(“lucilinburch” means the small city, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) is located in Western Europe, Luxembourg is a member of the European Union since 1957. Luxembourg borders on France, Germany, Belgium.
At the end of the seventh century, the population the territory of modern Luxembourg has adopted the Christian faith.In the medieval era, Luxembourg was part of Australia, the Roman Empire, Lorraine.The independence of Luxembourg was in 963. The beginning of the state formation was laid fortified castle Lisilinbu The first count of this small territory was Conrad (it happened in 1060.) The Luxembourg became a duchy in 1354.
At present, Luxembourg is recognized by the Constitution as a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is the Grand Duke. According to the constitution, the duke can approve and promulgate laws, command the armed forces, he fully belongs to the executive (but in fact the executive power is in the hands of the government).
The counties are Luxembourg’s largest administrative cells (managed by the commissioners), which in turn are subdivided into cantons (managed by the mayors) and the commune. Elected councils are self-governing bodies in the smallest administrative cells-communes. The state languages of the Grand Duchy are Luxembourgish, German and French.
Although Luxembourg occupies a small territory (it is little more than 2,5 thousand km), this country is very interesting in terms of culture, it strikes an amazing combination of various landscapes. The Green Heart of Europe – so nicknamed Luxembourg in honor of the most beautiful landscapes.
Vineyards and wines of Luxembourg are famous all over the world. Especially it is worth noting Mosel varieties made from the Moselle valley grapes, as well as several varieties of liquor and sparkling wines. Several kinds of beer are also prepared here.
Luxembourg is always happy for tourists. Fans of water activities can devote time to water sports, ride on yachts and boats on the rivers of Luxembourg or go on a short trip by boat on the Moselle River.
The date of the founding of Luxembourg is 963 years.
Lucklinburguk – this is the original name of this amazing country. In translation into Russian it meant “small castle”. The variety of landscapes pleases the local residents of the country and amazes those who come here for the first time. It is hard to imagine how such a small variety of territory has absorbed such diversity. To view Luxembourg give the opportunity of bus excursions. If desired, at one time you can look at almost all the sights of Luxembourg – not because they are few, but because this country is tiny.
Vineyards in Luxembourg are a local celebrity.
They are located in the Moselle Valley, with the most common viticulture in the southern half. This is the territory from Schengen to Remiha. Mosel wines are known all over the world. By the technology of champagne, wonderful sparkling wines are prepared here. No less known wine from black currant from the castle of Beaufort. In addition to wine, several varieties of liqueurs, high quality beers are produced in this area, as well as mineral waters and fruit juices. In Luxembourg there are several villages that are famous for the production of specific types of wines. For these wines, the presence of very special inimitable qualities is inherent. For example, this is the wine “Henna Wisselt” and “Aansk Palomberg.” The most valuable vineyards are located near the villages of Aan Enen, Vintrange, Schwebzingen, Vormeldange, and the main towns of winemaking are small towns Grevenmacher and Remich.
Luxembourg is a country with a cultural heritage.
The tourist who arrives here must visit the palace of the Grand Duke (XVI century), the Gothic Cathedral of Notre-Dame (XVII century), the castle of Esch-sur-Alzette (XIX century). The national museum of Luxembourg is very famous.Here the visitor’s eyes are represented by departments of both modern and ancient art. Do not leave indifferent and also the city of the medieval age Rothenburg ob der Tauberg.
Luxembourg (the eponymous capital of Luxembourg) is a contrasting city.
The date of its foundation dates back more than a thousand years ago. The traveler will never forget this lively beautiful city. Luxembourg is a very contrasting city. It absorbed architectural structures, made in different styles and related to different historical epochs. The bridges (the “bridge of Adolphe” and more than a hundred other diverse bridges), the spiers of the churches and palaces are immersed in the greenery of the parks. Petrus and Alzette are the two rivers of Luxembourg. These rivers divide the city into two parts – the Upper Town and the Lower Town – each of which is significantly different from each other. The upper city reminds of distant times – numerous ancient buildings, the ducal palace, the remains of the once majestic fortress create an aura of antiquity. Many houses are made in the Gothic style and very organically fit into the surrounding landscape – sandstone and limestone cliffs and rocks. New quarters of the lower city leave a mark of modernity. There are many industrial enterprises and institutions here.
“The Adolphe Bridge” is a famous viaduct that connects Luxembourg into a single whole.
Indeed, this bridge is designed to connect the Upper Town and the Lower Town. The “bridge of Adolf” was built at the beginning of the last century (1900-1903). Named after the Duke of Adolf, who ruled during its construction. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the “Adolphe Bridge” was considered the largest stone bridge in the world. The maximum height of the bridge is forty-two meters, and the total length of the bridge is one hundred and fifty-three meters. The length of the arch “bridge Adolf” is eighty five meters. In addition to the “bridge Adolphe” in the capital are many other bridges. They are so unlike each other that one can only marvel at their diversity. “Last Su” – an amazing arch bridge, the old bridge “Hondehashen.” And the bridge of the Great Duchess of Charlotte, built in 1962-1966, is one of the largest bridges made of steel. The length of the Charlotte bridge (the second name is the Red Bridge) is three hundred and fifty-five meters.
The main square in Luxembourg is the center of city life.
This area is decorated with a monument to the poets Dick and Lenz. Near the Parade Square an inquisitive traveler can see the palace of the Grand Duke. This building in three floors, representing the architecture of the Renaissance, was erected in 1580.
In Luxembourg, not only adults, but also children can spend time.
Be sure to show the child the Wonderland Park, located in Betembourg. The tourist center of Galdenberg and the park in Mondorf-le-Be will also impress both children and their parents.
Clervaux is a medieval town.
This association is related to the predominance of Gothic architecture, as well as the ruins of a knight’s castle. The greatness of the town, which is also the northernmost in Luxembourg, is given to the buildings by the abbey (this abbey is very famous in Luxembourg).
The highest part of Luxembourg is Essling.
This is the northern part of the country. The height of some peaks exceeds five hundred meters above sea level. Esling occupies about a third of the territory of Luxembourg. Wilz is the largest city of Esling. Like the city of Luxembourg, Wiltz consists of two parts. The upper city is located at an altitude of four hundred meters. In the center of the upper city there is an ancient fortress. The lower city was located eighty meters below the slope. Wilts is a very beautiful town. Particularly picturesque of its surroundings. The impression of provincialism, which can arise in the newcomer, is connected with some randomness of its construction. Ten kilometers from Wiltz, the town of Esch-sur-Sur is comfortably located. From time immemorial this town specializes in cloth-making.”Ash in the pit” – so the city was nicknamed by the locals because of its low lying position.
The town of Vianden is one of the most picturesque in Luxembourg.
It is located some distance from Wiltz. Vianden was located at the foot of an ancient fortress. Previously, it belonged to the Dukes of Nassau. The picturesque Viandenu adds the proximity of the valley of the river Ur. The celebrity of Vianden is given by the fact of the residence of the great writer V. Hugo in this city – in 1948 his house was restored, afterwards a museum appeared here.
Gutland is the southern part of Luxembourg.
It occupies about 70 percent of the territory, and almost 90 percent of the population lives here. Gutland, which means “good land,” is occupied by hilly terrain. The diversity of its landscape is ensured by the alternation of pastures and meadows, gardens and fields, thickets of bushes and small forests.
“Luxembourg Switzerland” is a special place in the Grand Duchy.
It occupies the territory along the White and Black Erenz rivers. Deep gorges with sheer walls adjoin high peaks and stone pillars. This kind of contrast is connected with the junction in this area of Jurassic sandstones and Triassic limestones. In the immediate vicinity of Berdorf there is an amazing rock with a cave. The powerful arch of the cave, which is popularly known as the “Roman”, prop up the huge size of the columns created by the hand of nature. Unusually beautiful scenery can be admired around the ruined fortress of Beaufort. It’s not a big but fast Hoellerbach creek, it breaks with the real waterfalls. The valley of this stream is completely overgrown with hazel, beech, and oak. The air here is amazingly fresh.
Ehternach is one of the most ancient cities in Luxembourg.
It is located near the “Luxembourg Switzerland”. The town of Echternach has almost a thousand-year history. In the city the tourist can get acquainted with a large number of ancient buildings. Each building has the right to “boast” with bizarre arches and arches. On the town of Echternach, the mountainous and wooded shore of Syur is looking. In this city are often held all sorts of holidays and processions. This is a recognized tourist center, almost in no way inferior to the capital of the Grand Duchy.
The Feast of St. Vlasius is a revered feast in Luxembourg.
It is celebrated on 2 February. On this day, the children sing the song of Saint Valsia and ask for refreshments. Their procession is decorated with accessories such as canes with flashlights, which are fixed at the ends. It is interesting that in the songs of St. Vlasia also says about bacon and peas. This circumstance makes it possible to assume that many years ago on that day the poor man asked for food. Like most traditions, this holiday has a long history. At present, children are begging. They enthusiastically accept the offer offered by adults and never refuse, if they give more coins.
Burning Burga is another tradition in Luxembourg.
It is connected with the holiday of Burgzondeg. On this day a large size of a bunch of brushwood, logs and hay is built – this is actually the Burg. Then at a certain time all this is exposed to fire by the organizers of the holiday (as a rule, this is the youth). Volunteers from the fire station watch for what is happening. In some cities, the tradition grants the privilege of honoring Burg after a couple of newlyweds. This tradition has a long history. It symbolizes the beginning of the long-awaited spring and the end of a long winter. On this day, light overcomes darkness, and heat – cold.
Luxembourg is a Christian country.
Therefore, Easter is very widely celebrated here. Traditionally, Easter eggs are given this day. In the Grand Duchy it is common to hide painted eggs all over the house and in the garden. Adults are pleased to observe how their children are looking for Easter eggs with equal enthusiasm. The tradition of independent coloring of eggs is very strong, and it can not be superseded by the sale of Easter eggs.Women also give their husbands Easter eggs, but often chocolate, filled with praline. It is interesting that the public celebration falls not on the Easter Resurrection, but on Easter Monday – many people attend one of the two fairs taking place at that time in Luxembourg (one fair in the capital of the Grand Duchy, the other in the western part of the country). Pottery is especially important at the fairs, although folk entertainment, drinks and food are also important. Parents buy their children clay whistles-birds. Their sound resembles a cuckoo cry.
The Octave Festival is considered to be the main religious event in Luxembourg.
This holiday is held in honor of the Blessed Virgin. On this day, the cathedral of the capital attracts parishioners from all over the country, as well as the German Eiffel and the French region of Lorraine. 1666 is the year of the birth of this tradition. It was then that the patroness of the Grand Duchy was chosen as the Virgin Mary. The Comforter of the suffering defended the people from the plague. In the same year 1666, the Jesuits from the old church to the cathedral moved the statue of the Virgin Mary, which was carved from a dark tree. In the main choir on a special altar stands a statue during the Octave. The procession gathers on the outskirts of Luxembourg (city), then the pilgrims walk to the Cathedral on foot. Each parishioner orders his own mass, and after serving in the Octave Market, pilgrims can taste food and quench their thirst. This market, located on the Plaza Guillaume, has been part of the tradition for many years. The religious festival ends with a procession, the purpose of which is to carry the statue of the Virgin Mary along the streets of the capital.
The procession of the jumpers in Echternach has gained an international reputation.
This unusual tradition, indeed, is known outside the Grand Duchy; it is part of a centuries-old religious tradition. The procession of the jumpers is on Tuesday, following the Trinity. This tradition has its history from pagan times. The legend attributes its appearance to the eighth century. It says that in those old times Faith and his wife went on a pilgrimage. However, the woman died on the way. Years later, Faith returned to his native land and found that all his property was appropriated by relatives. Moreover, they let out a rumor that Faith killed his wife. As a result, this unhappy man was sentenced to death. The last wish of Faith was the request to play the violin. When the music began to sound, the whole population started to dance. Even the charter, no one could stop. Using this, Faith quietly left the city. From the dance saved the prayer of St. Willibord, who came to the place of the events described. The curse of the innocent Feith was called the dance of St. Vitus. The procession of the jumper was designed to save the population from the “tedious” dance, as well as from all the ailments and diseases. For many years, the procession of the jumpers was a great religious event. On it came (most on foot) believers from different corners of Luxembourg and from outside the country. The dance of the procession now consists of two steps to the right and two steps to the left, and in the past three steps forward and two backwards took place. The latter became the basis of the well-known metaphor: “go ekternahskim step.” Dancers line up in rows of 7 or 5 people. Each participant holds a handkerchief for the corner. The procession moves rather slowly forward – it will take at least three hours to overcome the chosen route (includes the passage in front of the tomb of St. Willibrord). All this is accompanied by a repetitive melody that can enter into a trance. To look at the amazing religious tradition, no less than ten thousand people gather along the streets.
June 23 is a national holiday in Luxembourg.
From 1919 to 1964, the Grand Duchess of Charlotte rules in Luxembourg. Her birthday was on January 23rd. However, it was celebrated on a summer day on June 23.This number was announced a national holiday after the Grand Duke became Jean. The holiday begins with a greeting from the ducal family. To this end, a parade with lighted torches is organized in front of the palace, after which thousands of participants go to the bridge of Adolf to the salute. Then each area of Luxembourg offers its entertainment program. Here artists, ensembles, musicians, clowns, brass bands gather. After the adoption of the parade, the Grand Duke and his family leave for the cathedral. Here is a thanksgiving service in honor of the Luxembourg House. The celebration of the national day takes place in each of the one hundred and eighteen city formations of the Grand Duchy. The national holiday is necessarily accompanied by the patriotic speech of the mayor and awards.
The holiday of Shuberfoer is a centuries-old tradition.
Established by the Count of Luxembourg John Blind in 1340. Currently, Schuberfoer (or in the lexicon of Luxembourgers simply Foer) is a fair of attractions, and in the past – a market. Hardly anyone knows for certain where this spoken name came from. The first claim that the name refers to the place where the market was previously held. Others say that the name went from the word “shober”. In translation, it means “haystack”, and the day of the fair almost coincides with the harvesting holiday – the day of St. Bartholomew. Once upon a time, the market turned into an amusement fair, which is held on the territory of Glacis. The fair is represented by attractions for every taste, there are both traditional Ferris wheel and roller coaster. Here you can meet not departed from the old tradition of stubborn sellers who offer wonderful kitchen appliances, carved works of ebony, fried hazelnuts, nougat, etc. Holiday Shuberfoer, like many others, never does without food and drinks. Particular attention should be paid to the Forfesh dish. It is a fried in beer yeast fish, merlang. It is traditionally served with fried potatoes and washed down with either a glass of the famous Mozel wine or a glass of beer. At the opening ceremony of the Shuberfoer holiday there are musicians, as well as a shepherd with sheep (a “sheep march” is being performed). Musicians, following the shepherd and his small herd of sheep, walk around the city streets and traditionally play an ancient folk melody – “Sheep March”. Dressed in blue suits, they remind farmers of the nineteenth century.
Holidays of grapes are traditional in Luxembourg.
As well as wine festivals. Currently in Luxembourg, grapes are grown almost exclusively on the banks of the Moselle. But even that small amount of grapes that is grown along the Sauer, still for the production of wine is transported to the Moselle. Winemakers of the Grand Duchy produce 7 varieties of white wines, a small amount of rose wine, as well as several varieties of sparkling wines (the locals call them “Shamp”). White wines are Riesling, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Auxerrois, Ebling, Gewurztraminer and Rivaner. Pink wines – Pinot Noir, Pinot Rose and Ebling Rose.
Wine festivals and grapes in Luxembourg are not the same thing.
Holidays of grapes, as a rule, fall on October. They are held as a token of gratitude for the harvest of grapes. The only one of its kind is the Grape Festival in Schwebzange. Instead of water in the city fountain flows wine. And in Grevenmacher, by tradition, the Queen of Grapes is transported through the city. The procession is accompanied by music, orchestras, a parade and, of course, wine. In fact, wine festivals are village holidays. As a rule, they are held in the spring, their goal is to communicate, they are accompanied by dance music. At the festival, of course, there are wine and traditional dishes. The action takes place either in the street under a large awning, or in the meeting hall of a local winery or under a large awning in the street.During May or June, such an event is organized by each wine making enterprise. The purpose of the holiday is to taste fresh wines.
Life of St. Nicholas is shrouded in more than one legend.
St. Nicholas, being Archbishop of Lycia in Asia Minor, lived in the fourth century. The most famous legend says that St. Nikolai saved three children from the barrel for pickling (St. Nicholas is the patron saint of children). St. Nicholas falls on December 6. On the eve of this feast, the saint descends from heaven to give gifts to children who have been well behaved.