Lermontov Mikhail Yurievich
(3.10.1814 – July 15, 1984) is a great Russian poet, novelist and playwright, author of “The Hero of Our Time”, “Mtsyri”, “Borodino”, numerous poems, the most famous of which are “Parus” , “I’m leaving alone for the road,” “Cliff,” “Pine,” “And boring, and sad,” “Clouds.” The son of the army captain Yu.P.Lermontov and M.M. Lermontovoy, nee Arsenyeva. He received a systematic humanitarian education, which he subsequently supplemented with independent reading, at the Moscow University noble boarding school, then studied at the Moscow University in the moral and political department, and eventually stopped at the military career. Killed in a duel on July 15, 1841.
Lermontov was raised by her grandmother on the maternal line.
Lermontov’s mother, the only heiress of her mother’s great state, was married against her will and died at the age of 21. After the death of his mother, the grandmother, EA Arsenyeva, took the boy to his estate Tarkhany Penza province.
Lermontov received a metropolitan home education.
Thanks to the hardness of the character and the mind of the grandmother, Lermontov, being in the provinces, received a brilliant metropolitan education: he had a typical French governor, a German German and even an English teacher. Thus, Lermontov, from childhood, spoke beautifully, both in French and in German. Subsequently, the Azerbaijani and Georgian languages were equally good in the Caucasus (the poet used partial knowledge in his work).
Lermontov’s childhood impressions were later reflected in the writer’s work.
The childhood spent in the landlord’s estate gave Lermontov good material for his autobiographical dramas, and the trip with his grandmother to the Caucasus preserved beautiful memories of the nature and way of life of this mountain region, reflected in the early works of the writer.
Interest in literature and creativity in Lermontov woke up from childhood.
In the boarding school at Moscow University Lermontov studied history, Russian and European culture – the best examples of poetry, prose, drama, music, painting, philosophical works. Of the writers Lermontov, first of all, attracted Pushkin (especially his “Eugene Onegin”, which Lermontov himself told Belinsky) and the Russian “Byronic” poem.
Lermontov was a musically and artistically gifted person.
The poet played the violin, pianoforte, sang and composed music for his own verses, drew both from nature and memory, as static images (figures, faces) and dynamic scenes (battle, leap).
Lermontov continued in his work “Byronic” tradition.
In the years 1828-29. Lermontov creates the poems “The Corsair”, “The Culprit”, “Oleg”, “The Two Brothers”, whose main characters are a strong person who is in confrontation with society, his way and morality until he is banished from this society or commits a crime in his name rejection. The main motive in the Byronic poem in general and Lermontov’s poem in particular remains tragic love, which is regarded as the only possible option for the hero to avoid total loneliness, but the option, alas, completely failed due to either betrayal or loss of the beloved.
Lermontov studied in one of the most democratic educational institutions.
At the Moscow University in the 1930s, along with the memories of the December uprising, the spirit of rebelliousness and freedom-loving student community still existed. Lermontov in such an environment kept apart, but did not avoid the general opposition mood.
Lermontov’s poems are autobiographical in terms of reflecting the poet’s inner experiences.
Lermontov did not find the parental disorder, he could only feel it on himself and his partly orphan fate. In 30-31 years, entering into maturity, Lermontov tries to find himself as a person in the spiritual sphere.The first love at the age of sixteen gives rise to a love poet in the soul of the poet, reflecting emotions and moods blazing with a sincere and strong sense of a person. The second love and accompanying verses, dedicated to NF Ivanova, are permeated with even greater sensuality and emotionality, but at the same time Lermontov already begins to address them in real life impressions and literary and historical motives.
Lermontov was a military man.
In 1832 Lermontov left the disgusted Moscow University and, after the refusal of the St. Petersburg University to count the things listened to in Moscow, decides on the advice of relatives to elect a military career. November 4, 1832 Lermontov enrolled in the School of Guards sub-ensigns and cavalry junkers, which he ends in 1835 with a cornet and is released in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment.
The first significant work, according to Lermontov, was the drama “Masquerade.”
However, twice changed and three times filed in dramatic censorship “Masquerade” Lermontov was not allowed to disclose. The production on stage was hampered by the genre of “Masquerade”, close to the French melodrama and romantic drama, contrary to the official norms of morality of that time and guessing in the product of a real incident, which was very disliked by censorship.
Lermontov’s first original poem was “Boyarin Orsha” (1835-1836).
Unlike the previous “Byronic style of writing,” here the writer displays instead of one already two heroes, each with his own life position. As a result, the work contained a rather objective picture of the confrontation between the individual feeling and the sense of adherence to the traditional. The author’s emotions in this poem are pushed to the background, and then comes an objective character, created rather epic than lyrical features.
Wide popularity Lermontov brought “Death of the poet.”
Lermontov was never acquainted with Pushkin himself. The more pronounced was his response to the death of the sun of Russian poetry – the poem “The Death of a Poet”, created immediately after it became known about the death of Pushkin in a duel. The poem contained the concept of Pushkin’s life and death and turned out to be very emotional. Especially expressive and outwardly revolutionary was the finale of The Death of a Poet, for which Lermontov was arrested. Against the poet, a political case was raised about “impermissible verses,” and Lermontov himself became widely known not only in Pushkin’s, but also in general literary circles.
Lermontov several times exiled to the Caucasus.
The first link dates from March 1837. During her time, the poet traveled almost the entire Caucasus line and the central regions of Georgia, and, despite the severity of his situation, received a lot of creative impressions and new acquaintances with the Decembrist exiles. In the grief of the grandmother, Lermontov’s first Caucasian exile ended in January 1838, after which the poet was transferred to the Life Guards Grodno Regiment and returned to St. Petersburg. The second link came in June 1840, after the March duel of Lermontov with Ede Barant, the son of the French ambassador. Already in July Lermontov took part in numerous skirmishes with the highlanders and the bloody battle at the Valerik River, where he showed desperate courage.
Lermontov was close to folklore.
Interest in folk art from the poet awoke in 1837 in the Caucasus, where he writes an Oriental fairy tale about Ashik-Kerib and creates a ballad titled “Dary Terek” and “Cossack Lullaby” imbued with folk cultural traditions. National character and the spirit of folk poetry Lermontov reproduce in “Song of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, a young oprichnik and a striking merchant Kalashnikov” (1837). And even in his famous “Demon”, the poet does not manage to avoid resorting to folklore: after six (!) Editions the work acquires distinct Caucasian folk features, and the plot is finally immersed in the atmosphere of folk tales.
The highest achievements of Lermontov’s romantic poem were “Demon” and “Mtsyri”.
Over the “Demon” Lermontov worked for a total of ten years – from 1829 to 1839, and during this time the product managed to undergo a number of significant changes connected with the re-evaluation of the individualistic idea embedded in the poem. “Mtsyri” like the “Demon” completed a series of ideas born in Lermontov as early as 1830-1831, and formed a special, Lermontov poetic language, combining an unusual expressiveness with prosaic, everyday speech.
Lermontov’s artistic experience was concentrated in the novel “The Hero of Our Time”.
The novel is a series of novels, sustained in the style of a certain literary tradition. In the “Hero of Our Time,” the typification of the hero appears, that is, a view of him as a “type”, combining the social and psychological traits of the whole generation. For the first time in Russian literature, Lermontov poses the question of the conditionality of character by social laws.
VG Belinsky saw in Lermontov the central figure of the new stage of Russian literature.
Under the wing of V.G. Belinsky, who became in 1839 the leading critic of “Otechestvennye zapiski”, began to form a new literary trend, the central figure of which became Lermontov. Most of the poet’s lifetime publications appear precisely in the “Notes of the Fatherland.” It is interesting that while Lermontov did not develop relations with other literary circles, his work was selectively accepted by both older poets and young people.
Lermontov was presented to the state award.
In early February 1841, during a two-month vacation to St. Petersburg, Lermontov was presented to the state award for bravery, but Nicholas I rejected this performance and Lermontov was not given a reward.
Some of Lermontov’s best poems were written at the end of the poet’s life.
In May 1841, Lermontov underwent treatment in the mineral waters of the Caucasus, where, in a burst of creative activity, he creates: “Dream”, “Cliff”, “I walk out alone for the road …”, “Listok”, “Tamara”, “Rendezvous”, ” Prophet “,” Sea princess “.
Lermontov’s character was very peculiar.
Contemporaries of the poet portray him as completely different: one he seems irritable and bilious, the other – alive and cheerful. Prince M.B. Lobanov-Rostovsky recalled Lermontov: “In private and out of the circle of comrades, he was polite, his speech was interesting, always original and a bit sarcastic, but in his society it was a real devil, the embodiment of noise, riot, rampant, ridicule .. . “.
Lermontov was killed in a duel.
It happened on July 15, 1841. The reason for the duel served as a joke Lermontov addressed to his fellow schoolchildren NS Martynov.