpose – for example, to the aspen (since ancient times it was considered a tree of destruction) it is not necessary to apply for help.
With the advent of Christianity, this sign was not only not abolished, but also received a new explanation – the beneficial effect of the tree was associated with the miraculous power of the Life-giving Cross. There remained the dislike of the aspens in the beliefs of the Gentiles, which now received a different explanation – it was on this tree that Judas hanged himself.
Rowan at his house to cut – to illness or death of one of the household.
First, this sign, like the previous one, is an echo of pagan beliefs that spirits live in trees, which, if a person destroys their dwelling (he cuts down a tree), may become angry and bring a lot of troubles to him and his family. Secondly, it should be borne in mind that rowan berries were used in folk medicine as a diaphoretic, diuretic, hemostatic, astringent, and also used for the treatment of gastritis, anemia, hypertension, scurvy, avitaminosis, atony of the stomach, etc. Therefore, having cut down the mountain ash, the person actually deprived himself of a multifunctional natural medicine, which could have had a detrimental effect on the state of health of both the tree-cutter and any of his relatives.
It’s sinful to eat apples until the Apple Savior.
Initially, this prohibition concerned only those people whose children died – it was believed that the fruits stored on the tree until a certain time become the food of the inhabitants of the afterlife. Only a little later, the mentioned sign began to concern everyone without exception. There is also a domestic explanation for such restrictions-until the apple spas (that is, until August 19) apples for the most part simply do not have time to reach the required degree of maturity, and, therefore, a person (especially a child) who at the time is unripe fruit, stomach upset.
If before the day of Ivan the woman eats berries – her children will die.
Until the day of Ivanov (June 23) there are not so many mature berries, and in order to preserve health, it is better to abstain from using them.
It’s dangerous near bedlin to sleep – you can not wake up.
Pure practical advice. After all, both the use of bleached, and the prolonged inhalation of its odor can lead to mental disorders, hallucinations, and even to death.
He loves almonds – he loves his wife. Hemp a man to love – be a childless.
Both these signs are based on the experience of long-term observation of how different foods affect the male body. Modern studies confirm that eating almonds (as well as other nuts) can really increase potency, and addiction to cannabis (which also has a narcotic effect on the human body) can lead to a partial or total loss of male power.
So that the snake does not bite, going to the forest, it is necessary to put a flower of Veronica in the shoes. The smell of veronica (snake grass) is really capable of scare off snakes.
Found a lilac flower with 5 petals must be eaten – then there will be happiness and luck.
In folk medicine, lilac is used quite widely – with the help of decoctions of flowers and leaves of this plant, purulent wounds, bruises, rheumatism, gout, malaria, fever, inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, etc. are cured. Therefore, the intake of lilac flowers in small doses (after all, flowers with 5 petals are not so common) is very useful for health.