Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky
was born in 1772 in the family of a poor priest, in 1779 he began his studies at the Vladimir Theological Seminary. In 1788 Speransky as one of the best seminarians was sent to the Alexander Nevsky Seminary, which in the same year was opened in St. Petersburg. Mikhail graduated from this educational institution in 1792, immediately after that he became a teacher of mathematics at the same seminary.
Conducted intense activity on the project of transformation, commissioned him Alexander I. However, in 1812, as a result of all sorts of slander on him, Speransky was sent into exile. In St. Petersburg, he returned only in 1821 (which, however, was preceded by a service in Penza and Siberia). In the reign of Nicholas I conducted codification activities.
During his studies at the Vladimir Seminary, Mikhail has brilliant abilities.
Speransky devoted much of his time to reading, as a result of which Mikhail’s reasoning acquired the character of not just expounding thoughts about what he read, but also learned from life: he could talk about the destinies of people, the peculiarities of their behavior. Young Speransky preferred intellectual activity to all sorts of entertainments, which in many ways contributed to the firmness of character and the independence of nature.
Mikhail Speransky was well versed in people.
Studying their psychology was Mikhail’s favorite occupation. In more mature years, he will become a connoisseur of psychology. This feature, and as a result, the ability to get along with others and like them, very much helped Mikhail Mikhailovich in various life situations.
Михаил In the Alexander Nevsky Seminary (where Speransky began to study since 1788), Mikhail became the best.
The program of classes for students was very tense. Speranskii among the other seminarians in the conditions of severe monastic education was accustomed to continued mental activity. Frequently, writing essays on a wide variety of subjects allowed learners to learn how to express their opinions in writing in an easy and correct manner. M.M. Speransky in the walls of the Alexander Nevsky Seminary was fond of philosophy, he studied the works of many scientists. While studying in this school, Mikhail wrote his first works on a philosophical theme. In them he expressed the desire to respect the dignity and respect for the civil rights of any Russian person. Thus, Speransky was negative about arbitrary arbitrariness and manifestation of despotism.
In 1791 Speransky dared to make a speech, which warned the sovereign himself.
This happened in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The main idea of the report was that the sovereign should learn about and adhere to human rights, that it is not permissible for him to tighten the chains of slavery. If the tsar does not observe these instructions, he, according to Speransky, is a “happy villain”, whose descendants will be called “the tyrant of his fatherland”. It should be noted that in the seminary students were taught absolutely different beliefs: the seminarians should have been submissive, respected and afraid of all the people on the top of the career ladder. However, the personality of Mikhail Mikhailovich by this time was fully formed – it was impossible to re-educate him, since Mikhail remained a free man within himself.
Fate predicted Speransky the role of an outstanding church figure.
After the end of the Alexander Nevsky Seminary, Speranski remains working as a teacher of mathematics. For four years of teaching, he further expanded his horizons – in addition to his fascination with philosophy, Mikhail Mikhailovich studied the works of scientists on economic and political topics, learned about Russian reality; his knowledge becomes encyclopedic. Contemporaries notice in it a promising church figure – Metropolitan Gabriel insists on the adoption of monasticism. But Speransky did not accept this proposal – fate prepared him the role of an outstanding statesman.
Speransky – home secretary А.Б.Kurakina.
Prince Sukansky was recommended to Kurakin as a man who knows his business; but before Mikhail Mikhailovich was accepted, he had to pass the exam. The prince ordered Speransky to compose eleven letters, which were addressed to different people, but the prince did not give the exact information – in general, Kurakin told about the correspondence with them. When at six o’clock in the morning the letters were given to Kurakin, he was very surprised how elegantly they were all written. Having started the service of the prince, M.M. Speransky did not stop teaching in the Alexander Nevsky Chancellery.
Speransky’s career was rapidly moving uphill.
With the accession to the throne of Paul I Mikhail Mikhailovich became a senator, and after a while he was granted the post of prosecutor general. Kurakin advised Mikhail Mikhailovich to devote all the time in the service in his office, that is, to stop combining it with teaching. Speransky did not refuse the offer. Surprisingly, in just four years the poor secretary became an important lord in Russia. In July 1801, he was granted a valid state councilor.
Speransky is the father of the business language.
Mikhail Mikhailovich’s unique abilities became the reason for his rapid promotion – in the reign of Paul I, when new decrees and decrees constantly appeared, such an educated official as Speransky was in demand. Mikhail Mikhailovich undertook the preparation of even the most complicated documents. Speransky was patronized by all the prosecutors general, and under the emperor Paul I they were replaced by four.
The text of the appeal of the new Emperor Alexander I to the people was compiled by M.M. Speransky.
It was they who prepared the prepared words Alexander I on the day of the coronation, when he told the people the plan of action of the new reign. In the office of the Indispensable Council (established in 1801), where the “young friends” of the emperor were sitting, M.M. Speransky – he was part of the projects for “young friends.”
Speransky – State Secretary V.P. Kochubei.
In the Ministry of Internal Affairs Mikhail Mikhailovich was working in the office of the Indispensable Council in parallel. And Kochubei, by the way, was an approximate emperor himself. By 1814 Speransky first laid out in his own political notes thoughts on the state apparatus of the Russian Empire; also argued in them the need for reform.
Speransky is a supporter of the constitutional order.
However, Mikhail Mikhailovich rightly assumed that the Russian Empire was not ready for the transition to the constitutional system at the moment, since it is very important to transform the state apparatus itself to start reforms. Mikhail Mikhailovich justified the need for civil and criminal law, freedom of the press, publicity in court – that is, he spoke about the introduction of new rights for society.
Until 1806, Mikhail Mikhailovich was regarded as a rising political star.
For the time being until Speransky remained in the shadows, he did not have real enemies and envious persons. The simple origin of Mikhail Mikhailovich did not lead to a feeling of irritation. Probably, such a loyal attitude towards him from the higher world is due to the fact that Speransky at that time did not touch anyone’s interests at all.
The rise of Speransky’s career dates back to 1806.
It was at this time that Kochubey allowed Speransky to report to Emperor Alexander I, who appreciated the abilities of the State Secretary Mikhail Mikhailovich. The latter had many advantages: Speransky, because of his origin, was not involved in palace intrigues, was not connected with court circles, and Mikhail Mikhailovich’s talents were immediately evident. By 1806, “young friends” had already ceased to interest Alexander I – the emperor gave them various assignments outside the capital. Therefore, the emperor very opportunely was a man like Speransky.
Speransky did not condemn the prisoner in 1807, the Tilsit peace.
And also attracted Alexander I. While the whole public was only talking about the national humiliation (due to the defeat of the Russian troops to the French), as well as the need for a change of government, Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky even sympathized in some ways with the French as a whole, most Napoleon. The Emperor of Russia found in Mikhail Mikhailovich for himself a support – in fact Speransky had authority in the society. At the meeting of Alexander I with Napoleon in Erfurt, the latter also appreciated the choice of the Russian emperor.
Speransky is the chief adviser to Alexander I in state affairs.
Mikhail Mikhailovich received this appointment (together with the position of Comrade Minister of Justice) immediately after the meeting of the Russian and French emperors in Erfurt. From now on, all the documents intended for Alexander I passed through the hands of M.M. Speransky. Between Mikhail Mikhailovich and the emperor a very trusting relationship arose, so trusting that Alexander I could spend hours talking with Speranski about state affairs, and in 1808 instructed him to prepare a plan for the necessary reforms. Mikhail Mikhailovich agreed, although he feared that his work would fail the line under quiet promotion.
The plan for state reforms was ready in 1809.
His appearance was preceded by a tremendous work on the study of legislative documents of other countries. M.M. Speransky together with his colleagues analyzed the French Constitution, the Declaration of Independence of the United States and other similar documents. Catherine II’s attempts to draft a code of laws were not ignored. The plan developed in 1809 enshrined the class division of society on legal rights, provided for the organization of the judiciary and executive power as independent structures. At the same time Mikhail Mikhailovich assumed that the Constitution of the Russian Empire would be presented by Alexander I. To implement all the points, it was necessary to establish a system of elective bodies, including the State Duma. True, her activities would still completely depend on the emperor, who if desired could fire all members, and cancel any meeting. In other words, the State Duma was supposed to be only a legislative body, but not a legislative one.
Speransky’s plan for state reforms was considered at a meeting of the State Council.
It was established in 1810 and was the highest advisory body of Russia. Separate points of the plan, although they collected very few votes, were approved by Alexander I. However, many of the provisions proposed by Speransky, in the opinion of the members of the State Council, replaced the monarch’s autocratic power. After all, the emperor in the Russian Empire has always been personally the supreme judge, and the ruler of all sorts of power. Therefore, the submitted provisions on the separation of judicial and executive power seemed to many to be blasphemy. It is because of this that the generalized evaluation of Speransky’s plan, which was designated by the autumn of 1811, said: “Well, but not the time.” Time for such transformations, really, has not come yet.
Speransky carried out a wide range of activities.
The judgment refers to the period from 1807 to 1812. At that time, Speransky was constantly a member of various committees and commissions, although his work was always correlated with the issues of state reforms. The scale of his activities was amazing. But it was during the take-off of his career that Mikhail Mikhailovich discovered many enemies – people who were dissatisfied with the Speransky reforms. For example, on the initiative of M.M. Speransky in 1809 adopted a decree on court ranks, according to which all chamberlains and chamber-cadets had to serve. For comparison, since the time of the Empress Catherine the Great, the noblemen, who received the appropriate titles, were prescribed to young representatives of high rank in the civil service.From now on, the career could be done only while in the service. This is what caused a serious blow to the titular nobility.
M.M. Speransky is Secretary of State.
He received this post in 1810 – right after the establishment of the State Council. From this moment, Mikhail Mikhailovich becomes virtually the second person in the Russian Empire. He can be called the most influential dignitary of the state. Speransky was so significant in Russia that even members of the imperial family sometimes asked him for any kind of favor, Mikhail Mikhailovich himself could reject any request if he regarded it as contradicting existing laws. Speransky always suppressed embezzlement and bribery.
Speransky has developed a plan for transformation in the sphere of finance.
Reforms were necessary in the wars in which the Russian Empire participated, and the reforms began in 1810. The following measures were taken: the issue of banknotes was stopped; cuts in the amount of money sent to the disposal of ministries, whose activities, among other things, were put under control; the tax burden increased (including for noble landowners, who had not been taxed before). Naturally, these new formations also provoked a storm of discontent among the nobles, mainly aristocracy.
M.M. Speransky was accused of undermining the established state foundations.
Against him came a whole army of officials and nobles – they gave negative assessments to Speransky. These people knew about the suspicion of Alexander I, so in order to protect themselves they influenced the emperor with unflattering reviews about Mikhail Mikhailovich. They accused him even of Freemasonry, although Speransky himself was negative about this trend. And here the enemies of Mikhail Mikhailovich were exactly on target – the emperor was afraid of possible revolutionary actions of the Masons. However, the fall of Speransky’s authority was also affected by the blow to Alexander I’s pride – the emperor saw with what zeal Mikhail Mikhailovich decides matters, for example, related to the preparations for war with France. In addition, the entire capital was full of talk about the treason of M.M. Speranskii to his Fatherland – he was even called a French spy. In connection with all of the above, Alexander I decided to give resignation to an outstanding statesman of the XIX century.
Speransky just did not manage to justify himself before Alexander I. On March 17, 1812, Mikhail Mikhailovich was summoned to the palace, and on the night of the same day he was on his way to exile in Nizhny Novgorod. M.M. Speransky regarded the incident as an intrigue. He sent letters to Alexander I, hoping for an excuse – asked to be allowed to live on his estate. However, this permission was not followed – Speransky was sent to the Perm exile; a new place for Mikhail Mikhailovich moved and his family.
In exile Speransky devoted himself to literature.
Its content, basically, was spiritual. All this time Mikhail Mikhailovich sent petitions for permission to return to his native estate. They gave their results – in the autumn of 1814 the former reformer was allowed to move to his village Velikopolye, which was in the Novgorod province.
Alexander I granted Speransky’s request for his appointment to the civil service.
In 1816 Mikhail Mikhailovich became governor of Penza.
Back to St. Petersburg Speransky was only succeeded in March 1821.
Mikhail Mikhailovich dreamed of coming to the capital from the moment he was appointed Penza governor. Working in Penza, he restored contacts with ministers and high-ranking officials. In 1819, M.M. Speransky was sent to Siberia by the Governor-General, here he developed a project for the reorganization of Siberian management. When Mikhail Mikhailovich proposes it for consideration to Alexander I – even after his return to Petersburg – the emperor immediately asserts it. Arrival in the capital was marked by the receipt of several posts at once. M.M.Speransky became a member of the Siberian Committee and the State Council. In addition, Mikhail Mikhailovich was appointed Governor of the Law Drafting Commission.
Speransky is a party to the trial of the Decembrists.
Emperor Nicholas I suspected Speransky’s sympathy for the Decembrists; he wanted to check Mikhail Mikhailovich as a member of the court. Speransky, although not in the societies of future Decembrists, had many friends among them. But M.M. Speransky realized that his participation in the trial is necessary.
Speransky is the legal adviser of the government. It was his last service of Speransky. But it was she who brought him fame. Mikhail Mikhailovich began work on the Code of Laws of Russia. The fact is that by the time of the accession to the throne of the new Emperor Nicholas I (1825) in the Russian Empire, only the Sobornaya Ulozhenie, which was adopted in 1649, operated, no collection of laws existed.
Speransky is the manager of the II Office of His Own Imperial Majesty’s Chancery.
This branch was created with the purpose of systematization of laws in the relevant branches of law. The result of Mikhail Mikhailovich’s work was the publication by forty-five volumes of the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire, published in 1830, after which six volumes were published. On this activity Speransky was not limited – by 1833 the work on fifteen volumes of the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire was completed.
Codification activity Speransky was evaluated by Nicholas I.
Throughout his remaining life – until 1839 – Mikhail Mikhailovich worked on the preparation of various manuals on jurisprudence, he thought about the charter of the school of jurisprudence. Speransky’s zeal was encouraged by the emperor – in 1837, M.M. Speransky was awarded the Order of St. Andrew. This order was the highest award in Russia. And in 1839 Mikhail Mikhailovich became a count.