The kidney cyst
is a formation that is filled with fluid. The cyst is located inside the organ or on its surface. As a rule, the kidney cyst alone does not cause problems for a person. But it is necessary to know that the complications that a cyst can give are quite dangerous – it can be suppuration, cyst rupture, tumor development.
The cyst is acquired and congenital. Cysts are most often detected with ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. The kidney cyst is a fairly common kidney damage. A simple kidney cyst is more common in men. Such anomalies as the dermoid cyst, spongy kidney and multicystosis of the kidney are rare.
The kidney cyst does not have severe symptoms. Such situations are often encountered. In this case, the kidney cyst, as a rule, is detected by ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs.
A simple solitary cyst of the kidney is formed on the surface of the organ.
In the depth of the kidney tissue, such a cyst (it is single) is formed very rarely. The shape of this cyst is oval or round. Acquired cyst can occur with the following diseases. This pyelonephritis, tuberculosis or kidney tumor, as well as urolithiasis. The cause of the formation of the kidney cyst is the fact of the overlap of the renal tubule. As a result, urine accumulates in the tubule (which can not be excreted from the kidney). This leads to the fact that the renal tubule expands, it can reach large sizes – a cyst (fluid formation) appears. The cyst has a compressive effect on the surrounding kidney tissue (with an increase in the size of the cyst compresses and pelvis), resulting in impaired blood supply to the kidney tissue. This process may be accompanied by a state of hypertension. If the cyst has reached a large size, then it can be easily traumatized, which can lead to its rupture.
Pain in the lumbar region is characteristic of the kidney cyst.
Pain can be of different intensity, in addition, if the cyst is small, then its presence in the body may be imperceptible. While a large cyst can lead to chronic and acute pain, especially if it compresses the renal pelvis. In such a situation, a violation of the outflow of urine is quite likely (which may contribute to the development of pyelonephritis). Cyst of large size is probed through the anterior abdominal wall.
Ultrasound is the basis for the diagnosis of kidney cyst.
Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity is an important stage in the examination of the patient, but not the only one. In addition, he is given the passage of excretory urography, scintigraphy. The renal arteries can be examined by contrasting; in some cases a computed tomography is performed.
For a solitary cyst of the kidney it is not possible to identify unambiguous clinical signs.
A simple cyst does not have them. Frequent cases when a simple cyst is detected, so to speak, by accident. The examination in connection with completely different diseases reveals a solitary cyst of the kidney. However, some symptoms can still be identified. This is the possible appearance of pain in the lumbar region (if the pain takes place, then, as a rule, it has a pulling character), hypertension, as well as the possibility of probing the cyst (even the patient is able to detect it). Pain tends to increase after physical exertion on the patient’s body. Hypertension – that is, high blood pressure – is more likely in the presence of large cysts. When the cyst is located within the body, hypertension can also develop.
The kidney cyst and polycystic kidney are two completely different diseases.
As you know, polycystic kidney disease is a disease transmitted by inheritance. This disease is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts in the kidney tissue.In addition, polycystosis affects both kidneys of the human body, the probability of polycystic kidney disease is approximately the same in both women and men – the disease finds itself far from immediately, and at about the age of 30, when the picture of the disease is most developed. Kidneys of the kidneys are more benign in character, compared with cysts in polycystosis. This disease can be acquired at any moment of life, can only hit one kidney.
The solitary cyst of the kidney should be surgically removed.
As a rule, this is not quite true. If a simple kidney cyst has reached a large size, the patient is transcutaneously cysted – this method is the most sparing for the patient, it avoids open (cavitary) surgeries. A percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst is the removal of the contents of the cyst. The patient is also injected with special medications into the cyst cavity – the goal: prevention of the possible risk of repeated resumption of the disease. However, if the solitary cyst has a compressive effect on the organs adjacent to the kidney, the patient may be offered surgical treatment. In this case, its essence consists in the immediate removal of the kidney cyst, the walls of which are excised, and, according to many experts, the earlier this operation is performed, those are better for the patient, since the kidney can restore its functionality faster.
Percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst is carried out using a special needle.
The patient lies down in the indicated position on the stomach, local anesthesia is done to him. In cases where the cyst is located on the surface of the organ, puncture is performed specifically for this purpose with a needle. The entire procedure is monitored using an ultrasound device or a computer tomograph. The specialist determines where the cyst is located, then carries out the introduction of the needle to the cavity of the cyst. Then its contents are deleted.
Sclerotherapy is an indispensable step in the transcutaneous removal of the contents of the kidney cyst.
Sclerotherapy itself is the introduction of certain medications directly into the cyst cavity. After their administration, sclerosis and subsequent contraction of the kidney cyst are caused. In most cases, 95% of ethyl alcohol is injected into the cyst cavity, however, medical studies show a positive result when antiseptic solutions are introduced into the cyst cavity, alcohol in combination with antibacterial drugs, and some other. To determine the necessary volume of the drug injected into the cavity of the kidney cyst, it is necessary to establish the initial volume of the cyst – the fourth part of this volume and will be equal to the required volume of the drug administered (less than 25% – ineffective). Whichever medication is used, it is administered for a certain period of time (not permanently). Usually this is an interval of five to twenty minutes. After the required time elapses, the solution is removed from the cyst cavity. Medical practice shows that, without accompanying puncture of the kidney cyst with sclerotherapy, the disease does not recur only in 10-20% of cases, that is, in the future the disease arises again.
Percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst gives a one hundred percent guarantee of getting rid of the disease.
To be more precise, the probability of complete elimination of the disease varies from 75% to 100% (different authors give different estimates).
Percutaneous puncture of the kidney cyst can not be performed always.
In general, only 8% of patients with this disease need treatment in general. The question of the need for treatment arises in the following cases. These include hemorrhage into the cyst cavity (which causes pain), the appearance of blood in the urine, a violation of the outflow of urine, renal failure, the development of pyelonephritis, etc.In the presence of such complaints, a procedure of percutaneous puncture of the cyst may be performed, but only if the puncture of the cyst does not entail a risk for the surrounding structures of the kidney. Other cases require surgical intervention.
The dermoid cyst of the kidney is extremely rare.
This is a cavitary education. In the cavity of this cyst can be fat tissue, hair and even teeth – for such a cyst peculiar to the presence of uncharacteristic for this area of tissue elements. As a rule, the dermoid cyst is a solitary formation. The form is round, often not quite right. The size of the dermoid cyst varies from a few millimeters to several centimeters. The cyst usually does not give pain and can be detected many years after its appearance. A dermoid cyst is equally likely to occur in both men and women. It is rather difficult to diagnose this kind of cyst, since it does not give significant symptoms (it often appears many years after the formation). Computer tomography in case of diagnosing dermoid cyst is the most informative method. The cyst is treated surgically. It is benign.
Spongy kidney is a rare disease.
To some extent, it occurs in boys. The spongy kidney is an anomaly of development, in which many small cysts are localized in the depth of the kidney tissue. As a rule, the lesion in this anomaly spreads to both kidneys, but not the whole organ, but only a part of it, can cover. The spongy kidney does not manifest itself for a long period of time. Detecting this anomaly can be done by excretory urogram. Thanks to her, a large number of cavities are found in the medulla of the kidney. A spongy kidney can give a complication in the form of urolithiasis, in which small stones form in the kidney cups. Possible signs of this anomaly (which are not always expressed) are the appearance of blood in the urine and pain in the lumbar region. By itself, the spongy kidney does not require specific treatment, but it is necessary in the development of complications. In some cases (when an infection joins an anomaly and pyelonephritis develops), the kidney can be removed.
Multicystosis of the kidney is a rather rare anomaly.
Indeed, the incidence of multicystosis in the kidney is approximately 1% of all anomalies in the development of this organ. As a rule, multicystosis of the kidney is a one-sided disease (that is, it affects only one kidney). The development of bilateral multicystosis is rarely compatible with human life. Most often, the disease is observed in boys. As a rule, the anomaly extends to the left kidney. Multicystosis of the kidney is characterized by complete disappearance of the kidney tissue. It is replaced by cystic formations (filled with liquid), due to which the kidney greatly increases in size – it can be palpated, its surface is uneven.
Mutikistoz kidney is treated surgically.
And only so. The operation can be performed urgently, if it is a suppuration of cysts. The rupture of the cyst is also the basis for emergency surgical intervention. The essence of the operation consists in removing the kidney affected by multicystosis.