Lighting

The invention of electricity has enabled a person to cover their homes. This made the house much more comfortable, it allowed to normalize the working day.

Today, for ordinary users, lighting problems are often far-fetched. The profession of electrical engineers is considered something useless. Sometimes it seems that they are needed only to “screw in the bulbs.”

Yes, and what can be difficult in the construction of a cartridge, a pear-shaped bulb and a lampshade? Many count the number of necessary lamps for themselves.

However, this approach can be justified by those who do not care too much about the full-scale improvement of their homes. But often this point of view is transferred to more serious objects – restaurants, shops, and whole buildings.

As a result, the most deplorable results, beginning with the inadequate lighting environment before the emergence of situations that are generally dangerous for human life. Summarizing the experience of working with customers of lighting companies, we will reveal the most common misconceptions.

The lighting system is best designed for maximum simplicity.

It is better to refuse from various transformers and other complicated apparatuses. Indeed, all genius is simple, it would be foolish to challenge it. One has only to note that in this matter the opposite rule operates, everything simple is genius, which is already very doubtful. It can be accurately said that almost all modern light sources intended for direct connection to the electric network lose to those lamps that require additional equipment. And this applies to all parameters – the wealth of the assortment, the color return, the time of the service and even the cost of the life cycle. Often even the initial price is not winning. For a professional in the field of lighting technology, it is clear that such a rejection of related devices is akin to a failure to design from computers for the sake of the Whatman and the Kulman – after all, they are so simple and time-tested.

Energy-saving light bulb, which costs 50 times more than usual, should serve 50 times longer to pay for itself.

In this issue, we turn to the concept of the cost of the life cycle of a lamp. It is this criterion and should be taken into account by the frugal owner of the lighting. It consists of the cost of all costs for the time the lamp works and the price directly to the lamp itself. Let’s calculate the cycle of a conventional fluorescent lamp. If we consider the price per kilowatt in the conventional ruble, and the power at 11 watts and for a short service life of 5000 hours, then the lamp at the price of 250 rubles will cost the owner 250 + 0.011 * 5000 * 1 = 305 rubles. Similarly, the usual incandescent lamp of 60 watts, the service life of 1000 hours and the price of 5 rubles, will cost 5 * 0.06 * 1000 * 1 = 65 rubles. The difference in price is almost 5 times, that is, for the same period the saving lamp will replace 5 conventional ones. In addition, if the lamp will not stand alone, but there will be hundreds of them, moreover, in hard-to-reach places … It is not difficult to calculate that the price of each lamp will be supplemented by the price of replacing it, here the difference can be expressed with might and main. If the replacement of the lamp in the chandelier costs 20 rubles (and here it is necessary to include costs for installing stairs, insurance, wages, etc.), then only one lamp will result in savings of 30% (325 and 425 rubles). As you can see, even a five-fold difference in the lifetime of the lamp more than compensates for a 50-fold difference in price.

Going out of the room, you must certainly put out the light – this will save you money.

And this myth can be debunked by economic calculations, while applying technical considerations. First, we need to divide the concepts of “saving money” and “saving electricity.” Without a doubt, constantly turning off and turning on the lamps, we save electricity. But in fact frequent violation of a stable condition for the lamp itself is harmful. Let’s use the figures from the previous example. Suppose that due to a reasonable energy consumption the lamp has worked 2500 hours instead of 5000 constant burning.Saved energy will give the budget 0.011 * 2500 * 1 = 27.5 rubles. However, there is a possibility that after the same hours of operation the lamp will come out of operation, thanks to sparking switches, the impulsiveness of pressing them and other unpleasant surprises in our electric network. If you subtract the cost of a new lamp from the saved amount, you get a net loss of 222.5 rubles. 10 months of continuous savings will give an opportunity to recoup 1 lamp, and in fact the risk is quite large! That is why in European cities, and eventually in Moscow, they refused to switch off some of the street lights at night – this cost can be too expensive.

If there is a “protected” icon on the lamp, the electric shock does not threaten it.

First of all, let’s look at the terms. The luminaire can be protected from three types of exposure – from moisture, dust and mechanical influences. In catalogs and price lists indicate exactly them. The security of the outside world from this lamp is evidenced by such criteria as explosion and fire safety. They also include three classes (first, second and third) of electrical safety, which they will be able to answer our question. The user most often thinks that if the luminaire has a sealed enclosure, then this is already a guarantee of electrical safety. However, this is a mistake – rubber seals are protected only by the luminaire itself, but not by a person. A sealed luminaire may well belong to the first class of safety that requires a grounding conductor, and that may not be in place. Then there is a risk of electric shock. The highest degree of protection for a person can only be given by third-class luminaires, which are powered by a known low voltage of 12 volts, or even less. It is these lamps that are recommended for saunas and bathrooms, where even a damp wall can act as a good current conductor.

From low voltage in the network, the lamp only lasts longer.

Such thinking came from the practice of working with conventional incandescent lamps, for them it is really just. In them, the tungsten helix heats up less, hence longer and serves. But modern lamps use a different principle for obtaining light. Even the closest relatives of the classic lamp A60, halogen incandescent lamps, for their work require maintaining a constant temperature of its spiral. When the voltage decreases, the so-called “halogen” cycle is broken, which restores the filament. As a result, the lifetime of the lamp can be reduced by almost 2 times. Modern electronic ballasts in many ways adhere to the principle of maintaining a constant lamp power, which causes them to increase the operating current when the voltage in the network decreases. In this case, it is possible to overload them with a subsequent failure. For powerful discharge lamps with a decrease in the mains voltage, the time of their ignition increases, which leads to sputtering of the electrodes. The light flux in all lamps without exception will disproportionately decrease. So the standards for the upper and lower voltage thresholds in the network do not exist in vain.

In luminaires, capacitors are not needed at all.

And without them, this technique works great, why overpay extra money? This logic is peculiar only to those in whose hands the switches have never melted. Lamps with discharge lamps have the properties to consume without capacitors a current several times greater than with them. In this case, the power of the counter remains unchanged. All this leads to overloads in the network and possible burnout of the switch, and in the literal sense. Let him and must at first glance work with lamps of this power. Thus, saving a bit on capacitors can suffer fairly tangible losses, not only economic.

In a luminaire powered from a 220 volt mains, there can not be more voltage.

This statement is quite dangerous, as it can lead to electrical injuries.First of all, it is worth mentioning gas-discharge installations, some of which have a compact design especially for rooms. They have step-up transformers with an operating voltage of up to 10,000 volts. One can mention igniting devices for metal halide and sodium lamps with a voltage of up to 4,000 volts, while the same starters for fluorescent lamps have an igniting voltage of 25-400 volts. Naturally, in each of these cases special insulation is used. The dangerous list includes the capacitors mentioned above, made of fluorescent lamps, on which a voltage of 300-400 volts is possible during operation. It is worth saying that the charge they accumulate can last a very long time, so that even a faulty and switched off lamp can be electrocuted.

You can make the “eternal lamp” scheme yourself, in which an infinitely long work of a fluorescent lamp is possible.

Many believe that such a design can burn forever, so no wisdom is needed like ballasts, starters, etc. Yeah, the passion for free ineradicable. First of all, it is assumed that such a lamp will work from a direct current, so that the glow will be extinguished at one end of the lamp, and the other will be concentrated. This effect was called cataphoresis. Also illiterate electricians are advised to consistently include a lamp and incandescent lamp, or even a powerful resistor, which is even more illiterate. As a result, at least half of the electricity will go to heat this ballast, so originally adapted. Although such a scheme, in general, really helps to light burned-out lamps, their service life is still not infinite. After all, sooner or later there will come a moment when the metal components of the electrodes inside it will still finally be sprayed. And it will be pretty soon. So it’s not worth pursuing the unconventional methods of incorporating electrical appliances, it is much easier to use time-proven reliable operating time.

Lighting engineers should have long been able to calculate uniform lighting rates per unit area.

Then it did not take any complicated programs. The situation with the norms of lighting is not so simple that it gives rise to such a myth. This statement is to be placed next to the question “What kind of lighting does this particular lamp give?”. The thing is that the illumination has dependence only on the lamp that creates it, but also on several other factors – the location of the lamp, the distance to it, the presence of reflecting areas, etc. These factors, in addition to the type of luminaire and the given illumination, just affect the required number of fixtures in the room. Even for rooms of the same size, the number of light points can vary markedly. This can affect the different colors of the floor and walls. Therefore, the most accurate calculation can be made only on an individual basis using a computer. Haters of the same computer can make themselves many hours of complex calculations using a calculator.

City and federal standards of lighting are not needed at all.

The rules should be set by the customer, who pays for the equipment. Following such an idea, you can generally roll down into the Stone Age, when the inhabitants of each cave illuminated it to their own taste and manner, and if desired, they were in the dark. A person has objective physiological requirements for lighting, and if they are not observed, this can have a negative impact on health. In the first place, vision suffers. Simply put, mandatory norms indicate not only the amount of light, its brightness and illumination, but also its quality. As a result, the creators and owners of lighting systems will not be able to worsen our health by illiterate lighting. It is compliance with norms, and not their violation, that enables the developer to feel responsibility before the customer. The customer still has freedom of choice.So, in accordance with its financial capabilities, it can very well create conditions significantly better than the minimum. After all, the violation is not the deviation from the norm itself, but only that which leads to a deterioration in the conditions of illumination. When it comes to living quarters, the recommendations generally have a recommendatory character, since for their own health the responsibility is borne by the tenants themselves.

Problems of lighting can be solved on their own.

Many, faced with such a problem, try to solve the problem on their own. For someone, working with light bulbs seems easy, but someone tries to save money. However, such an approach is as absurd as creating a TV set or other technological things on your own. It is not necessary to invent complex and risky schemes, for sure in your city there are several lighting companies, in which professionals were able to resolve all issues with lighting.

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