– the system of pedagogical education, proposed by the Italian teacher, doctor, scientist Maria Montessori (the system was introduced in practice since 1906).
The method is based on the individual approach of the teacher to the child: during the entire training the kid chooses the didactic material and the duration of the lessons, developing in his own rhythm and direction.
The essence of Montessori’s method is to focus on the needs, abilities of each, encouraging the desire to participate in the life of adults. The motto of this approach is: “Help me to do it myself.”
When a new phenomenon in the society arises or appears, fundamentally different from the generally accepted norms, it immediately becomes riddled with rumors and myths, since information about it is not enough. It also happened with the pedagogy of Montessori, which in the 90s began to develop in Russia.
Teachers working with the new methodology had to overcome the misunderstandings and prejudices of officials, parents, and their colleagues. Therefore, people who are introducing a new approach to the upbringing of children can only remain calm and continue to work, so that the fruits of labor can prove the right of the method to exist. Consider what the pedagogy of Montessori represents, and at the same time, and debunk some myths about it.
Pedagogy Montessori is designed only for mentally retarded children.
Not exactly. Her medical career, Maria Motessori began in 1896. Her first patients were really children, lagging behind in development. Watching the children, Maria came to the conclusion that for all children, first of all, a special development environment is needed in which knowledge of the world will be reflected through the standards. Montessori began to study the scientific works of French psychiatrists Eduard Seguin and Gaspar of Ita. As a result, I came to the conclusion that the mental lag is a pedagogical problem, rather than a medical one. Maria Montessori, based on the writings of Edouard Seguin and her own experience, develops her unique method of working with children who are lagging behind. Later, she begins to study the pedagogy of working with healthy children. The method of Montessori began to be introduced in 1906. Her hypothesis about the possibility of self-development of the child was confirmed in practice. The methods of Maria Montessori have a positive impact on the dynamics of development of both mentally retarded and healthy and even gifted children. The child comprehends with its speed material, and the teacher, working on the Montessori system, helps him in this. To each individual approach is the main principle of this method.
Early learning is the goal of Montessori education.
Not exactly. In groups, the child’s interest in studies is constantly fueled, the child learns joyfully. Therefore, many children begin to write and read quite early. But the goal, from the point of view of Maria Montessori, is the realization of the child’s potential abilities, training in self-reliance, self-reliance.
Montessori pedagogy is not official, it is not a full-fledged replacement for conventional learning.
Yes, it is. The Montessori method is non-programmatic. For each child an individual approach is developed, taking into account the needs, opportunities. In addition, the teacher does not try to teach and educate, but creates conditions for the full satisfaction of the student’s needs. The child is completely immersed in activities. In 4-5 years, children who study by this technique, read and write, at 6-7 years easily perform mathematical actions with many-valued numbers, make reports. Graduates Montessori easily learn, they know how to work independently.
The Montessori system originated in Italy and does not suit the children of the post-Soviet space.
Seventy years brought up in us a “Soviet man”, punished for the ability to think independently, depriving individuality. It was then that this myth arose. In the Soviet Union Montessori schools were closed (the first kindergarten in the Montessori system began working in 1913., and in 1926 the People’s Commissariat of Education of the USSR forbade the use of the Montessori method) because Montessori pedagogy was positioned as alien to Soviet culture. In fact, this method outside the borders, socio-political system, the level of culture, mentality and other imposed conventions. It is created and tested on children of different nationalities. And it is designed for the children of the whole world, first of all, to feel free from any conventions and obstacles.
Montessori is an artificially created environment, oversaturated with objects that can not teach a child to live in the real world.
Not exactly. The pedagogy of Maria Montessori is indeed environmental pedagogy. Here there are no basic means of instruction, such familiar to us all: a board, a desk, a textbook. But the emphasis is on a variety of teaching auxiliary materials, both classical and self-made, which is able to meet the child’s needs in studying the surrounding world, help in acquiring the skills of reading, writing, mathematics, developing fine motor skills, memory, concentration, creative thinking, imagination, sensory feelings, as well as mastering the ability to work with the material. In addition, the child learns to think independently and make his choice, to answer for himself, to take into account the opinions of others. It is this knowledge, skills, skills that will be useful to him in the further social life.
In Montessori pedagogy there is no creativity, almost no time is given to drawing, music, etc., only work with materials according to specified rules is conducted.
No, it’s not. Children do everything not on the instructions of the teacher, but on the basis of their own needs: draw, mold, etc. In addition, music classes are conducted in groups, where children sing, dance, use play moments. Working with didactic material, children show creativity – in fact the teacher shows only the algorithm of action for further independent work of the child.
It is impossible to work simultaneously with children of different ages.
The elders will offend the younger ones or go down to their level. The groups are taught by children of different ages. This is the basis of the methodology. Montessori group – the prototype of the family, where the elder help the younger (because in the family, children are also of different ages and this does not interfere with the development of each child). This is an additional stimulus for the self-education of older students. After all, to show, teach the younger, you need to own some knowledge and skills. And children like the role of “teacher”. In addition, the behavior of the senior comrade in the learning process becomes a model for the younger ones. The child learn to perform different social roles, not to enter into conflicts, this enriches his social experience.
Children in Montessori groups do not play.
Not exactly. The game in the Montessori method is not denied, as such – it means the process of cognition of the world. Children really like to do what adults do in everyday life: wash dishes (imitating their mother), hammer nails (as Dad does), play with household objects (pots, pans, etc.), feeling their involvement in adult meaningful activities. At the same time the child develops responsibility, independence, careful attitude to things. Adults also try to transfer the child to the world of toys and wonder why children so quickly get bored. Certainly, the child needs toys, but only for rest from the main activity. Therefore in Montessori – schools there are also corners with usual toys.
The children-Montessori poorly developed speech, as the teacher speaks little.
No, it’s not. A sufficient amount of time is devoted to the development of speech. Also, the teacher makes various presentations, speaks figuratively, tries to broaden the horizons and vocabulary of children. Then the child tries to reproduce it. The experience of public speaking, which the child receives in groups, helps him feel more confident, broadens his horizons, teaches him to express his thoughts clearly.
Maria Montessori did not like fairy tales, therefore she did not read them to children.
It’s true. At that time in Italy the tales were rather peculiar: they did not have a happy ending, there was little kindness. Because Mary preferred the stories about the secrets of nature, flora and fauna, about the development of the world, which were based on scientific facts. In our culture, fairy tales are taught a lot, they are kind and bright, that’s why they are also used in classes along with scientific stories. This does not violate the principles of Montessori pedagogy.
Montessori children do not learn the skills of socialization, because they often learn autonomously.
Practice shows that this is not the case. The child, being engaged in this method, becomes more sociable, balanced, friendly, adapts to the unfamiliar situation more quickly, as children experience different social contacts and activities.
On the one hand, children in the classes behave unnaturally correctly, as specially trained. On the other hand, Montessori schools have complete freedom, no rules.
Maria Montessori positioned it as “freedom-in-the-discipline.” In class, you can do anything that does not harm other children and the environment. In the rest – complete freedom of action. The application of Montessori techniques makes children “greenhouse”, complicating their adaptation in the open world. To debunk this myth it is enough to draw an analogy with the garden. A man sprouts plants on a window protected by a bright and warm place. After transplanting the sprout in the soil, it successfully heals. But if the plant were initially planted in the soil, it would probably become stronger, but not all plants bear the burdens of the first moments of life. So it is with children. Growing them according to the Montessori method, the teachers actually prepare them for life, where the children come out strong, ready to face the difficulties face to face.
The use of Montessori techniques makes children “greenhouse”, complicating their adaptation in the open world.
To debunk this myth it is enough to draw an analogy with the garden. A man sprouts plants on a window protected by a bright and warm place. After transplanting the sprout in the soil, it successfully heals. But if the plant were initially planted in the soil, it would probably become stronger, but not all plants bear the burdens of the first moments of life. So it is with children. Growing them according to the Montessori method, the teachers actually prepare them for life, where the children come out strong, ready to face the difficulties face to face.