Hypertension

Hypertensive disease

(primary hypertension) is an independent chronic disease. There are also secondary hypertension, which is a sign of some other disease, that is, has no connection with hypertensive disease.

The main symptom of hypertension is high blood pressure, but there are other symptoms that vary depending on the degree of hypertension. There are three degrees of hypertension – mild, moderate and severe.

Hypertension is a disease in which it is important to comply with absolutely all the doctor’s recommendations and do not stop treatment if you feel better, because otherwise the risk of developing a hypertensive crisis is high. Hypertensive crisis has three varieties, but for all of them, the increase in arterial pressure to a level exceeding the increase in pressure with periodic exacerbations of hypertensive disease.

Factors that increase the risk of developing hypertension include: disruptions in the brain, excessive intake of salt, kidney factor, bad habits, wrong lifestyle, hereditary factor.

The words hypertension and hypertension are synonymous.

Indeed, these words serve to refer to the same disease.

There are two types of hypertension.

It is about primary hypertension and secondary. Primary hypertension is associated with an increase in blood pressure, which is caused only by hypertension. Primary hypertension is more common than secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension occurs only in 5% of cases of hypertension. It has no relationship with hypertensive disease. Secondary hypertension is due to other causes. Often, secondary hypertension is a kind of sign that indicates the damage to the vessels of the kidneys and the ongoing inflammation in these organs.

Primary hypertension is hypertensive disease.

It is under this name that primary hypertension (or essential) is known to a large mass of the population. Speaking the word “hypertension”, it is also implied that it is about primary hypertension.

Hypertension is an independent disease.

That is, hypertension is not a manifestation of any other disease, as, for example, in the case of secondary hypertension. In addition, hypertension is a chronic disease.

The main sign of hypertension is high blood pressure.

Increased blood pressure occurs continuously. This disease occurs in chronic form. The reason for this increase in blood pressure is associated with a violation of the regulation of blood pressure. Manifestations of hypertension are by no means linked to the consequences of other diseases of the body.

Hypertension is a widespread disease.

This judgment is especially relevant to the population of industrialized countries. More and more often in a modern society, hypertension develops already in adolescence.

“All diseases from the nerves” – the sentence is ideally suited for hypertensive disease.

If you create a unique chain of stages of development of primary hypertension, the first link that has an initial effect on the development of hypertensive disease will be emotional experience. For many emotional shocks the human body reacts precisely by increasing blood pressure.
However, the person who is prone to developing primary hypertension can have a deep reaction from the cardiovascular system (in this case, it manifests itself by a marked increase in blood pressure), even for a seemingly frivolous reason.
It should be noted that if a person is healthy, but has experienced a rather strong emotional experience, in connection with which he has increased blood pressure, then the latter will quickly return to normal.However, this can not be said of a person who develops primary hypertension. The sick person, having experienced one more stress, thereby deepens his illness, and the reaction from the cardiovascular system becomes more and more long. Thus, over time, high blood pressure will be regarded by the human body as a normal state and supported by it, humoral mechanisms contribute to the consolidation of this state. Hypertension turns into a chronic form, changes occur in the symptoms of primary hypertension. If the initial stage of hypertension development was unstable, the pain in the heart and headaches did not appear so often, then when the disease is transferred to the chronic form, high blood pressure occurs almost constantly, that is, one can speak of its persistent nature. In addition, among the other symptoms of chronic hypertension are: periodic dizziness, rapid fatigue and poor sleep, a feeling of numbness in the fingers and toes.

There are three degrees of hypertension.

It is a matter of mild, moderate and severe degrees – this classification was suggested by cardiologists at the annual congress of 2003. Let’s consider each of them. The mild degree of hypertension, it is also the first degree, has symptoms that are easily confused with manifestations of colds or overwork.
As for blood pressure, it is at the level of 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg. Art. This degree is also called a “soft” form, but it should be treated no less seriously than with severe hypertension. Moderate degree of hypertension, it is the second degree, characterized by the following symptoms. The arterial pressure is on the average 160-179 / 100-109 mm Hg. that is, one can speak of a more significant increase than in the case of the first degree.
A moderate degree of hypertension is characterized by the following symptoms: dizziness and severe headaches, pain in the heart, worsening of sleep and working capacity, sometimes there are nosebleeds, the work of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, kidneys worsens. The risk of developing a stroke can not be excluded in the case of the second degree of hypertension.
Severe hypertension, it is the third degree, is characterized by more serious signs. In this case the arterial pressure exceeds 180/110 mm Hg. Severe hypertension is a threat to the life of the patient and a serious risk of angina, myocardial infarction, stroke. The third degree of hypertension leads to the development of renal failure. In this case, there are irreversible changes in the activity of the heart.

The first degree of hypertension is most common.

It affects about 70% of patients. In patients with mild hypertension, the risk of stroke is much higher (approximately two to four times) than in healthy people.

Hypertensive illness can be treated at home.

So many people think, and do not turn to a specialist. As a result, further development of hypertension and complications. Under the control of a cardiologist, elimination of symptoms and even recovery can be successfully achieved with mild hypertension. This is relevant, of course, if all the recommendations of the doctor are observed. The latter, in that power, include maintaining a certain diet and normalizing the way of life.
Normalization of pressure in the moderate stage of hypertensive disease is a more difficult task for the patient to achieve, and must take the medications prescribed by the cardiologist. Medical intervention for severe hypertension is a necessary condition.

Hypertensive crisis can occur at any degree of hypertensive disease.

Especially if there is no appropriate treatment and the specialist’s recommendations are not followed.A hypertensive crisis can also occur in the case of a situation where the patient, feeling much better, ceases to follow the doctor’s recommendations.
The hypertensive crisis is characterized by a significant increase in blood pressure. Often when hypertensive crisis there are dizziness and headaches, chest pains. The latter can give under the shoulder blade and in the arm. During a hypertensive crisis, a patient may even for a while lose consciousness. Sometimes, patients are disrupted speech and limb mobility. Hypertensive crises can occur one after another at short intervals.

There are three varieties of hypertensive crisis.

This is a neurovegetative hypertensive crisis, a swollen hypertensive crisis, and a convulsive crisis. Each of these varieties is characterized by certain symptoms.
In a neurovegetative hypertensive crisis, a person falls into a state of anxiety and overexcitation. The patient looks as if afraid of something. With this form of hypertensive crisis, a slight increase in temperature is possible. Wet skin and the appearance of trembling in the hands also characterize the neurovegetative hypertensive crisis. With regard to blood pressure, it is significant (increases mainly in the upper, systolic, pressure), and the patient also has tachycardia.
With edematous hypertonic crisis, swelling of the hands and face is clearly pronounced. Most often, this hypertensive crisis occurs in women who are diagnosed with hypertension. Directly provokes such hypertensive crisis the use of a large amount of salty food or liquid. The specific signs of a puffy hypertensive crisis include retardation and drowsiness, an increase in both upper and lower pressure. The lower pressure is called diastolic.
A convulsive crisis occurs much less frequently than edematic and neurovegetative hypertensive crises. However, its manifestations are very dangerous. The convulsive crisis is the hardest condition of the body, which is caused by brain damage when it comes to the poor quality of hypertension. A clear sign of a convulsive hypertensive crisis is convulsions, sometimes there is cerebral hemorrhage (as a complication).
To summarize, it can be argued that the common phenomenon in any hypertensive crisis is an increase in blood pressure – it is higher than with periodically appearing exacerbations of hypertensive disease.

Malignant hypertension is the most serious form of the disease.

Most often, it occurs in secondary hypertension. In this case, the lower (diastolic) pressure is more than 130 mm Hg. Art. This form of hypertension is more common in people aged 20 to 40 years. Progressing malignant hypertension quite quickly, its development is rapid (in contrast to other forms of hypertension) – the pressure can be even 250/140 and above. Signs of malignant hypertension are severe headaches, visual impairment, convulsions, drowsiness. Headaches are often accompanied by vomiting. If there is a loss of consciousness, then the risk of developing a stroke is great.
This form of hypertension leads to serious changes in renal vessels. However, if you turn to a doctor in time, it is quite possible to cope with this disease.

Hypertension can be caused by many causes.

There are many causes of hypertension. Among other factors of the development of primary hypertension can be identified failures in the brain. As a result of such malfunctions, the normal functioning of the higher parts of the central nervous system is disrupted. The brain regulates the activity of the whole organism, including, of course, the work of the heart. In this regard, it can be argued that the development of hypertension can lead to prolonged excitement, constant nervous shocks and overstrain.
It should be understood that hypertension can appear as a result of engaging in intellectual activity at night, because the body needs rest.
Among other reasons for the development of hypertensive disease, you can identify and excessive intake of table salt, there is even a special model of salt hypertension. Studies conducted by scientists from China, Japan and the Bahamas showed the following relationship: a person consuming more than five grams of salt per day has a much greater risk of developing hypertension than a person consuming less than five grams of salt daily.
The likelihood of developing hypertensive disease increases if there is a hereditary factor, so if close relatives are diagnosed with hypertension, then you need to pay as much attention to your health as possible.
The development of hypertension can be affected by the kidney factor, it is known that the kidneys are capable of both lowering and increasing blood pressure. In this regard, if a person is diagnosed with hypertension, he must check the kidneys. Perhaps it is the failure of the kidneys that caused the development of hypertension. Proper functioning of the adrenal glands is also very important, as failures in their work can lead to persistent hypertension.
As you know, hypertension is more affected by women than men. In women, the risk of developing this disease increases markedly during the menopause, which depends on the violation of the hormonal balance in the female body.
Naturally, the negative factors that contribute to the development of hypertension are bad habits and unhealthy lifestyle.

Diagnosis of hypertension should be based on many data.

Diagnosis of primary hypertension includes clinical data, history data, and instrumental research methods. The latter play a huge role in diagnosis.
Radiographic examination of the heart shows that there are no strong changes in the initial stages of the development of hypertensive disease, however, as the disease develops, signs of left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart, changes in the configuration of the aorta and signs of atherosclerosis of the aorta.
Echocardiography in the initial stages of hypertension shows, in particular, an increase in the rate of contraction of the walls of the left ventricle of the heart, as the disease develops, signs of myocardial hypertrophy and a decrease in contractility of the left ventricle of the heart can be detected.
The initial stage of diagnosis is an examination of the patient by a cardiologist, while it seems quite sufficient to record twice the high blood pressure at a specialist’s appointment.
The next step is to exclude the possibility of developing secondary hypertension. If the secondary character is excluded, then we can say with certainty about hypertension, and the set of required for the research (except for the diagnostic minimum) is made by the doctor individually for each patient.
Diagnostic minimum in the case of hypertension includes ECG biochemical blood test, general urine analysis, examination of the vessels of the fundus. The latter is very important – ophthalmoscopy on the fundus in the early stages of the development of hypertension is observed the expansion of veins, tortuosity of the retinal arteries and their constriction, with the development of hypertension, small hemorrhages can occur. In the late stages of hypertensive disease, degenerative foci on the retina of the eye appear – white spots. In severe cases of hypertension, even atrophy of the optic nerve, retinal detachment, is possible, even to the loss of vision.

Hypertension is much easier to prevent than cure.

Hypertension, like any other chronic disease, is not easily cured. That is why prevention of this disease is of great importance, especially among young people, who complains about the periodic increase in blood pressure.
To prevent hypertension, first, you need to know about cases of hypertension among the next of kin, and secondly, pay close attention to your lifestyle and compare it with the correct one. As for the way of life, it is necessary to give as much time as possible to physical exertion (but do not make them excessive), eat right (but not support the spread among the population, so to speak, “fashion” diets) – this should be a full-fledged variety of food (preferably not with a very large amount of salt), getting rid of bad habits, creating a favorable environment in the house. As for the latter, it is worth noting that happy people rarely suffer from hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases (and, in general, rarely get sick).

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