By the end of the second trimester: height – 30-33 cm, weight – 900-950 gr.
After all the difficulties, ailments and anxieties of the first trimester, the second trimester seems truly a blessed time. All the organs of the child have already been laid in his body, now their further development. In this regard, the child is growing rapidly.
From the 22nd week of pregnancy in the case of preterm delivery, a child weighing more than 500 g has some chances to survive if the patient resuscitates and is followed by intensive therapy.
The skeleton of the child is formed and even pretty well overgrown with muscles and slightly fat. From 18-20 weeks mom can feel the movement of the child, although in fact actively move it started back at the end of the last trimester.
But now the baby is big enough to make mom feel their movements. At the same time, you can determine the sex of the child with almost 100% accuracy.
The brain receives a bark in which there are furrows and gyruses. It is this part of the brain that is responsible for the behavior of the future person, the possibility of its adaptation to the environment and the ability to respond adequately and consciously to what is happening around him.
Simultaneously, the baby acquires all the senses and begins to react to the surrounding environment. Tactile (skin) sensitivity appeared in him at the end of the first trimester. In the fourth month, taste buds develop in the mouth, on the fifth the baby receives a vestibular apparatus, and by the end of the trimester, smell, sight and hearing are formed.
It’s true that the toddler does not have to use his sense of smell, since his nose is covered with a mucous plug. But he hears a variety of sounds – beating the heart of the mother, talking around her, music and other sounds. He also distinguishes light that weakly penetrates the mother’s womb through her body.
A kid can not only move. He already knows how to sleep and see dreams, sucking a finger, blinking and even frowning and crying.
поч The kidneys, intestines, stomach, gall bladder are fully formed and ready for work. In the intestine, even the first feces of the baby – meconium is formed, and the kidneys begin to excrete urine, although the main function for the removal of waste products now belongs to the placenta.
The endocrine system is fully operational by the end of the trimester. The pituitary gland, the sex glands, the adrenal glands, the pancreas, the thyroid gland are already functioning.
And, finally, the child begins to perform the first respiratory movements. This is not yet real breathing (the baby swallows the amniotic fluid), but in this way the lungs prepare for a future first independent inhalation.
Thin skin of the baby is covered with a special lubricant, which protects the skin from damage, and the original “Lanugo” fluff. Now the child is still wrinkled and red, but by the end of the trimester, the accumulation of subcutaneous fat begins. By the time of delivery baby will turn into a plump and beautiful pink baby.
Critical days for the second trimester come on week 18-22. At this moment there is a rapid growth of the uterus and there is a risk of detachment of the placenta or its incorrect presentation. This can provoke late miscarriage or premature birth.
Weight gain by the end of the trimester is 7-7.5 kg compared with the pre-pregnancy period. The height of the bottom of the uterus is 26 cm.
Most women feel fine in the second trimester. The toxicosis ends, the tummy is not too heavy to stop moving, but it’s noticeable enough that those around you finally start giving way to public transport and in general, treats you like a pregnant woman.
Despite the fact that you feel good, you need to continue to drink vitamins and keep an eye out for your health.
By the middle of the trimester, you will need special clothes for pregnant women, which does not hamper your waist and stomach. It is also desirable to abandon shoes with heels. Your shoes or boots should be very soft, comfortable, not pressing your feet.Please note that from the second trimester you may have swelling, sometimes quite swollen feet.
In the body of the future mother there are significant changes. She has a 40% increase in blood volume, the heart slightly increases and even slightly changes position. There is a risk of anemia if you experience iron deficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to take blood tests and monitor the level of hemoglobin.
By the end of the term for the first time begin training battles for Braxton-Hicks (“Braxtons”). This is not a real fight, because they are irregular, unstable and not growing. With the help of “braxtons” your uterus prepares for the forthcoming birth. The skin becomes drier, stretch marks appear on the abdomen and thighs, sweating can increase.
Breast reorganization begins. The kid actively produces special hormones that stimulate lactation. Therefore, the breasts swell, and in the second trimester colostrum begins to develop in them – first milk. First a little bit, and the closer to childbirth, the more.
Due to the increasing pressure of the growing uterus on the internal organs, heartburn, constipation and even hemorrhoids may increase. Of the other problems, bleeding from the nose due to the drying of the mucosa and vaginal discharge of milky white caused by hormonal alteration are not ruled out.
More serious complications are:
– vaginal bleeding;
– late miscarriage;
– premature birth.
In case of increased blood pressure, weakness, changes in blood sugar levels, any kind of bloody scarlet or dark vaginal discharge, any kind of pain in the lower abdomen, lower back, hips, sacrum, call your doctor.
Remember that a late miscarriage noticed in time can be prevented and there is a chance to take out the baby. If there are premature births (after 22 weeks), in the case of properly provided resuscitation and the absence of birth defects, the child has a chance to survive.
Be extremely attentive to your child’s health and health. Take regular vitamins and visit a doctor. From 20 weeks to 30 weeks of pregnancy, you need to visit a doctor at least once every two weeks.
The analysis schedule for the second trimester is as follows:
– “triple test for congenital malformations (AFP, estriol, hCG) – 16-17 weeks
– clinical blood test 16-17, 20, 24 weeks
– biochemistry of blood – 24 week
– general urinalysis 16-17, 20, 24 weeks
– gynecological smear 16-17 weeks
– hemostasiogram with D-dimer (coagulation test) – Week 20
– ultrasound with doppler – 20- 22 weeks.
1 trimester – 2 trimester – 3 trimester