(Mozart) Wolfgang Amadeus (27.1.1756, Salzburg, 5.12.1791, Vienna) is an Austrian composer. Among the greatest masters of music, Mozart stands out with the early flowering of powerful and all-round talent, the unusual life fate – from the triumphs of the child prodigy to the hard struggle for existence and recognition in adulthood, the unparalleled courage of the artist who preferred the unprofitable life of an independent master to the humiliating service of a noble despot, finally, the all-embracing value of creativity, covering almost all genres of music. The life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, like no other genius, is buried in myths and legends. Many arose soon after his death, some were born later, but all are amazingly tenacious so far. Through the centuries, we no longer have to consider the truth, which gives the ground for a multitude of interpretations of myths and their revelations.
Mozart was called Wolfgang Amadeus.
At the baptism, Mozart was given the name of Johann Chrysostom by Wolfgang Theophilus. Greek “Theophilus” in German means “Gottlieb”, and in Latin – “Amadeus” (that is, “loving God”). Of all three options, it is best to hear Amadeus. This name Mozart and chose.
Mozart was a unique, miraculous; he created jokes, and everything was given to him extraordinarily easily.
Undoubtedly, Mozart was a musical genius, possessed phenomenal abilities. But behind his masterpieces is a titanic work, he worked hard and worked hard. Not much from early childhood. Mozart’s genius manifested itself in three years. His father, a well-known teacher and musician, who served at the court of the Salzburg Prince, immediately engaged in teaching his son. Little Mozart easily repeated for his sister little plays and easily memorized them. Already in four years he composed his first concert for a harpsichord, and at six – played virtuoso on a harpsichord, violin and organ. Mozart was not even six years old when his long concert tour began: with his sister Anna, also a talented performer, and mentor father, Wolfgang traveled half-Europe. For several years they gave concerts in Munich, Paris, Vienna, London, visited Holland and Switzerland. The audience admired the boy who could play blindfolded, skillfully improvised, performed complicated passages on a par with older musicians … Genius was only seven years old when he composed sonatas for pianoforte and violin published in Paris. Of course, the children were exhausted by these trips. On the way, Wolfgang and Nannerl often fell ill, more than once were on the brink of death. Both of them suffered both pneumonia and smallpox. There is an opinion that the cause of Mozart’s early death is in the diseases that he earned in the years of his difficult childhood. During his travels Mozart took lessons, got acquainted with a huge number of composers and musicians of that time, mastered different musical styles and languages. It is impossible to find another composer who, with such brilliance as Mozart, possessed a wide variety of genres and forms: this refers to the symphony and concerto, the divertissement and the quartet, opera and mass, sonata and trio. In all, Mozart’s pen contains over 600 works of almost all major musical genres – symphonies, chamber ensembles, concerts, songs, arias, masses, cantatas.
Mozart lived in poverty; His contemporaries did not appreciate his talent.
Mozart is considered a classic example of how outstanding artists are exploited by the ruling class, receiving a meager reward. In fact, Mozart received very decent fees. For one hour of teaching on the piano, he billed 2 guilders (for comparison – his servant received 12 guilders per year). In 1782, Mozart’s opera “Abduction from the Seraglio” was a huge success. For several years he gave a lot of piano concerts. Although he did not get paid for his work, he was often paid huge fees (for comparison: Mozart’s annual salary in Salzburg was 350 florins, and for one concert his son could receive three times more).By personal correspondence it can be seen that the degree of poverty of the family in myths is visibly exaggerated. However, the extravagant way of life quickly consumed all the money. Somehow, having earned a fabulous sum for his performance, Mozart spent it in two weeks. A friend, to whom the genius came to borrow money, asked: “You have no castle, no stables, no expensive mistress, no pile of children … Where do you make money?” And Mozart answered: “But I have Constant’s wife! She is my castle, my herd of thoroughbred horses, my mistress and my pile of children …” Children in the family were born six, but four of them died in infancy. The Mozart family was interrupted by the sons of Carla Thomas and Franz Xavier, who never got offspring. The marriage of Mozart, to which he entered without his father’s permission, was happy. Wolfgang and Constance were similar, both distinguished by an easy and joyful attitude to life. There is a legend that one winter a guest came to them and found them dancing: Mozarts tried to keep warm without having money for firewood … However, even when in Vienna the capricious audience stopped listening to Mozart’s operas and his work “out of fashion”, the composer continued to receive good fees from other European countries, as well as court wages. Mozart and Salieri.
The fact that Mozart was poisoned, began to speak soon after his death: the subject of poisons and poisonings at that time was extremely popular. And in spite of the fact that in the early biographies of Mozart this version was denied by everyone, including his wife Constance, the rumors did not stop. About 30 years since the death of Mozart passed, when in this myth appeared Antonio Salieri, at that time already seriously ill person. According to the testimony of those who were with him in those years, Salieri never made a confession that he killed Mozart, as the newspapers claimed. Perhaps, it was in the newspapers that Pushkin read about these rumors and immortalized them in his story about “genius and villainy.” Later this topic was sounded in Peter Scheffer’s play “Amadeus”, on which Milos Forman’s film was filmed. However, there is no historical evidence of the animosity between the two composers. On the contrary, the reverse is well documented: Salieri’s admiring remarks about Mozart; Mozart’s story about how Salieri was at the presentation of his opera. There was no reason for Salieri’s jealousy for Mozart: for example, the latter hardly composed instrumental music, and in the operatic genre Salieri’s reputation among contemporaries was much higher. It is known that Mozart chose Salieri as a teacher for his son Franz. By the way, among the numerous students Salieri, who played a huge role in the musical life of Europe, were Beethoven, Czerny, Meyerbeer, Schubert, List …
Mozart wrote a requiem for his death.
In the autumn evening a gray stranger knocked at the door of Mozart … He ordered a requiem on the instructions of his master, Count Valzegg-Stuppah, who recently buried his wife. Feeling his imminent death obsessed with black thoughts, Mozart began composing a requiem – for himself. So narrates the legend. However, judging by Mozart’s correspondence of the last months of his life, he was in excellent spirits. And his death was a shock to family and friends. (Here Salieri was just writing a requiem for his death in 1804. But he died much later, in 1825.) The causes of Mozart’s death are also controversial. His illness was very rapid, and on December 5, 1791, Wolfgang Amadeus died in terrible suffering from a “severe fever”. What caused the fever is not clear, and this is not surprising for the level of development of medicine. Genius was treated by the best Viennese doctors at the time. (As a result of his bloodletting, according to calculations, Mozart lost about two liters of blood.) It is likely that in that year in Vienna there was an epidemic of inflammatory infectious diseases, something like a flu. Although theories about the disease that killed a genius, dozens: from trichinosis to poisoning.
Buried in oblivion.
Mozart was buried in the common grave of the poor … In the cemetery, he was seen off by a single man …The widow refused to come to the funeral … Rich family friend van Sweeten regretted the money for burial … All this is not quite so. Among the reforms of the Austrian Emperor Joseph were new funerary rules. According to them, the burial places were now removed from the city limits (before that the custom of burying the dead in the center, near the main cathedral) flourished in Europe. The funeral procedure itself was extremely simplified. 85% of urban burials were committed in common graves, which were not allowed to establish any commemorative signs (they saved space). Every 7-8 years, the graves were dug up and used again. The widow did not go after the grave in the cemetery, and this was also in the order of things. The ceremony of Mozart’s memory was held in his Masonic lodge. The hearse went to the cemetery only after six in the evening. To follow him for the city gates was not accepted, no rituals at the burial place then did not suit, and attended only gravediggers. A “mean” van Sweeten for several years generously paid for the education of the sons of Mozart, organized the first performance of his requiem, arranged concerts in favor of Constanta and children in different cities of Europe.
Sacrificed by the Masons.
Mozart, like many of his contemporaries, was carried away by the ideas of Freemasonry and was a member of the Masonic lodge (together with a friend of Haydn). His last opera, The Magic Flute, contains Masonic themes and allegories. But … Further conjectures: the leaders of the order supposedly thought that the opera was too caricature, besides they became aware that Mozart was going to create his secret society. So the genius fell victim to an anti-Christian Masonic conspiracy: the Masons poisoned him with mercury, deliberately concealed the traces of the grave and stole from it the skull for their rites. This myth was cultivated by the Nazis; He was remembered later. According to the theory of the 60s of the XX century, Mozart’s death became a sacrifice at the consecration of the new Masonic temple.
Effect of Mozart.
This term refers to a set of contradictory scientific conclusions that classical music briefly (minutes by 15-20) increases some of the human mind (for example, spatial thinking). And that listening to Mozart in the cradle is useful for the infant mind. Passive listening to Mozart’s works, or classical music in general, does not lead to either short-term or permanent enhancement of intellectual abilities. Such conclusions were reached by German scientists in the course of a study commissioned by the German Ministry of Education and Science. That is, some positive effect, lasting no more than 20 minutes after listening, was discovered, but it manifested itself from any music and even reading.