Mumps (epidemic parotitis)
is a viral disease. The viral nature of the epidemic parotitis was proved in 1934. The virus that causes this disease is the virus – a distant relative of the virus that causes the flu. Parotitis mainly affects the salivary glands. The disease spreads by airborne droplets.
The incubation period of mumps in most cases varies from fourteen to twenty-one days – the risk of infection with epidemic parotitis takes a period, starting two days before the enlargement of the glands in size and ending with complete recovery of the patient.
Pediatric diseases are more affected by children. In infants, however, in the first months of their life immunity from mumps from the mother remains. After the transferred mumps the persistent immunity against this disease is developed.
Statistics show that every year about fifty thousand people get mumps in the Russian Federation.
Mumps is one of the most common diseases of an infectious nature.
Infection of mumps is transmitted from one person to another by airborne droplets. Usually, the mumps virus is secreted along with saliva, but it is also possible to transmit it through infected objects (for example, dishes, clothes, toys). The virus can be transmitted from mother to child in utero.
Parotitis is a child’s disease.
It occurs much more often in childhood than in adults. Disease of the pig is largely affected by children between the ages of three to fifteen years. Often the epidemic parotitis sick boys – about half as often as girls. However, adults aged up to 40 can also become pregnant with mumps, in this case, as a rule, mumps are more severe (than in childhood).
The prodromal period is characteristic for mumps.
The prodromal period does not last long. This period is accompanied by fatigue, irritability, the appearance of headaches. The patient decreases appetite, there are pains in the throat, the temperature rises. There is some swelling of the parotid gland.
The beginning of mumps is acute.
The temperature rises sharply and varies from 38 ° and above. Parotitis is characterized by moderate intoxication. This means that the child feels weak and unwell, and sometimes he has a toothache in addition to the headache. Pain can occur in the joints and in the ears. Suppuration of glands, as a rule, is not observed in patients with mumps.
When the parotitis is affected the left side.
This is typical for the very beginning of the disease. However, after a period of one to three days, the second side is also affected, as a rule, the second side is affected. The disease can spread as soon as the parotid glands, and the sublingual and submandibular. On the fourth or fifth day of mumps the temperature starts to decrease. The patient complains less of the general condition. Salivary glands acquire normal size.
Parotitis can give complications.
They are mainly associated with the fact that the pathological process begins to embrace other glands of the body (not only salivary) – for example, the pancreas. Her inflammation is characterized by the appearance of pain in the upper abdomen. Often there is vomiting. As a result, sometimes diabetes develops. One of the complications of mumps is pancreatitis. The disease can develop four to seven days after the appearance of the first signs of mumps. It is characterized by sharp pains in the abdomen. A frequent phenomenon is nausea and vomiting, which is repeated many times. The state of fever is also often found in patients. Some patients may have symptoms of irritation of the peritoneum. Symptoms of pancreatitis remain with the patient in the period from seven to ten days. However, the increased activity of urine amylase can persist for a month. Lesions can affect the central nervous system.In this case, the occurrence of meningitis (that is, inflammation of the membranes of the brain). The course of meningitis is usually benign. Sometimes (quite rarely) the auditory nerve can be affected. In this case, hearing damage is possible. The lesion can affect the genitals: if the mumps occurred during puberty (or in adulthood). As a result, he leads to orchitis – inflammation of the testicles – in boys, to ovarian inflammation – in girls. Thus, the epidemic parotitis can have a negative impact on the salivary glands, the endocrine system of the body, the nervous system.
The peak of the disease with mumps is accounted for in autumn and winter.
This is due to the fact that the causative agent of mumps at low temperatures can be in the active state for a long period of time. When the causative agent of the mumps falls on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, it begins to multiply intensively. Then the causative agent of this disease gets to the bloodstream, thanks to this, it spreads throughout the body. The causative agent of epidemic parotitis accumulates in the genital and salivary glands, causing their inflammation.
Pig leads to male infertility.
Not always. In the event that parotitis gave complication and orchitis developed, in 10% of cases, indeed, inability to fertilization, that is, infertility, may develop.
Inflammation of salivary glands is dangerous.
Rather unpleasant. Parotitis as such is not dangerous, but its complications are dangerous. True, they do not occur so often, but still there.
Parotitis is ill once.
Indeed, after the epidemic parotitis has passed, there is a persistent immunity to this disease. However, cases of repeated mumps are still known, although they rarely happen.
Parotite requires in-patient treatment.
This is not always the case. Parotitis, characterized by mild or moderate severity can successfully be treated and at home. However, if epidemic parotitis occurs in a serious degree, then hospitalization is necessary. All patients who are parotitis accompanied by central nervous system damage, orchitis or pancreatitis are subject to inpatient treatment. In all children’s institutions, in which at least one case of an epidemic parotitis is detected, quarantine is established within twenty-one days.
Treatment of mumps is aimed at eliminating the cause of its occurrence.
Not at all, on the contrary, etiotropic (just aimed at eliminating the cause) treatment of mumps is not prescribed. The most important stage in the treatment of mumps is the prevention of the development of complications of this disease. It is recommended that bed rest for 10 days after the onset of the disease. Statistics show that those men who in the first week gave up on bed rest, have a risk of having an orchitis three times larger than those who had bed rest. When epidemic parotitis occurs, it is important to maintain proper nutrition – to prevent the development of pancreatitis (milk-vegetable diet is desirable.If pancreatitis has not been prevented, the treatment of this disease includes a liquid sparing diet, a cold on the stomach, atropine, papaverine. as a rule, it is favorable.If meningitis occurs, the patient is given a course of treatment with corticosteroids.
жи A live vaccine is used to prevent mumps.
Vaccination is mandatory The order is given to children aged 15 months to 7 years who, naturally, have not transferred the parotitis at an earlier time.The mumps vaccination is done once and can be performed either by intradermal or subcutaneous method.Those children who have been in direct contact with the sick mumps and do not have permanent immunity to this disease can be vaccinated against epidemic pancreatitis urgently. The duration of the vaccine is approximately twelve years. Vaccination reactions, as a rule, do not take place. Contraindications to vaccination against mumps are allergic to aminoglycosides, immunodeficiency states, pregnancy.