Rickets

Rickets

is a fairly common disease among young children. Rickets is associated with the defeat of the musculoskeletal system, resulting from a lack of vitamin D in the body.

There are several degrees of severity of rickets: mild, moderate and severe. By the presence of some signs it is possible to predict the development of rickets and prevent it at an early stage.

This disease requires an integrated approach to it. A large role in the treatment is performed by parents who must as often as possible take the child out for walks, provide proper nutrition and follow all the doctor’s recommendations. Rickets can be prevented or suppressed at an early stage (then recovery comes much faster).

Prevention measures include proper nutrition, frequent walks, etc. Prevention of rickets can be started several months before the birth of the child. The clinical picture of secondary rickets differs from the clinical picture of primary rickets.

Rickets is a childhood disease.

It occurs in children of early childhood. Rickets are even sometimes called the disease of a growing organism, because most cases occur between the ages of three months and up to three years. In addition, rickets are more common in premature infants.

Rickets are known since the seventeenth century.

It was then that the doctors first attracted attention to this disease. For the first time some description of rickets occurs in 1645. The fact that the process of softening of bones is observed in rickets was noted in 1660. A more detailed description of the clinical picture of this disease was compiled in 1751. In the early twentieth century, rickets was treated with fish oil and very successfully: so in 1909 in Russia rickets were treated in two months. The treatment of the child was made by the physician IA Shabadu (and in New York around the same time – in 1917 – a clinic was created, which was supplied with this valuable product). In 1919 it was found that rickets can be cured using ultraviolet irradiation.

Rickets are associated with a deficiency in the body of vitamin D.

The cause of this shortage can be many factors, ranging from malnutrition and infrequent walks in fresh age and ending with pathologies of the kidneys and liver. Vitamin D is most directly related to the musculoskeletal system: as a result of organic transformations, it turns into a compound that is required for the human body to properly absorb phosphoric and calcium trace elements. The latter, as is known, are the main building material for bones. Thus, with a deficiency of this vitamin, the normal absorption of calcium and phosphoric trace elements is disrupted. Due to the lack of these trace elements, they are “washed away” from the bone tissue. We can say that this way the body provides a normal concentration of calcium and magnesium, but as a result of this, the bones become softened. Mineral metabolism is very important for muscles, and its disturbances are also reflected in them.

Rickets are not distributed in all countries of the world.

It is known that this disease is never affected by animals. In addition, rickets are difficult to find among people who are distinguished by a primitive way of life. The countries of Africa meet with such a disease as rickets, very rarely. It is practically unknown in Japan and China. In countries where fishing is developed and a product such as fish is often eaten, rickets are also extremely rare (associated with the content of fish oil in food). These are countries like Greenland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland. The abundance of sunlight also does not create conditions for the spread of rickets. Therefore, this disease is unknown to Turkey and Greece. But in some cities of northern and central America, Europe, Canada, 30-90% of all children get rickets. It is important to know that the ultraviolet rays of the sun are not able to penetrate the apartment through the glass.Also, they may not reach each individual (in this case, it is primarily about children) in the event that the air is contaminated. After all, the light theory can explain the seasonal nature of the disease with rickets. It should be noted that blackchildren, who live in countries with a temperate climate, are particularly prone to rickets. This is because the pigmentation of their skin does not provide an opportunity to penetrate the sunlight in sufficient quantities. Statistics show that the incidence of rickets in rural areas is much lower than in cities. In addition, the higher the territory of the city or country is above sea level, the lower the probability of rickets.

The non-rational feeding of a child is one of the reasons for rickets.

Yes, it is. Because if a child is fed with other people’s milk, calcium is not absorbed enough. In addition, the world is proven. That among those children who are fed by mother’s milk, rickets are much less common, and if this disease occurs, it proceeds in a fairly mild manner. Studies show that with artificial feeding, a child can assimilate only 30% of calcium and about 25% of phosphorus. When breastfeeding, the child, as a rule, absorbs up to 70% of calcium and up to 50% of phosphorus. Even from these data, one can draw an appropriate conclusion about the importance of breastfeeding an infant. If the child receives food in the form of monotonous food (saturated with lipids or proteins), then it can also lead to a disease like rickets.

There are several degrees of severity of rickets.

Mild severity is characteristic of the initial period of the disease. It is characterized by a tightening of the occiput, the appearance on the wrists, fingers and ribs of thickening (bony). Some children experience a decrease in muscle activity.
Medium rickets mean moderate changes in the bone system. For such rickets, the most pronounced, in comparison with mild degree, pathology on the part of the musculoskeletal system is the determining one. This pathology is often accompanied by diseases of various internal organs. Often there is an increase in liver size and spleen, as well as anemia, that is anemia. Anemia is a condition of the body characterized by a low content of erythrocytes in the blood (functionally full red cells).
Severe rickets include lesions of several parts of the osseous system. To a large extent, internal organs suffer (the pathology of which is much more pronounced than in previous cases) and the nervous system. Such rickets lead to a lag in mental and physical development. Perhaps the emergence of complications of this disease, which, as a rule, take place in the absence of treatment appropriate for the disease. Also, with a severe form of the disease, bone changes can lead to severe deformation: for example, the appearance of a keeled or funnel-shaped chest.
It should be understood that the earlier a rickets is diagnosed in a child, the easier it will be.

Rickets lightning speed leads to the defeat of bone tissue.

This is absolutely not the case. On the contrary, the first signs of the disease find themselves in a fairly long period of time before the actual bone changes. These signs, so to speak, harbingers of rickets are associated with a violation of a child’s sleep, constant sweating. On the skin of the child, you can find red spots, there is a restless or excited state. A clinical blood test provides the basis for the diagnosis of rickets. However, advanced cases of rickets can be diagnosed after examination of the external clinical data of the survey.

Rickets require complex treatment.

More often than not, it includes the goal of bringing vitamin D to normal levels in the body, as well as identifying the causes that cause calcium and phosphorus deficiency and their elimination.It is recommended to the patient to ensure frequent stay in the open air (especially on sunny days). The need for this is due to the fact that ultraviolet with the solar spectrum contributes to the appearance of so necessary in this case vitamin D in the skin of a person. Often appointed and ultraviolet irradiation to help the body produce vitamin D on its own.
As far as nutrition is concerned, it must contain a full range of nutrients. First of all, it is required to provide the child with the intake of food in his organism, which is sufficiently saturated with vitamins and microelements. Favorable for the general condition of the patient’s body is the direct use of vitamin D – the specialist prescribes the preferred dosage and duration of vitamin intake (most often from a period of one to six months).

In preventing the development of rickets in a child an important role is played by the prevention of this disease.

Actually, prevention can be successfully started before the birth of a child. In this case, it includes the correct and rational nutrition of the mother. In addition, during the last months of pregnancy, the mother (and her child) will not be prevented from using vitamin D. If the birth occurs in autumn or winter, that is, the seasons, “poor” by sunlight, then mothers can think about the possibility of mild doses of ultraviolet irradiation. Prevention of rickets directly from the child should include proper nutrition, frequent walks (again especially in hot weather), parents must pay great attention to the physical development of their child.

Secondary rickets for clinical manifestations are different from primary rickets.

Secondary rickets can be caused by taking medications (of course, not all, but only some of them). Also, secondary rickets may occur due to liver dysfunction. In this case, there are deviations in the functioning of the biliary system. As a result, the body digests certain vitamins (including the important vitamin D). Therefore, rickets in this case is often accompanied by deformation of the liver or jaundice. Rickets can develop if there is a metabolic disorder, as well as in case of violations of the proper functioning of the endocrine glands.

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