Rubella

Rubella

(or measles rubella) is an epidemic viral disease. The incubation period is approximately eighteen days (from fourteen days to twenty-one days). Rubella can be attributed to relatively non-dangerous diseases. However, during pregnancy, measles rubella may have an adverse effect on the fetus.

Rubella

Typical features of the disease are the presence of skin rashes and an increase in the size of the lymph nodes. Rubella is mainly caused by children (age from five to fifteen); rubella are equally affected by women and men. After the disease, resistant immunity to it is produced.

Rubella more clearly manifests itself in the form of epidemic waves. The most pronounced epidemics occur in the world at intervals of ten to twenty years. Rubella vaccination is mandatory – it is carried out at the age of 12 months and 6 years and is included in the calendar of mandatory preventive vaccinations in Russia. Vaccination rarely leads to complications and in most cases is easily tolerated.

Rubella is the third disease.

This name for measles rubella was fixed for the following reason. It has been holding on to rubella ever since the list of all the diseases that provoke the appearance of rashes in children. In this list, as it is not hard to guess, rubella was the third in a row.

Rubella is not a dangerous disease.

This can be judged on the basis of the fact that measles rubella often occurs in mild form. The duration of its flow is also low. The disease most often develops in children.

Rubella is a dangerous disease.

During pregnancy this is indeed so. If a pregnant woman develops rubella, then there is a potential danger to the child – especially if the mother is infected in the first months of pregnancy. In this case (infection in the first month of pregnancy) the probability of miscarriage is very high. Rubella can provoke serious congenital malformations in the child, including deafness, blindness, pathologies of the brain and heart. According to scientists, the risk of complicating the normal course of pregnancy with rubella infection in the first month is about 50%, in the second month it is about 25%, in the third month – 15%.

Rubella was recognized as an independent disease only in the late nineteenth century.

This disease was described back in 1740 (F. Hofmann, a German therapist). But despite this, as an independent disease, rubella was recognized only in 1881. Until this year, rubella, along with scarlet fever and measles, was considered by scientists and physicians as one disease. The reason for this is that all of the above diseases have similar external signs, that is, they manifest almost identically.

RNA-containing virus – a causative agent of rubella.

This virus belongs to the family of togaviruses. The virus contains two antigens – internal and external. The virus quickly breaks down when exposed to organic solvents, UV rays, formalin, chloroactive compounds. Also, the virus can not last for long in conditions where the pH is above 8.0 and below 6.8. Infection can spread in two ways. The first method is airborne. The second one is associated with the discharge of the patient with measles rubella. During pregnancy, the disease is transmitted to the fetus through the mother’s placenta.

Rubella is a disease spread all over the world.

In America, the incidence of measles is seasonal. The peak incidence falls on May-June. It should be noted that rubella, compared with measles, is less contagious. As a result of contact with a patient, the probability of rubella in a healthy person varies from 30% to 60% of all cases.

Infants are not susceptible to rubella.

Such cases are extremely rare. Most often rubella develops in children aged from five to fifteen years.It’s not rare that adults get sick with rubella. However, after forty years the probability of measles rubella is almost zero.

Once having had rubella, the rest of her life can not be remembered.

This is indeed so. After a person has rubella, he develops a permanent immunity to this disease. The cases of recurrent rubella disease in the world are very rare. It is necessary to know that immunity to rubella does not protect a person against measles.

The rash is the first symptom of rubella.

Often he is the only one. Most likely, the rash appears first on the extensor surfaces of the limbs, as well as on the face and neck. However, the rash spreads quite quickly throughout the body. It remains unchanged for about three days. The rash of rubella resembles a rash of scarlet fever, and, above all, it is expressed in the fact that the appearance of a rash in scarlet fever is often combined with the general redness of the skin around it.

Symptoms of rubella are mild.

If you count all the other symptoms of rubella, other than a rash, then this is indeed so. A rise in body temperature above 38 ° is quite rare. The temperature is increased only a few days (usually three to four days). At the end of this period, the patient begins to quickly recover. The infectious patient is an average of two weeks (that is, a week before the first rashes were found, and a week after the first rashes). However, those children who contract rubella from their mother (referring to cases of intrauterine infection) remain contagious for several months (there are cases even up to two years).

Rubella is characterized by pronounced prodromal period.

Prodromal period, speaking in simple language, is associated with the appearance of signs-precursors of the disease. The prodromal period is typical for infectious diseases. One-and-a-half days before the onset of the disease (that is, the appearance of a rash), there is a slight increase in body temperature, headaches, an increase in the lymph nodes – zadnesheynyh and occipital. There may also be a perspiration in the face and a slight runny nose.

Treatment of rubella is only symptomatic.

There are no drugs against the causative agent of the disease. At elevated body temperature, bed rest is necessary (including to isolate the patient from others). The duration of isolation should be at least seven to ten days, that is, it covers the period when the patient is a danger of contamination of others. Light food is also recommended. Patients are allowed to take paracetamol. Most patients with measles rubella do not even need any specific treatment. It is only possible to take funds, which is aimed at treating complications or alleviating the general well-being of the patient.

Rubella rarely gives complications.

Mainly the development of complications takes place only during the period of intrauterine development of a person. Congenital rubella has the following clinical picture. Most often it is determined by the triad of Gregg. The latter includes: first, the damage to the organs of vision – most often it is cataract (develops in 84.5% of cases); secondly, the pathology of the hearing organs (in 21.9% of cases) and, thirdly, congenital heart defects (occur in 98% of congenital rubella cases). The complicated course of rubella in childhood is largely due to the presence of a secondary viral infection or a bacterial infection.

Joint damage is a specific complication of rubella.

Adolescent girls, as well as women, are most affected by this complication. And the frequency of this complication depends directly on the age of the patient with rubella. The older the patient, the higher the likelihood of joint damage. As a rule, this complication manifests itself approximately seven days after the first skin rashes. Clinically, it is associated with pain, redness and quite often with swelling of the joints.Often there is an effusion into the pleural cavity. Most susceptible to injury metacarpophalangeal joints. Often suffer ulnar and knee joints. Symptoms of this complication persist for one week.

The defeat of the nervous system for rubella is rare.

The incidence of this complication of rubella is one to five (or even to six) thousand cases. Complications develop around the fourth or fifth after the appearance of the first signs of the disease and can occur in the form of meningitis, encephalitis, meningoelitis, etc. Acute encephalitis usually reveals itself as a new significant rise in the body temperature of the patient. It is characterized by severe cerebral symptoms, which is determined by the disorder of consciousness and the appearance of seizures. Meningitis can develop independently, but often its development accompanies encephalitis.

Thrombocytopenic purpura is a specific complication of rubella.

The most common complication is in girls. It manifests itself a few days after the discovery of the rash (sometimes in a week). Characteristic features of this complication are the appearance of hemorrhagic rash, the presence of hematuria (i.e., blood in the urine), and bleeding from the gums.

Prophylactic vaccination against rubella is mandatory.

Its main goal is to prevent the introduction of a rubella virus into the body of a pregnant woman. The most important task is determined, which is to reduce the level of congenital rubella to a level of 0.01 per 1000 births (and less) – it is about 2010. That is why the rubella vaccine is mandatory and is included in the calendar of vaccinations in Russia.
The vaccination itself is carried out either deeply subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Vaccination is carried out at the age of one year and six years, in addition thirteen-year-old girls are also subject to vaccination if they have previously received less than two doses of this vaccine. In this case, the presence of a history of rubella in the disease is not taken into account (that is, the vaccine is done regardless of whether the person was sick before rubella).
Any rubella vaccine is used from those approved for use in the Russian Federation – the domestic measles rubella vaccine has not yet been developed.
Often, vaccines are used at once from several diseases (three in one) – with their introduction the child is vaccinated against rubella, measles and mumps. At the same time, there is no increase in the risk for this vaccine, as well as the development of complications. It is recommended to vaccinate against a rubella of a future mother – it needs to be scheduled for several months (enough two or three) before pregnancy.
Vaccination from rubella during pregnancy will not only not be of use, but it can be unfavorable for the fetus, since the vaccine contains a live, but weakened, virus. Its meaning is precisely that the rubella is very light. However, for the fetus and such a virus is dangerous. In addition, a pregnant woman should in no case be contacted with people who were vaccinated, for four weeks after it.

The rubella vaccine is easy to transfer.

Reactions to measles rubella vaccine are common. Typically, this is the redness of the injection site and some soreness. Quite often there is a subfebrile condition (an increase in temperature), which, however, is of a short-term nature. Lymph node enlargement may occur infrequently. All the above-mentioned reactions are observed only in two to three percent of those vaccinated from their total number. They occur within the first two or three days. In a small number of vaccines, from the fifth to the twelfth day after the vaccination, some measles rubella specific reactions may be observed. We are talking about the appearance of a characteristic rash for the disease, an increase in the size of the occipital, behind-the-neck, cervical lymph nodes, the possible pain in the joints.All these signs can occur (rarely) for two to four weeks after vaccination. The reason is that the vaccine causes a mild rubella disease.

Vaccination against measles rubella does not give complications.

It will be more correct to say gives, but very rarely. Complications can be observed with a frequency of 1 person with complications to 200,000 vaccinated. Complications include meningitis and meningoencephalitis. In any case, the complications are mild. As a rule, there are no residual phenomena with them.

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