are substances used to treat or prevent diseases. Until the 19th century, mostly crude or relatively products of vegetable, animal or mineral origin were used as medicines. As the development of chemistry from plant and animal raw materials began to identify the so-called acting principles, it was established the chemical structure of many medicines of plant and animal origin and carried out their synthesis.
Based on the study of the relationship between the chemical structure of drugs and their pharmacological activity, analogues and homologues of natural alkaloids, hormones, and other substances were obtained, and clarifying the mechanism of action of the drugs facilitated a targeted search for new effective drugs. Each drug before the introduction into medical practice is subjected to detailed study first in animal experiments, and then in a clinic.
Modern medicine uses a variety of medicines. The quantity of medicines is so great that even specialists: doctors, pharmacologists, pharmacists do not always have full information about the constantly updated list of medicines and the results of the latest research on the effect on the body of a medicine. In an even more complicated situation, ordinary people who get a lot of information (often of an advertising nature) on the one hand and data on the side effects of a drug (often at the level of rumors) on the other hand turn out to be even more difficult. This state of affairs contributed to the emergence of many “myths” about medicines.
Some medicines are completely harmless to the body.
Indeed, some drugs do not have toxic effects on the body, but with their uncontrolled application, problems can arise. For example, if you use sorbents for a long time (activated carbon, smect, polyphepan), the suction function may be violated, constipation may start; bacterial preparations (bifidumbacterin, lactobacterin, linex, primadofilus) with prolonged use can lead to inhibition of bacteria of the normal intestinal flora.
Vitamins are not medicines.
It should be remembered that vitamins are biologically active substances that stimulate various metabolic processes in the body. Their excess is just as bad as the defect. For example, an excessive amount of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) leads to hypervitaminosis, accompanied by deterioration of well-being. Water-soluble vitamins (C, B, P, PP, etc.) usually do not accumulate in the body, but if they are consumed too much, it is possible to provoke the appearance of allergy, irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, renal dysfunction, metabolic disorders. Therefore, an overdose of vitamin and multivitamin preparations, like any other medicines, is unacceptable.
The more expensive the medicine, the better it is.
Not always. Very often the price of a medicinal product depends on the country of origin, the success of the advertising campaign and other factors to the effectiveness of the drug, the relationship is not having. Quite often cases where domestic cheaper drugs are more effective and safe than expensive foreign analogues.
Side effects are in the annotation – it means, will be at its reception.
This is not necessary. The doctor, prescribing this or that medicine, represents the degree of risk of side effects and necessarily tries to minimize them. So antibiotics are often prescribed together with antihistamine (antiallergic) and antifungal drugs just to prevent the development of frequent complications of antibiotic therapy – allergies and candidiasis. If there is an individual intolerance to any drug or its component (for example, an allergy to penicillin) – it is necessary to inform the specialist about it in order to choose the safest and most suitable medicine for you in time.
If the abstract and the appointment of the doctor are different – he is a bad specialist.
This is an erroneous opinion. It should be taken into account that the dose, regimen and duration of treatment described in the annotation are recommendatory in nature and are calculated for the average patient. The doctor, on the basis of the individual characteristics of the patient and his experience, may prescribe the medication differently. Of course, doctors are also not immune to errors. If you notice a discrepancy between appointments of the doctor to the rules of application recommended in the annotation, you can specify the disputed points. If the expert confirms his instructions, they should be strictly followed.
The more drugs you use at the same time, the sooner you will recover.
In fact, some medications may be incompatible with each other, and this prevents them from achieving a full-fledged effect from their admission. For example, antibiotics should not be combined with antipyretic, hypnotics, antihistamines without need, because of this, their effect on the body changes.
Instead of prescribed medicine, you can buy a similar effect.
The effect will be the same. Not always. Even if the active substance that forms the basis of the drug is the same, it must be remembered that the difference between drugs of different firms can be in the fillers. Different can be the dose of the active substance, and sometimes – and the mechanism of action of the drug. Usually a doctor, when prescribing a medicine, calls and analogs, with which it can be replaced. If you are unable to use the prescribed medicine (due to high costs, deficits, or because of side effects), be sure to consult a doctor about the replacement.
There are cures for all diseases.
Recently, drugs are widely advertised, which, according to producers, are a panacea for all diseases. As a rule, these are general stimulating or adsorptive drugs that can really have a positive effect on the body. However, in the event of a more or less serious illness, it will still require specific and targeted treatment with drugs of a narrower spectrum of action.
Well-known medicines can be taken without consulting a doctor.
Many medications are familiar to everyone (analgin, no-spa, paracetamol, etc.), are sold without a prescription and do not always require the appointment of a doctor. However, it should be remembered that such preparations are safe only with undue application. Otherwise, serious complications can occur.
The same medicine acts on all people in the same way.
The degree of exposure and therapeutic effect of medications often depends on the age, sex, and individual characteristics of the organism.
Tablets must be chewed.
This statement is valid only with respect to conventional tablets. But if the tablets are covered with special shells, they can not be chewed, because either such drugs will simply cease to function or unwanted side reactions may occur (for example, when grinding diazolin, ibuprofen, bonafaton, indomethacin, their irritating effect on the stomach may be increased).
It is best to drink the medicine with water.
This is not quite true. For example, erythromycin is best washed with alkaline mineral water or milk, indomethacin and reserpine – milk, caffeine or theophylline – sour juice. But calcium and erythromycin can not be washed down with juice, tetracycline is better not to drink with milk. Aspirin is best washed with alkaline mineral water.