Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin
, real name Dzhugashvili (6 (18) .12.1878 (according to the official version 9 (21) .12.1879) – March 5, 1953) is a revolutionary, state, political, party and military leader, leader of all nations.
From 1917 to 1923 the People’s Commissar for Nationalities of the RSFSR. In 1919 he was elected People’s Commissar of State Control of the RSFSR. From 1920 to 1922 the People’s Commissar of the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Inspection of the RSFSR; General Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) (1922 -1925); General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (1925-1934); He served as Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (1934-1952); had the right of presence and the right to vote, as Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee (1952-1953) at meetings of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee. From 1941 to 1946, the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR (the Council of People’s Commissars at that time was the supreme executive and administrative organ of the USSR); Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946-1953). In 1941 he was appointed Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the USSR; Chairman of the State Defense Committee (1941-1945), People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR (1941-1946), People’s Commissar of the Armed Forces of the USSR (1946-1947).
In 1943 he became Marshal of the Soviet Union (the title was appropriated 41 times, 36 times to professional military personnel, 4 to politicians who held military posts (Stalin, Beria, Bulganin and Brezhnev)).
After the persuasion of Marshal of the Soviet Union KK Rokossovsky gave his consent in 1945 to confer the title of Generalissimo of the Soviet Union. Member of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (1925-1943). Honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1939). Since 1939, the Hero of Socialist Labor (the highest degree of distinction for work); At the end of the Second World War in 1945, he was awarded the highest degree of distinction in the USSR – the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Date of birth of Stalin on December 9, 1879.
During Stalin’s lifetime and in all the reference books, JV Stalin’s birthday was counted on December 9 (21), 1879. In the metric book of the Assumption Cathedral in Gori, there is a record of the birth of Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili – December 6 (18), 1878. There is still information (records of the police department) indicating the birth years of Joseph Stalin in 1879 and 1881 years. In the questionnaire (December 1920) of the Swedish newspaper “Folkets Dagblad Politiken”, JV Stalin wrote in his own hand the date of his birth – 1878.
Stalin was not the son of Dzhugashvili.
There are many points of view about who was the father of Stalin. One of the versions that Josef Stalin’s father was the famous traveler Przhevalsky. This myth arose because of the portrait resemblance of Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky and Joseph Stalin. But Przewalski was not in Georgia at the time indicated. There is another point of view (Alexander Lepshin expresses it in the book “Fatal Combat”, 1997) that the father of the leader was a certain Adelkhanov (the owner of a shoe factory), whose mother worked Stalin. And supposedly Adelkhanov married already pregnant, from him the future mother of the leader for Vissarion Dzhugashvili. In addition, Lepshin argues that Stalin subsequently sued Adelkhanov’s legacy, tried to prove that he had to be a real father to him. Many researchers are inclined to the point of view that all the same, Stalin’s father was Dzhuganashvili. First, an archival photograph of Vissarion Ivanovich Dzhugashvili was found. It traces the similarity of Joseph Vissarionovich with Vissarion Dzhugashvili. Secondly, the DNA analysis refuted the affinity statement: Przhevalsky and Stalin. Thirdly, the son of Stalin (Jacob) was remarkably similar to the grandfather of Vissarion.
Joseph Dzhugashvili was the first and only son of Catherine Georgievna Dzhugashvili (nee Geladze).
Not exactly. The first two sons of Catherine Dzhugashvili died immediately after birth. Her third son (and the last child) is Joseph Dzhugashvili.
Stalin began to learn Russian since childhood.
In 1886, Joseph was not taken to the Gori Orthodox spiritual school, because he did not know the Russian language.In 1886 – 1888, Joseph Vissarionovich began to teach the Russian language children of the priest Christopher Charkviani. Iosif continued his deeper mastering of the language in the school, he was very helped by the teacher Zakhari Alekseevich Davitashvili. Stalin learned Russian, but always spoke with an accent.
In his youth Dzhugashvili wrote poems.
It’s true. His literary work was influenced by Ilya Grigoryevich Chavchavadze (a classic of Georgian literature). Poems of the sixteen-year seminarian I.V. Dzhugashvili, were published in the Tiflis literary newspaper “Iveria”, in the numbers for June 17, September 22, 11, 25 and 29 October 1895. Sveta saw such poems: dedicated to the poet Rafael Eristavi “When the peasant bitter share …”, “The Moon”, “He walked from house to house …”, “When the moon is its radiance …”, “Morning”. The sixth poem “Elder Ninika” is printed on the pages of the newspaper “Kvali” on July 28, 1896. Creativity Joseph Dzhugashvili appreciated the readers, and the poem “Morning”, on the recommendation of Ilya Chavchavadze, even printed in the letter “Deda Ena” and for many years it was one of the favorite first poems of children.
Stalin’s left arm was damaged.
Yes, it is. When Joseph was six years old (by some sources ten), he severely bruised his left arm (atrophy of the shoulder and elbow joints). The defect remained for life, the left arm was slightly shorter than the right and inferior.
Dzhugashvili’s first wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva.
No, the first wife of Joseph was Ekaterina Svanidze from the village of Didi-Lilo. Dzhugashvili secretly (among the revolutionaries did not welcome the wedding) was married July 16, 1904 with her. According to one version, the mother was assisted by Dzhugashvili’s mother, according to another version they were introduced by Alexander Svanidze (Joseph’s friend in seminary), the girl’s brother. Kato adored her husband, was very shy. She worked as a seamstress, washerwoman. In 1909, Kato fell seriously ill and died.
The first party name of Stalin is “Koba”.
Yes, it is. There is a version that the imagination of young Joseph Stalin was influenced by the novel by A. Kazbegi (Georgian writer, representative of critical realism of the XIX century), “Parricide” (narrates about the struggle of mountain peasants for freedom and freedom). One of the heroes of the novel – brave Koba – became an idol for Stalin, and he began to call himself Koba. This was the leader’s first party nickname. In the 1930s, the Bolsheviks often called Joseph Stalin Koba. Stalin had many party names, for example: Besoshvili, Nizheradze, Chizhikov, Ivanovich, Vasily, Vasilyev. But in 1912 for Stalin definitively affirmed the pseudonym “Koba”.
Stalin took part in the October Revolution.
This myth, invented in order to somehow lead Stalin in the leaders of the revolution. The archive contains information about all active participants in the 1917 revolution, Stalin does not figure in them. Where was at this time Joseph Vissarionovich, there is no reliable data. The role of Stalin in the October Revolution is exaggerated.
Women loved Stalin.
Yes, it is. Joseph was outwardly attractive, also women liked his imperious nature, charisma. Joseph Stalin was able to be charming. Women liked Stalin, they looked at him with enamored eyes. Most of all he was attracted to young girls. His first wife, Katya Svanidze, was sixteen. Nadezhda Alliluyeva was eighteen when she became his wife. The third illegitimate wife Valentina Istomina was seventeen years old. His youngest mistress was Lydia Pereprygina, she was fourteen. Stalin was never helpless, he always knew how to act.
Not exactly. For the first time in the war, Joseph Stalin generally fell into a state of prostration (a state of extreme exhaustion, relaxation, helplessness). He retired (June 29 – June 1941) to the “Near Dacha” in Kuntsevo, did not accept anyone until the members of the Politburo arrived. After that, Stalin took office. Boris Bazhanov (party figure, personal secretary of VI.Stalin), in his notes, claims that Stalin was a man extremely cautious and indecisive, but did not give a look.
Stalin had two sons.
Yes, Stalin had two legitimate sons, the elder Yakov from the first marriage and the younger Vasili from the second marriage. There was still a foster son Artyom Fedorovich Sergeev (the son of the deceased revolutionary Fedor Sergeyev), grew up and brought up in the family of Stalin, was a friend of Vasily Stalin. When Artem was five months old, Elizaveta Lvovna (the mother of the child), fell seriously ill, Stalin and his wife, Nadia (Nadia and Lisa were friends), took the child to her. According to the information (secret letter written by Khrushchev on July 18, 1956) of the Chairman of the KGB Serov Ivan Aleksandrovich, Stalin had two illegitimate sons: Konstantin Kuzakov (1912) and Alexander Dzhugashvili (1917). Mother of Kuzakova was Matryona. Exile Dzhugashvili lived in her apartment in Solvychegodsk. Matryona gave birth to a son who was very different from her fair-haired brothers and sisters. Kostya wrote to her husband, who died two years before the birth of the child. After Matryona gets Moscow housing and residence permit. Kuzakov Konstantin worked in the propaganda department of the Central Committee. Beria accused Kuzakov of involvement in “atomic espionage,” expelled from the party. But Stalin abolished all repression in relation to Constantine. From 1914 to 1916, Joseph Dzhugashvili was in exile Turukhansk region, in the village of Kureika. Lived and cohabited with 14-year-old Lida Pereprigina. From it, she gave birth to two babies. The first one died. The second was named by Alexander Dzhugashvili. After serving the reference, Joseph throws Lida. Alexandra was adopted by peasant Yakov Davydov. Lydia wrote letters to Stalin, but he did not answer her. With illegitimate sons, Stalin did not have personal contacts.
Stalin allowed children to take weapons.
Not exactly. Stalin’s house did not hide weapons from children. Once it nearly killed the leader himself. With a 12-gauge shotgun, the ten-year-old Vasya and Artem played, it was at the dacha in Zubalovo. The children loaded the gun that hung on Stalin’s wall and, without putting it on the safety catch, was hanged in place. When Stalin got up into the office, there was a double shot. The housekeepers ran into the office and saw two holes in the wall, the torn sleeve of the tunic, from which the blood dripped. A week the boys did not go to school, mastered the rules of using weapons.
Stalin considered people to be dumb “man-cogs” in the car.
This myth appeared after the toast voiced by Joseph Vissarionovich in honor of the participants in the Victory Day parade on June 25, 1945, on which the word “cogs” sounded. In fact, the leader proclaimed a toast to the health of people, whose ranks are few and unenviable. For people who are considered “cogs” of the great state machinery, but without which all – marshals and commanders of fronts and armies, speaking roughly, are not worth a damn. This was written in the newspaper “Pravda” of June 27, 1945.
The phrase “There is a man – there is a problem, there is no man – there is no problem” belongs to Joseph Stalin.
This phrase is often attributed to Joseph Vissarionovich, but in fact the phrase belongs to Anatoly Rybakov (Stalin Prize Writer, writer). It was he who attributed this statement to Stalin in the novel “The Children of Arbat” (1987). Rybakov was very proud that the phrase he invented so organically fit into the image of the leader. He writes about this in his autobiographical novel “Romance-reminiscence” (1997).
The phrase “The death of one person – a tragedy, the death of millions – statistics” is attributed to the leader.
Actually, the author of the phrase is Erich Maria Remarque (the famous German writer). Remark, expressed it in his novel “The Black Obelisk” (1956): “But, it seems, this always happens: the death of one person is death, and the death of two million is only statistics.” Earlier a similar phrase was in Tucholsky (a German journalist and writer) in his essay Französischer Witz (1932).
Stalin did not save his son Jacob from the German captivity.
Yes, it is. Not far from the city of Liozno, July 16, 1941, Yakov Dzhugashvili was captured.The Germans wanted to change Jacob to Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, who was in captivity of the Red Army. But Stalin refused. He said that he does not change the field marshal to a soldier. According to one version, Yakov Dzhugashvili died in a concentration camp in April 1943, while trying to escape, on the other – committed suicide.
Stalin is an agent of the security department of the Police Department.
No, it’s not true. In 1956, a document was published abroad stating that Stalin was an agent of the Security Police Department (under the direction of the department there were security offices, police offices, detective offices, address desks and fire brigades) in 1913. But scientific researchers (including those conducted by Stalin’s opponents) allow the document to be considered a forgery and compromising evidence.
Hitler forbade the publication of a photo of Stalin with a cigarette.
Yes, it is. This happened in 1939 during the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union). Hitler believed that this picture gives levity. And the signing of the pact is an official act, because there is no place for a man with a cigarette in his teeth. And this can offend the German people. The cigarette was retouched.
Churchill flattered about Stalin.
Churchill really praised Stalin, these statements refer to the war period. The last reliable flattering comment (Fulton speech) was heard from the lips of Winston Churchill on March 5, 1946, at Westminster College in Foulton, Missouri. In the USSR, this signaled the beginning of the Cold War.
Stalin loved to show generosity.
To help the poor and the suffering. Yes it is. In the newspaper “Edinstvo” (№2 for 1999) a case was published from the life of the candidate of philological sciences Tamara Orlovskaya about how Stalin helped them with their mother to move to Baku and took care of paying a permanent allowance. The next case. On January 16, 1947, Academician Tsitsin gave a note to Stalin from the village of Pchelka in the Parbig District of the Tomsk Region from Comrade Solomin asking for help. Stalin personally expelled six thousand rubles from his salary. Another case. During the war, having learned that he had accumulated a certain amount of deputy money, which he had forgotten, Stalin sent money to childhood friends: Peter Kopnadze, Grigory Glurgidze, Mikhail Dzeradze.
Stalin lived to 73 years due to the fact that he led a healthy lifestyle.
No, it’s not true, Stalin’s way of life can not be called healthy. He never went in for sports, did not do physical work, sat much, smoked a pipe, drank wine (preferred Kakhetian), ate a lot. It’s amazing how he managed to live this way for a long time.
Stalin was sick with paranoia.
This version became widespread in the late 1980s. In the press it was written that Professor Vladimir Bekhterev (a talented Russian psychiatrist, neuropathologist, physiologist, psychologist, founder of reflexology and pathopsychology, academician) diagnosed Stalin with “paranoia” and was poisoned for this. This version was first supported by the granddaughter of the academician, Natalia Bekhtereva. In September 1995, in the newspaper Argumenty i Fakty, she denied her statement, explaining that she was forced to do this statement. In addition, in August 1989, psychiatrists discussed this issue at a round table in the editorial office of the Literary Gazette. Doctors made a conclusion about the mental adequacy of the leader. N.P. Bekhtereva took part in the round table.
Stalin abolished the celebration of the Victory Day.
Yes, it’s true. From the very beginning, the positive attitude towards the celebration of the Victory over fascist Germany, Joseph Stalin was not supported (according to General Zhukov, the leader refused to accept the Victory Parade on June 24, 1945). The celebration of the Victory Day was canceled in December 1947. The official version of the authorities was a logical and brief pier, it is necessary to work, there is no time to celebrate.The version is the following – the military and veterans understood that Stalin had nothing to do with victory, the leader was perfectly aware of this. Viktor Bogdanovich Suvorov (Rezun) puts forward several reasons: Stalin, like no one else, knew the real price of victory. He felt a sense of vexation and disappointment, because Hitler broke his plans for the liberation of Europe by the Red Army.
In life, Stalin had a double.
There were many legends about this issue. There is even the story of Varlen Strongin (writer, actor) “Stalin’s Double”. However, numerous studies deny this.
Stalin sold Alaska. No, this is a delusion. There are several versions about the sale of Alaska: Alaska was not sold, but rented for 99 years, but the USSR for some reason did not return it back. Alaska was sold by Empress Catherine II. However, according to historical documents, in fact, the sale took place during the reign of Alexander II. The official transfer of Alaska to the United States took place on October 18, 1867.
Lenin did not want to see Stalin as his successor.
This myth is not completely debunked. This point of view arose in 1985-1991, the so-called “years of perestroika”. There is an opinion on the existence of Lenin’s will, which says that Stalin should not lead the country. This view was supported in his books by Robert Tucker (American political scientist, professor, doctor of historical sciences), Robert Conquest (British intelligence officer, diplomat, author of political history), Isaac Deutscher (historian and publicist, author of books on history and sociology) all of them referred only to Trotsky’s statement. In December 1922, in his “Letter to the Congress,” Lenin wrote that Stalin, becoming Secretary General, concentrated in his hands the immense power, and he is not sure whether Josef Stalin will always be able to use this power with sufficient caution. Vladimir Ilyich also spoke about Trotsky’s “little Bolshevism”, stressed the ideological instability of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin, Pyatakov. In addition, January 4, 1923 wrote that Stalin is too rude, and this shortcoming is unacceptable in the post of secretary general. Therefore, Lenin proposed to consider the possibility of removing Stalin from the place of the secretary general and appoint another person. Associate Professor of Moscow State University Sakharov (Lenin’s Political Testament: The Reality of History and the Myths of Politics) writes that one can not believe the reliability of the Lenin’s Testament, since it was dictated to them, and therefore could be falsified. In the first place, suspicion falls on Nadezhda Krupskaya, who had her own political point of view and supported Trotsky more than Stalin. From the point of view of V.V. Karpov (writer, publicist, public figure “Generalissimo” (book 1)), there was no member of the Politburo except Stalin, whom Lenin could rely on and give him the role of the leader of the party. Stalin approached the role of successor more than others. He never spoke with his theories, he remained faithful to Lenin’s ideas, followed him firmly, and if he made mistakes, he quickly corrected them. It could be hoped that he would not turn away from the revolutionary Leninist path.
There is still no scientific biography of Stalin.
Yes, it’s true. About Josef Stalin written a lot of books that make him either an angel or a devil. But a scientifically valid biography has not yet been created, although the archives have been open since the 90s. The most detailed biography (in three volumes) of Stalin is written by Robert Tucker. This biography is called in the West “psychobiography”. The first volume is “Stalin: The Way to Power, 1917-1929.” was published in Moscow in 1991. The second volume – “Stalin in power, 1929-1941.” into Russian was translated in 1997. There is no information about the third volume yet.
Stalin often spoke with St. Matrona of Moscow.
This myth has appeared recently. After November 26, 2008, at the initiative of the hegumen Eustathius (Jacob), rector of the church of the Holy Equal-to-the-Apostles Princess Olga (Strelna, Petrodvorets district of St. Petersburg). It was in this temple that the icon “Matrona and Stalin” was placed.The icon was subject to sharp criticism from the diocese, and the church said that Stalin’s conversations with St. Matrona is a legend and does not correspond to the real state of things.